Tuesday, June 21, 2022

Prajnaparamita-18K - Chapter 73 - Acting / practicing / teaching in accord with the Union of the Two Truths - 373

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The Transcendent Perfection of Wisdom
in Eighteen Thousand Lines - 373
Daśa­sāhasrikā­prajñā­pāramitā

– Chapter 73 - Acting / practicing / teaching in accord with the Union of the Two Truths –

Source: https://read.84000.co/translation/toh10.html

More Analysis of Mahayana Sutras : https://www.gilehtblog.com/2022/07/toc-400.html

[Note: The two truths are:
T1: conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means, merely labeled / imputed / imagined / created by the mind in dependence of its conditioning / karma (in cycle), not completely non-existence;
T2: emptiness of inherent existence, not real existence;
U2T: those two truths, like any other pair of apparent opposites, are inseparable, interdependent, co-defined, co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing / co-transcended, in harmony, in 'Union' <==> thus empty of inherent existence.
They are tools to help us to get to the 'inconceivable' by refuting what 'Reality as it is' is not:
all extreme views like: existence / dharma / causality / functionality, non-existence / non-dharma / non-causality / non-functionality, both together, neither; difference / manyness / diversity / duality, identity / oneness / sameness / non-duality, both together, neither; permanence / continuity / eternity, impermanence / discontinuity / annihilation, both together, neither; individuality, collectivity, universality, a combination of those, none of those; subjectivity, relation / action / process, objectivity, a combination of those, none of those; the 1st truth alone / dependent origination [T1], the 2nd truth alone / mere-emptiness [T2], both two truths together as if different and in opposition [2T], neither of the two truths as if identical and one [1T,]; 'this', 'non-this', both together, neither – for whatever 'this' is.
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The three spheres: ex.
i. The subject / actor / goer / perceiver / knower / acquirer / owner,
ii. The relation / action / going / perceiving / knowing / acquiring / having
iii. The object / result / destination / perceived / known / acquired / possessions / karma / 5 aggregates / body & speech & mind.
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Generalisations:
Whenever it is possible the comments of each section are expressed into a more global context. So they always cover more than just what is said in the various translations. The goal is to make the Big Picture more evident.
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Note: All comments within (i.e. …) or [...] are from the commentator (me), not the translators.)


[Back to Résumés of chapters 42-87]

73. EXPOSITION OF THE MAJOR MARKS AND MINOR SIGNS AND THE COMPLETION OF LETTERS – Acting / practicing / teaching without acting / practicing / teaching, without apprehending anything, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes, more and more in accord with the Union of the Two Truths, more and more in accord with the true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now / Suchness.

(i.e. Résumé: Acting / practicing / teaching without acting / practicing / teaching, without apprehending anything, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes, more and more in accord with the Union of the Two Truths, more and more in accord with the true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now / Suchness.
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If all dharmas are empty of inherent existence, like dreams, how can we differentiate them, use them, teach them, and expect results from them?
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Answer: Even if all dharmas are empty of inherent existence [T2] <==> there are still valid useful conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S]. One aspect / truth does not contradict the other; one aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T]. So there is a possibility to act in accord with the Union of the Two Truths – dependent origination / causality and emptiness of inherent existence – free from all extremes & middle. Ex. Acting / teaching / giving gifts without apprehending anything, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes. Not apprehending any dharma – ex. the three spheres, apparent opposites, the two truths – dependent origination / causality / karma and emptiness –, or some inconceivable ultimate reality beyond everything else.
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The four ways of gathering a retinue by giving gifts (material and dharma – ordinary & extraordinary –), kind words, beneficial actions, and consistency between words and deeds.)

The Lord having said that, venerable Subhūti then inquired of him,

  • "Lord, how, when all dharmas are like a dream, have no basis, are the non-existence of an intrinsic nature, and are empty of their own marks, can you present these as wholesome and these as unwholesome, these as ordinary and these as extraordinary, these as with outflows and these as without outflows, these as compounded and these as uncompounded, as well as these for making manifest the result of stream enterer, these for making manifest the result of once-returner, these for making manifest the result of non-returner, these for making manifest the state of a worthy one, these for making manifest a pratyekabuddha's awakening, and these for making manifest unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening?

  • And similarly, up to how, when all dharmas are like an echo, like an apparition, like an illusion, like a mirage, and like a magical creation; are non-existent things; are the non-existence of an intrinsic nature; and are empty of their own marks, can you present these for making manifest unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening?"

Venerable Subhūti having thus inquired, the Lord said to him,

  • "Subhūti, here ordinary, unlettered simple folk apprehend a dream, apprehend a dreamer of a dream, up to apprehend a magical creation, and apprehend one who sees a magical creation.
    On account of apprehending a dream and apprehending a dreamer of a dream, up to on account of apprehending a magical creation and apprehending one who sees a magical creation, body, speech, and mind cause unwholesome volitional factors to come into being;
    body, speech, and mind cause wholesome volitional factors to come into being;
    and body, speech, and mind also cause good, bad, and immovable volitional factors to come into being.

  • "Therefore, bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom standing in these two emptinesses‍ — the emptiness of what transcends limits and the emptiness of no beginning and no end‍ — teach beings that these three realms are empty.
    'Here there is no form, or feeling, or perception, or volitional factors, or consciousness, or aggregates, or constituents, or sense fields.
    They are a dream; they are an echo; they are an apparition; they are an illusion; they are a mirage; and they are a magical creation.
    Here there are no aggregates, or constituents, or sense fields.
    Here there is no dream and no dreamer of a dream, no echo and no hearer of an echo, no apparition and no one who sees an apparition, no mirage and no one who sees a mirage, and no magical creation and no one who sees a magical creation.
    All these dharmas [T1] are non-existent things
    and are only the non-existence of an intrinsic nature [T2] [U2T].
    But still, even though there are no aggregates [T2] there is the perception of aggregates [T1] [U2T],
    even though there are no constituents there is the perception of constituents, and
    even though there are no sense fields there is the perception of sense fields.
    All these dharmas are dependent origination, are arisen on account of error, and are appropriated because of the maturation of karma, so why do you persist with the perception of an existent thing even though dharmas are non-existent things?'

  • "Therefore, with skillful means bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom stop those beings who are stingy from being stingy and connect them with the perfection of giving.
    That charitable impulse of theirs makes them more and more wealthy.
    Having caused them to advance beyond that, they establish them in morality, and that morality of theirs that they have properly taken up leads them to be born in the heavens.
    Having caused them to advance even beyond that, they connect them with meditative stabilization and that meditative stabilization of theirs leads them to take birth in the Brahmaloka.
    Similarly, from the first concentration they connect them with the second concentration, from the second concentration with the third concentration, from the third concentration with the fourth concentration, and from the fourth concentration with the absorption in the station of endless space, with the absorption in the station of endless consciousness, with the absorption in the station of nothing-at-all, and with the absorption in the station of neither perception nor non-perception.
    In many ways they make them advance beyond giving and the result of giving and make them calm down and enter into the element of nirvāṇa without any aggregates left behind, establishing them in it.
    They also make them advance beyond morality and the result of morality and in many ways make them calm down and enter into the element of nirvāṇa without any aggregates left behind, establishing them in it.
    They also make them advance beyond absorption and the result of absorption and in many ways make them calm down and enter into the element of nirvāṇa without any aggregates left behind, establishing them in it.
    Similarly, they make them calm down and enter into the four applications of mindfulness, four right efforts, four legs of miraculous power, five faculties, five powers, seven limbs of awakening, and eightfold noble path, as well as the three gateways to liberation, eight deliverances, nine serial absorptions, ten tathāgata powers, four fearlessnesses, four detailed and thorough knowledges, and eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha, establishing them in them.
    With the dharmas without outflows that are formless, cannot be pointed out, and do not obstruct, they establish those yearning for the result of stream enterer in the result of stream enterer, establish those yearning for the result of once-returner in the result of once-returner, establish those yearning for the result of non-returner in the result of non-returner, establish those yearning for the state of a worthy one in the state of a worthy one, establish those yearning for a pratyekabuddha's awakening in a pratyekabuddha's awakening, and explain to, teach, motivate, excite, and establish those yearning for unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening on the awakening path."

The Lord having said that, venerable Subhūti said to him,

  • "Lord, that bodhisattva great beings practicing this deep perfection of wisdom
    should present dharmas [T1] as dharmas that are the non-existence of an intrinsic nature [T2] [U2T],
    dharmas that are an emptiness of what transcends limits
    and an emptiness of no beginning and no end in such detail‍ — 'These are wholesome dharmas and these are unwholesome dharmas, these are dharmas with outflows and these are dharmas without outflows, up to these are compounded dharmas and these are uncompounded dharmas'‍ —
    is amazing, marvelous."

Venerable Subhūti having said that, the Lord said to him,

  • "Exactly so, Subhūti, exactly so! This presentation of dharmas by bodhisattva great beings practicing this deep perfection of wisdom is an amazing, marvelous dharma. Subhūti, when you understand how amazing and marvelous this dharma of bodhisattva great beings is, there is no case for it being easy for any śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas to pay back the bodhisattva great beings in kind for such help. Even all of you together would be incapable of surpassing those bodhisattva great beings with all the dharmas they have."

The Lord having said that, venerable Subhūti asked him,

  • "Lord, what is that amazing, marvelous dharma of bodhisattva great beings that śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas do not have?"

"Well then, Subhūti, listen well and pay attention and I will explain," said the Lord.

  • "Here bodhisattva great beings practicing this deep perfection of wisdom, standing in the six perfections arisen from maturation, standing in the five clairvoyances, thirty-seven dharmas on the side of awakening, dhāraṇī gateways, and four detailed and thorough knowledges, having gone to world systems in the ten directions,
    help with giving those beings there who can be helped by giving; help those who can be helped by morality, those who can be helped by patience, those who can be helped by perseverance, and those who can be helped by meditative stabilization; help with wisdom those who can be helped by wisdom; help those who can be helped by the first concentration, those who can be helped by the second concentration, those who can be helped by the third concentration, those who can be helped by the fourth concentration, those who can be helped by the absorption in the station of endless space, up to help with absorption in the station of neither perception nor non-perception those who can be helped by the absorption in the station of neither perception nor non-perception; help those who can be helped by love, those who can be helped by compassion, those who can be helped by joy, and those who can be helped by equanimity; help those who can be helped by the four applications of mindfulness, those who can be helped by the four right efforts, those who can be helped by the four legs of miraculous power, those who can be helped by the five faculties, those who can be helped by the five powers, those who can be helped by the seven limbs of awakening, those who can be helped by the eightfold noble path, those who can be helped by the emptiness meditative stabilization, those who can be helped by the signlessness meditative stabilization,
    and help with the wishlessness meditative stabilization those who can be helped by the wishlessness meditative stabilization."

"Lord, how do bodhisattva great beings practicing this perfection of wisdom help beings who can be helped
by giving with giving?"

  • "Subhūti, here bodhisattva great beings practicing this perfection of wisdom give gifts.
    They give food to those begging for food, and drinks to those who want drink; they give transport, flower garlands, creams, incense, clothes, beds, pillows, up to whatever human requirements are appropriate.
    Just as they give to the tathāgata, worthy one, perfectly complete Buddha, they also give in the same way to pratyekabuddhas, worthy ones, non-returners, once-returners, stream enterers, and similarly to those who have gone perfectly, and those who have set out perfectly, and similarly to those in human form, and similarly to those in the animal world‍ — to all without any differentiation they give gifts.

  • And why?
    Because they realize all dharmas are not different [Uopp],
    so they give gifts that are not different, and by giving gifts that are not different they come to obtain a dharma that is not different, namely, the knowledge of all aspects.

  • "Subhūti, if a bodhisattva great being sees a creature in the animal world and thinks, 'The perfect, complete buddha is worthy of gifts, not a being born in the animal world,' that is not a bodhisattva's dharma.

  • And why?
    Because, having produced a thought for awakening and thus set out for unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening, it never occurs to bodhisattva great beings that 'these beings I should help with giving, these I should not help.' Those the giving has helped take birth in great sāla tree–like royal families, and take birth in great sāla tree–like brahmin families, and great sāla tree–like business families. Through just that, those helped by giving pass gradually, in the three vehicles, into complete nirvāṇa in the element of nirvāṇa without any aggregates left behind.

  • "Even if bodhisattva great beings are asked by many beings to kill themselves, they should definitely make that gift to those many beings, with a mind that is undisturbed, and should not produce any other state of mind, thinking, 'Should I give or not give?'

  • And why?
    Because they have set out for unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening for the sake of those many living beings. Were they to be indecisive like that they would be open to the censure of the lord buddhas, the bodhisattvas, the pratyekabuddhas, the worthy ones, the trainees, and the world with its gods, humans, and asuras as well, saying, 'Who are you that you would not rise up as a refuge, resting place, protector, and final ally of all beings?'

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, when those in the form of humans or in the form of non-humans ask bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom for a major or minor part of their bodies, they should not produce either one or the other of the thoughts 'I should give' or 'I should not give.'

  • And why?
    Because bodhisattva great beings have intentionally appropriated a body for the sake of beings, thinking, 'With this body I must work for the welfare of beings,' and because they must produce the thought, 'Those for the welfare of whom I have taken up this body should feel free to make off with it even without having asked.' Subhūti, that is how bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom should train.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, when seeing a beggar, bodhisattva great beings should think like this:
    'An intrinsic nature of all dharmas cannot be apprehended,
    so who is giving a gift, who is it being given to, and what is being given?'

  • And why?
    Because those dharmas [T1] are absolutely empty [T2] [U2T],
    and emptiness does not give to anyone and also does not receive.

  • "Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom should train like that‍ — that is, in inner emptiness, outer emptiness, inner and outer emptiness, and similarly, connect this with each, up to the emptiness of its own mark. Having stood in those emptinesses they give a gift that constantly and always becomes a complete perfection of giving, and because they have completed the perfection of giving, even while inside and outside dharmas are being chopped and cut into pieces, it does not occur to them to think, 'Who is chopping and cutting me into pieces?'

  • "Subhūti, here, looking down with my buddha eye on as many world systems as there are sand particles in the Gaṅgā River in the eastern direction I have seen bodhisattva great beings who have gone into the great hells and, having calmed those sufferings of hell, taught the doctrine to those beings in the hells by way of the three miracles‍ — the miracle of miraculous powers, the miracle of foretelling, and the miracle of instruction. Having calmed the sufferings of hell with the miracle of miraculous powers, they teach the doctrine with the miracle of foretelling and the miracle of instruction. Those bodhisattvas have taught the doctrine with great love, great compassion, great joy, and great equanimity, so those beings in the hells have faith in those bodhisattvas, will be freed from those hells, and from those hells, in the three vehicles, gradually put an end to suffering. Similarly, connect this with on as many world systems as there are sand particles in the Gaṅgā River in the south, west, north, below and above, and in the intermediate directions.

  • "Subhūti, here, looking down with my buddha eye on the world, on as many world systems as there are sand particles in the Gaṅgā River in the eastern direction I have seen bodhisattva great beings waiting on the lord buddhas. Those bodhisattva great beings are waiting on the lord buddhas with intense faith, not without devotion but with devotion, not without pleasure but with pleasure, not without reverence but with reverence. Those bodhisattva great beings take up those doctrines the lord buddhas have taught them, and, having taken them up, they bear them in mind and until they fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening, make sure they do not get lost. Similarly, connect this with on world systems in the south, west, north, below and above, and in the intermediate directions.

  • "Subhūti, here, looking down with my buddha eye on as many world systems as there are sand particles in the Gaṅgā River in the eastern direction I have also seen bodhisattva great beings sacrificing themselves for the sake of beings in the animal world. There, those bodhisattva great beings chop off the major or minor parts of their bodies and strew them around in the main and intermediate directions. Those beings in the animal world eat the flesh of those bodhisattvas and come to feel love for those bodhisattvas. Feeling love for them they are freed from the animal world, and having been freed they serve the lord buddhas. While serving those lord buddhas they listen to the doctrine of those lord buddhas and, having listened to those doctrines, they practice them for suchness. They pass gradually in the three vehicles‍ — the Śrāvaka Vehicle or Pratyekabuddha Vehicle or Buddha Vehicle‍ — into complete nirvāṇa in the element of nirvāṇa without any aggregates left behind. Thus, Subhūti, they are indeed a boon, these bodhisattva great beings who produce the thought to become unsurpassedly, perfectly, completely awakened, and, having produced it, also practice for suchness, and in the same way pass into complete nirvāṇa in the element of nirvāṇa without any aggregates left behind.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, here looking down with my buddha eye on as many world systems as there are sand particles in the Gaṅgā River I have seen bodhisattva great beings alleviating the sufferings of the ghosts in the regions of ghosts. To stop miserliness they teach the doctrine, and that causes them to generate a feeling of love for those bodhisattva great beings. They are freed from the regions of ghosts because of that wholesome root. Having been freed they are never separated from the lord buddhas until they pass into complete nirvāṇa in the element of nirvāṇa without any aggregates left behind. Thus, Subhūti, dwelling in compassion, bodhisattva great beings remain available for the welfare of all beings, that is, for their complete nirvāṇa.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, here looking down with my buddha eye I have seen bodhisattva great beings teaching the doctrine to the Cāturmahā­rājika gods, and teaching the doctrine to the Trāyastriṃśa, Yāma, Tuṣita, Nirmāṇarati, and Para­nirmita­vaśa­vartin gods. Those gods, having heard the doctrine from those bodhisattva great beings, have passed into nirvāṇa, are passing into nirvāṇa, and will pass into complete nirvāṇa gradually in the three vehicles. Subhūti, having caused the celestial mansions of those gods thrilled by the expanse of the five sorts of sense objects to burst into flames, they teach them the doctrine: 'Friends, all compounded phenomena are impermanent, so who would have confidence in them?'

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, here looking down with my buddha eye on as many world systems as there are sand particles in the Gaṅgā River I have seen bodhisattva great beings dissuading those who are attached to the view of Brahma from that view: 'Hey, friends, all phenomena are empty, so how do you formulate a view? All phenomena ring hollow, so how do you formulate a view?'

  • Thus, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings dwelling in compassion teach the doctrine to beings.

  • Subhūti, this is the amazing and marvelous dharma of bodhisattva great beings.

  • "Subhūti, here, looking down with my buddha eye on as many world systems as there are sand particles in the Gaṅgā River in the eastern direction I have seen bodhisattva great beings
    gathering humans with the four ways of gathering a retinue.
    -
    What are the four?
    [1.] The ways of gathering are by giving gifts,
    [2.] kind words,
    [3.] beneficial actions, and
    [4.] consistency between words and deeds.


[1.] "How, Subhūti, do bodhisattva great beings gather a retinue of beings by giving?

  • Subhūti, here bodhisattva great beings gather a retinue of beings
    by a twofold way of giving material gifts and the gift of Dharma.

[1.1] "How, Subhūti, do bodhisattva great beings gather a retinue with gifts?

  • They give gold, or silver, or jewels, or pearls, or beryl, or conch shells, or crystals, or corals, or food, or drink, or clothes, or transport, or beds, or seats, or perfume, or flowers, or garlands, or lamps, or a man or a woman, or a horse, or a bull, or an elephant, or their own flesh, shouting out the words, 'Hey humans! Come here! You must take and go with what you want without hesitation, with a feeling of benevolence, as if it is your own.'

  • "Having given those gifts, they cause those beings to go for refuge to the Buddha, to go for refuge to the Dharma, and to go for refuge to the Saṅgha. Some they cause to take up the five-point training; some they cause to take up the eight-branched confession and restoration; some they establish in the ten wholesome actions; some they cause to take up the first concentration, up to the absorption in the station of neither perception nor non-perception; some they cause to take up love, compassion, joy, and equanimity; in some they enjoin mindfulness of the Buddha, mindfulness of the Dharma, mindfulness of the Saṅgha, mindfulness of morality, mindfulness of giving away, mindfulness of the gods, and in some the perception of uncleanliness and so on in the examination of the body. Some they cause to be joined to the pure; some to the four applications of mindfulness, some to the four right efforts, some to the four legs of miraculous power, some to the five faculties, some to the five powers, some to the seven limbs of awakening, and some to the eightfold noble path; some to the emptiness gateway to liberation, signlessness gateway to liberation, and wishlessness gateway to liberation; some to the eight deliverances, some to the nine serial absorptions, and some to the ten tathāgata powers, four fearlessnesses, and the four detailed and thorough knowledges; some to great love, and some to great compassion; some to the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha, some to the thirty-two major marks of a great person, and some to the eighty minor signs; and some to the result of stream enterer, some to the result of once-returner, some to the result of non-returner, some to the state of a worthy one, some to a pratyekabuddha's awakening, and some to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening.

  • "Subhūti, that is how bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom endowed with skillful means give material gifts and establish others in vast accomplishment and security.
    Subhūti, this is the amazing and marvelous dharma of bodhisattva great beings.


[1.2] "How, Subhūti, do bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom help beings by the gift of Dharma?

  • "Subhūti, the gift of Dharma is these two: the ordinary and extraordinary.

[1.2.a] "What, Subhūti, is the ordinary gift of Dharma?

  • It is the explanation, teaching, and explication of the ordinary doctrines, namely, any of the ordinary doctrines that occur in the Uncleanliness Chapter, up to the four concentrations, the four practices of spiritual practitioners, the formless absorptions, and those shared in common with ordinary persons. This is called the ordinary gift of Dharma.

  • "Subhūti, having given this gift of ordinary Dharma, those bodhisattva great beings move them away from taking to that as perfect in many ways, and having moved them away, establish them with skillful means in the noble dharmas and the results of the noble dharmas.

"What are the noble dharmas and the results of the noble dharmas?

  • Subhūti, the thirty-seven dharmas on the side of awakening and the three gateways to liberation are called the noble dharmas. The result of stream enterer, up to the state of a worthy one are the results of the noble dharmas.

  • "Also, Subhūti, the knowledge of the result of stream enterer, up to the knowledge of the state of a worthy one, up to the knowledge of the thirty-seven dharmas on the side of awakening, up to the knowledge of the ten tathāgata powers, up to the knowledge of great love, knowledge of great compassion, knowledge of great joy, and knowledge of great equanimity, as well as‍ — setting aside the knowledge of a knower of all aspects‍ — those ordinary and extraordinary dharmas, with outflows and without outflows, and that are compounded and uncompounded‍ — these are called a bodhisattva great being's noble dharmas.

"What are the results of a bodhisattva great being's noble dharmas?

  • This abandonment of all residual impression connections is called the result of a bodhisattva great being's noble dharmas."

The Lord having said that, venerable Subhūti asked him,
"Lord, do bodhisattva great beings gain the knowledge of all aspects?"

"Exactly so, Subhūti, exactly so!" replied the Lord.

  • "Bodhisattva great beings gain the knowledge of all aspects."

"Well then, Lord, is there a distinction to be made between a bodhisattva great being and a tathāgata?" he asked.

  • "A distinction is to be made," he replied.

  • "And what distinction is to be made?

  • A bodhisattva great being gains the knowledge of all aspects,
    but a tathāgata is called one who has gained the knowledge.

  • And why?

  • Because having stood where a bodhisattva great being's mind, and a tathāgata, worthy one, perfectly and completely awakened one, cannot be apprehended as different, they have gained the non-differentiation of all dharmas.

  • "Subhūti, this is the bodhisattva great beings' ordinary gift of Dharma.
    Contingent on this there is the extraordinary gift of Dharma.
    Thus, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings, having guided all beings in the ordinary gift of Dharma, establish them with skillful means in the knowledge of all aspects.


[1.2.b] "Subhūti, what is the extraordinary gift of Dharma of bodhisattva great beings shared in common with foolish ordinary people?

  • It is this: the four applications of mindfulness, four right efforts, four legs of miraculous power, five faculties, five powers, seven limbs of awakening, and eightfold noble path;
    the three gateways to liberation, eight deliverances, nine serial absorptions, ten stations of complete immersion, eight stations of mastery, conflict-free meditative stabilization, knowledge from prayer, six clairvoyances, four total purities, ten controls, and ten tathāgata powers; the four fearlessnesses, the four detailed and thorough knowledges, the three a tathāgata does not have to guard against, the three applications of mindfulness, the natural state not robbed of mindfulness, and the elimination of obscuration from residual impressions;
    great compassion; and the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha, the knowledge of all aspects, the thirty-two major marks and eighty minor signs of a great person, the five dhāraṇī gateways, and the meditative stabilization gateways.
    These are not ordinary; they are called the extraordinary gift of Dharma.

  • "Subhūti, what are the four applications of mindfulness?
    They are these: Enthusiastic, introspective, and mindful, having cleared away ordinary covetousness and depression, they dwell viewing in a body the inner body; enthusiastic, introspective, and mindful, having cleared away ordinary covetousness and depression, they dwell viewing in a body the outer body; enthusiastic, introspective, and mindful, having cleared away ordinary covetousness and depression, they dwell viewing in a body the inner and outer body; they dwell in a body viewing arising; they dwell in a body viewing passing away; they dwell in a body viewing origination and passing away; and dwelling in a body without a fixed abode they do not appropriate anything in the world. Similarly, connect this with feelings, mind, and dharmas as well.

  • "Subhūti, what are the right efforts?
    They are the generation of the desire not to produce wrong unwholesome dharmas that have not been produced; generation of the desire to abandon wrong unwholesome dharmas that have been produced; generation of the desire to produce wholesome dharmas that have not been produced; and generation of the desire that wholesome dharmas that have been produced will increase, not degenerate, and be completed.

  • "Subhūti, what are the four legs of miraculous power?
    They are the leg of miraculous power endowed with meditative stabilization and the volitional effort caused by yearning, and the limbs of miraculous power endowed with meditative stabilization and the volitional effort caused by perseverance, concentrated mind, and examination.

  • "Subhūti, what are the five faculties?
    They are the faith faculty, perseverance faculty, mindfulness faculty, meditative stabilization faculty, and wisdom faculty. These are called the five faculties.

  • "Subhūti, what are the five powers?
    They are the faith power, perseverance power, mindfulness power, meditative stabilization power, and wisdom power. These are called the five powers.

  • "Subhūti, what are the seven limbs of awakening?
    They are the right mindfulness limb of awakening, right examination of dharmas limb of awakening, right perseverance limb of awakening, right joy limb of awakening, right pliability limb of awakening, right meditative stabilization limb of awakening, and right equanimity limb of awakening. These are called the seven limbs of awakening.

  • "Subhūti, what is the eightfold noble path?
    It is right view, right idea, right speech, right conduct, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right meditative stabilization. This is called the eightfold noble path.

  • "Subhūti, what are the three meditative stabilizations?
    They are the emptiness meditative stabilization, signlessness meditative stabilization, and wishlessness meditative stabilization.

  • "What is the emptiness meditative stabilization?
    That one-pointedness of mind as an empty appearance and as an isolated appearance is called the emptiness meditative stabilization.

  • "What is the signlessness meditative stabilization?
    That one-pointedness of mind as a calm appearance and as an appearance without causal signs is called the signless meditative stabilization.

  • "What is the wishlessness meditative concentration?
    That one-pointedness of mind as an appearance of impermanence and as an appearance of suffering is called the wishless meditative stabilization.

  • "Subhūti, what are the eight deliverances?
    With form they see form. This is the first deliverance. With the perception of form inside they see form outside. This is the second deliverance. Having directly experienced the pleasant deliverance with the body, they perfectly accomplish and dwell in it. This is the third deliverance. Totally transcending perceptions of form, setting to rest perceptions of obstruction, not paying attention to perceptions of difference, thinking 'it is endless space,' this perfect accomplishment and dwelling in the station of endless space, up to this perfect accomplishment and dwelling in the station of neither perception nor non-perception are the fourth to seventh deliverances, and having totally transcended the station of neither perception nor non-perception, having focused on the cessation of perception and feeling with the body, this perfect accomplishment and dwelling is the eighth. These are called the eight deliverances.

  • "Subhūti, what are the nine serial absorptions?
    There someone detached from sense objects, detached from wrong unwholesome dharmas, perfectly accomplishes and dwells in the first concentration that has applied thought and has sustained thought and joy and happiness born of detachment, and similarly, perfectly accomplishes and dwells in . . . , up to the second concentration, third concentration, and fourth concentration, up to perfectly accomplishes and dwells in the station of neither perception nor non-perception, and, having totally transcended the station of neither perception nor non-perception, perfectly accomplishes and dwells in the cessation of perception and feeling. They are called the nine serial absorptions.

  • "What are the ten stations of complete immersion?
    Immersion into earth, immersion into water, immersion into fire, and immersion into wind; immersion into blue, immersion into yellow, immersion into red, and immersion into white; immersion into space and immersion into consciousness‍ — these are called the ten stations of complete immersion.

  • "What are the eight stations of mastery?
    Those with a perception of form inside see small, beautiful, and ugly forms outside. They master and know, and master and see those forms. They become those with such a perception. This is the first station of mastery.
    "Those without a perception of form inside see big, beautiful, and ugly forms outside. They master and know, and master and see those forms. They become those with such a perception. This is the second station of mastery.
    "Those without a perception of form inside see blue shapes, blue in color, that look blue, and shine out blue‍ — for example, flax flowers and fine cloth from the Vārāṇasī region that are blue in shape, blue in color, look blue, and shine out blue. Similarly, without a perception of form inside, this seeing of blue shapes, blue in color, that look blue, and shine out blue is the third station of mastery.
    "Those without a perception of form inside see yellow shapes, yellow in color, that look yellow, and shine out yellow‍ — for example, bayur tree flowers and fine cloth from the Vārāṇasī region that are yellow in shape, yellow in color, look yellow, and shine out yellow. Similarly, without a perception of form inside, this seeing of yellow shapes, yellow in color, that look yellow, and shine out yellow is the fourth station of mastery.
    "Those without a perception of form inside see red shapes, red in color, that look red, and shine out red‍ — for example, bandhujīvaka flowers and fine cloth from the Vārāṇasī region that are red in shape, red in color, look red, and shine out red. Similarly, without a perception of form inside, this seeing of red shapes, red in color, that look red, and shine out red is the fifth station of mastery.
    "Those without a perception of form inside see white shapes, white in color, that look white, and shine out white‍ — for example, the color of the planet Venus and fine cloth from the Vārāṇasī region that are white in shape, white in color, look white, and shine out white. Similarly, without a perception of form inside, this seeing of white shapes, white in color, that look white, and shine out white is the sixth station of mastery.
    "Totally transcending perceptions of form, setting to rest perceptions of obstruction, not paying attention to perceptions of difference, thinking 'it is endless space,' this perfect accomplishment and dwelling in the station of endless space is the seventh station of mastery.
    "Totally transcending perceptions of form, setting to rest perceptions of obstruction, not paying attention to perceptions of difference, thinking 'it is endless consciousness,' this perfect accomplishment and dwelling in the station of endless consciousness is the eighth station of mastery.
    "These are called the eight stations of mastery.

  • "What is conflict-free meditative stabilization?
    Based on concentration, the meditative stabilization that accomplishes the practice of bodhisattva great beings on account of which afflictions are not produced in other beings and other persons is called conflict-free.

  • "What is knowledge from prayer?
    Having resorted to concentration, thinking, 'I want to know,' bodhisattvas want to know whatever knowledge or knowable thing there is in the three time periods. Having set their minds on it, arising from the concentration that prayer is fully answered. That knowledge of that knowable thing is called knowledge from prayer.

  • "What are the six clairvoyances?
    The clairvoyant knowledge of miraculous power, divine eye clairvoyance, divine hearing clairvoyance, clairvoyant knowledge of the thought activity of beings, clairvoyant knowledge that recollects previous existences, and clairvoyant knowledge of the extinction of outflows‍ — these are the six.

  • "What are the four total purities?
    The thoroughly purified basis, thoroughly purified objective support, thoroughly purified mind, and thoroughly purified knowledge‍ — these are the four.

  • "What are the ten controls?
    Control over lifespan, control over mind, control over necessities, control over action, control over birth, control over belief, control over prayer, control over magical powers, control over knowledge, and control over the Dharma‍ — these are the ten.

  • "Subhūti, what are the ten tathāgata powers?
    "They accurately know the possible as possible, and accurately know the impossible as impossible.
    "They accurately know from the perspective of place and from the perspective of cause, the results of past, present, and future actions and the undertaking of actions.
    "They accurately know the world with its various constituents and multiplicity of constituents.
    "They accurately know the multiplicity of active desires and various beliefs of other beings and other persons.
    "They accurately know the knowledge of higher and lower faculties of other beings and other persons.
    "They accurately know the path wherever it goes.
    "They accurately know the defilement and purification of all concentrations, deliverances, meditative stabilizations, and absorptions, and the emergence from them.
    "They recollect many prior states of existence‍ — they recollect just one lifetime, up to recollect many states of existence together with their appearance and their location.
    "With their purified divine eye that far surpasses the human, they see beings who are dying and being born, and they see those beings who have bad physical, verbal, and mental behavior, who hold wrong views and speak ill of noble beings, and who, on the breakup of their bodies after death, tumble into and take birth in terrible catastrophic forms of life because of those causes and those conditions. And they see those beings who have good physical, verbal, and mental behavior, who hold right views and do not speak ill of noble beings, and who, on the breakup of their bodies, take birth among the gods in good forms of life in the heavenly worlds because of those causes and those conditions. So, with their purified divine eye that far surpasses the human they accurately know, exactly in accord with the action, their deaths and rebirths, ugly and beautiful bodies, and terrible forms and good forms of life.
    "They accurately know the extinction of outflows, the non-existence of outflows, a mind that is freed, and a wisdom that is freed. These are called the ten tathāgata powers.

  • "Subhūti, what are the tathāgatas' four fearlessnesses?
    "When I claim, 'I am perfectly completely enlightened,' ah! I see no causal sign that would make me think anyone in this world of beings together with the gods, Māra, Brahmā, those leading a secluded religious life, and brahmins could in truth argue with me there that 'these dharmas have not become perfectly completely awakened.' Because I do not see any causal sign, I, who have found happiness, found fearlessness, and found a ground for self-confidence, claim the exalted status of the dominant bull. I roar the lion's perfect roar in the assembly. I, Brahmā-like, turn the wheel that a god or Māra or Brahmā or one leading a secluded religious life or a brahmin‍ — no one in this world‍ — can in truth turn.
    Similarly, connect this with: "When I claim, 'I have put an end to outflows,' no one could in truth argue with me there that 'you have not put an end to those outflows.'
    "About those dharmas I have explained to be hindrances, no one could in truth argue with me that 'even having resorted to them, those dharmas do not hinder.'
    "And about the noble paths that I have said perfectly put an end to suffering and cause escape, I see no causal sign that would make me think that anyone in this world of beings together with the gods, Māra, Brahmā, those leading a secluded religious life, and brahmins could in truth argue with me that 'even if they have been resorted to, they do not put an end to outflows.' Because I do not see any causal sign here, I have found happiness, found fearlessness, found a ground for self-confidence, and claim as my state the exalted state of the dominant bull. I roar the lion's perfect roar in the assembly. I, Brahmā-like, turn the wheel that a god or Māra or Brahmā or one leading a secluded religious life or a brahmin‍ — no one in this world‍ — can in truth turn.
    "These are called the four fearlessnesses.

  • "Subhūti, what are the four detailed and thorough knowledges of the tathāgatas?
    They are detailed and thorough knowledge of meanings, detailed and thorough knowledge of dharmas, detailed and thorough knowledge of creative explanations, and detailed and thorough knowledge of confidence giving a readiness to speak. Again, what are they? They have meanings as objective support, dharmas as objective support, creative explanations as objective support, and confidence giving a readiness to speak as objective support.

  • "Subhūti, what are the three things the tathāgatas do not have to guard against?
    The tathāgatas' physical behavior is completely pure. They do not have to be concerned about impure physical behavior, so the tathāgatas do not conceal it, thinking, 'I hope nobody else finds out.' This is the first thing they do not have to guard against. The tathāgatas' verbal behavior is completely pure. They do not have to be concerned about impure verbal behavior, so the tathāgatas do not conceal it, thinking, 'I hope nobody else finds out.' This is the second thing they do not have to guard against. The tathāgatas' mental behavior is completely pure. They do not have to be concerned about impure mental behavior, so the tathāgatas do not conceal it, thinking, 'I hope nobody else finds out.' This is the third thing they do not have to guard against. These are the three things they do not have to guard against.

  • "What are the tathāgatas' three applications of mindfulness?
    When a tathāgata teaches, some listen respectfully and attentively with a mind disposed to the words, and practice Dharma in full conformity with the Dharma. Still, a tathāgata does not take delight in that, does not feel mental happiness, their spirits are not boosted. This is the first application of mindfulness.
    "When a tathāgata teaches, others do not listen respectfully, are inattentive and without a mind disposed to the word, and do not practice Dharma in full conformity with the Dharma. Still, a tathāgata is not deeply offended, is not impatient, and is not distrustful. This is the second application of mindfulness.
    "When a tathāgata teaches, some listen respectfully and attentively with a mind disposed to the word, and practice Dharma in full conformity with the Dharma, while others do not listen respectfully, are inattentive and without a mind disposed to the word, and do not practice Dharma in full conformity with the Dharma. Still, a tathāgata both does not take delight in and is not deeply offended by that. They remain dispassionate to all, mindful and introspective. This is the third application of mindfulness.

  • "What is the tathāgatas' natural state not robbed of mindfulness?
    That on account of which the lord buddhas do not miss an opportunity to work for the welfare of beings, based on their teaching a meaningful doctrine, is called the natural state not robbed of mindfulness.

  • "What is the tathāgatas' elimination of obscuration from residual impressions?
    Even though all śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas have eliminated afflictions, they still have odd physical mannerisms . Even those do not happen with the tathāgatas. That is called the elimination of obscuration from residual impressions.

  • "What is the tathāgatas' great compassion?
    Based on the conventional term for the world, that compassion of the tathāgatas, endowed with which they think about the world at all times (three times in the day and three times at night) in order to find out about the wholesome roots‍ — that compassion of the lord buddhas that is always operating, watching to bring limitless beings to maturity, is called great compassion.

  • "Subhūti, what are the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha?
    From when they have fully awakened to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening, up to up until, in that interim, the tathāgatas do not trip up, do not shout out, are not robbed of mindfulness, do not discriminate differences, do not have uncollected thoughts, are not inconsiderately dispassionate, are not deficient in yearning, are not deficient in perseverance, are not deficient in recollection, are not deficient in meditative stabilization, are not deficient in wisdom, and are not deficient in liberation. All physical actions are preceded by knowledge and informed by knowledge, all verbal actions are preceded by knowledge and informed by knowledge, all mental actions are preceded by knowledge and informed by knowledge; they see past time with knowledge free from attachment and free from obstruction, they see future time with knowledge free from attachment and free from obstruction, and they see the present time with knowledge free from attachment and free from obstruction. These are called the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha.

  • "Subhūti, what is the tathāgatas' knowledge of all aspects?
    It has a non-existent thing as its objective support, mindfulness as its dominant factor, calmness as its aspect, and the absence of a mark as its mark‍ — that is called the knowledge of all aspects.

  • "Subhūti, what are a tathāgata's thirty-two major marks?
    They (1) have wheel marks on the surfaces of their hands and feet, (2) feet that are well placed, (3) hands and feet with connecting webbing, and (4) delicate and soft feet and hands. (5) Their body stands out prominently in seven ways; (6) they have long toes and fingers, (7) stretched out heels, (8) a big and straight body, (9) lower legs from the feet up that are not knobby, (10) body hair that points upward, (11) calves like the aiṇeya antelope, (12) and tubular and long arms; (13) their private parts are hidden in a sheath; (14) they have a color like gold, (15) and extremely fine skin; and (16) each strand of body hair grows curling to the right. (17) An ūrṇā marks their face, (18) their upper body is like a lion's, (19) their shoulders are well rounded, (20) the part between the collarbones is filled in, (21) they know tastes as tasty, (22) they have a build like an Indian fig tree, (23) and they have an uṣṇīṣa on the top of their head, (24) a long thin tongue, (25) a voice like Brahmā, (26) lion-like jaws, (27) very white teeth, (28) even teeth, (29) teeth without gaps, (30) forty teeth, and (31) dark blue eyes (32) with eyelashes like a cow's.
    -
    "The tathāgatas have, on the palms and soles of their feet and hands, wheels with a thousand spokes, with rims and hubs complete in every respect, for example, like shapes carved in bone or ivory, so they (1) have wheel marks on the surfaces of their hands and feet. They place the soles of their feet evenly on the ground, without arching, so (2) their feet are well placed. Webbing connects the fingers and toes on their hands and feet, like the royal swan, so (3) they have hands and feet with connecting webbing. Their hands and feet are delicate like a wisp of cotton thread, and soft like those of a young prince, so (4) they have delicate and soft feet and hands. The backs of their hands and upper parts of their feet, shoulders, neck, and head declare their prominence, so (5) their body stands out prominently in seven ways. Their toes and fingers stretch out, so they (6) have long toes and fingers. Their heels are big, so they (7) have stretched-out heels. At seven hasta they are elevated in height and are not crooked, so (8) they have a big and straight body. Their ankles and knees do not appear at all, so (9) their lower legs from the feet up are not knobby. Their body hairs rise up curling to the right in rings, so (10) their body hair points upward. They have spherical calves like the calves of the black antelope and calves of the arrow-seed antelope, so (11) they have calves like the aiṇeya antelope. Without bending they can touch their knees with the palms of their hands, so (12) they have tubular and long arms. Their magnificent organ for excreting is hidden in a sheath, as in the case of a thoroughbred horse or a bull elephant, so (13) their private parts are hidden in a sheath. They have a color like that of highly refined gold, so (14) they have a color like gold. Their skin, like highly burnished silver and gold, is smooth without dirt particles sticking to it, so (15) they have extremely fine skin. Each of their perfectly spaced body hairs grows by itself without a second, so (16) each strand of body hair grows curling to the right. Between their eyebrows, white in color like a kuṇḍa moon, cow's milk, and frost, brighter than even the light of a hundred suns and moons, is an ūrṇā ornament, so (17) an ūrṇā marks their face. Their chest is filled out, so (18) their upper body is like a lion's. Their neck is thick and set attractively so (19) their shoulders are well rounded. Like a highly polished golden door panel they have a very broad chest, so (20) the part between the collarbones is filled in. Their tongue is unaffected by wind, bile, and phlegm, they are a connoisseur of different tastes, and their consciousness mirrors that, so (21) they know tastes as tasty. Their height is the same as the distance between their out-stretched arms, so (22) they have a build like an Indian fig tree. There is a spherical, heaped-up topknot going around to the right, well placed and beautiful to behold on the top of their head, so (23) they have an uṣṇīṣa on the top of their head. Being the color of the petal of the red lotus and lengthy, (24) they have a long thin tongue. They have the voice of Hiraṇyagarbha and the call of the kalaviṅka bird, so (25) they have the voice of Brahmā. They have jaws like a circular mirror, well established, spherical, elongated, beautiful, and compact, so (26) they have lion-like jaws. They have teeth that are extremely white like the jasmine flower, the moon, and a broken, shining piece of conch-shell, so (27) they have very white teeth; teeth that are not too long or too short, so (28) they have even teeth; no spaces between their teeth, so (29) they have teeth without gaps; and no extra or missing upper or lower teeth, so (30) they have forty teeth. The dark and white sides are not mixed, are extremely clear and unflecked with red, so (31) they have dark blue eyes. The upper and lower eyelashes incline but are not entangled, so (32) the Tathāgata's eyelashes are like those of a cow.
    -
    "There, (1) they have wheel marks on the surfaces of their hands and feet because they have welcomed and accompanied gurus, listened to the doctrine, offered flower garlands, visited temples, reliquaries, and so on, and have made the gift of being in the circle of servants. It is a sign presaging an extremely large circle of servants. (2) Their feet are well placed because their commitment is firm. It is a sign presaging that they cannot be swayed. (3) They have hands and feet with connecting webbing because of their assiduous practice of the four ways of gathering a retinue by giving gifts, kind words, beneficial actions, and consistency between words and deeds. It is a sign presaging the speedy gathering of a retinue. (4–5) Their hands and feet are tender and soft, and their body declares its prominence in seven ways because they have offered perfectly prepared hard and soft food and drink. Both these are signs that presage obtaining perfectly prepared hard and soft food and drink. (6–8) They have long toes and fingers, stretched-out heels, and a big and straight body because they have freed convicts condemned to death, have sustained life by giving food and drink and so on, and assiduously practiced abstaining from killing. These are signs presaging long life. (9–10) They have lower legs from the feet up that are not knobby, and their body hair points upward because they have undertaken wholesome dharmas and cause those they have taken up to flourish and never decline. Both these are signs that presage the Dharma will not degenerate. (11) They have calves like the aiṇeya antelope because, having shown respect, they have made crafts and branches of knowledge available and caused them to be taken up. It is a sign presaging a speedy grasp of things. (12) They have tubular and long arms because they never said no; when asked for their own existent wealth, they gave it. It is a sign presaging control over giving and disciplining. (13) Their private parts are hidden in a sheath because they did not separate from each other those friends, close relatives, and kinsmen who were united together, they reconciled those who had fallen out, they undertook to live in chastity, and they guarded the secret mantras. It is a sign presaging a great many sons. (14–15) They have a color like gold and extremely fine skin because they have given away fine mattresses, clothes, and coats, and mansions, palaces, and dwelling places. Both these are signs that presage the acquisition of such fine mattresses, clothes, and coats, and mansions, palaces, and dwelling places. (16–17) Each strand of body hair grows curling to the right, and an ūrṇā marks their face because they have avoided society, and because, having accorded an appropriate status to their spiritual superiors‍ — their preceptors, teachers, parents, brothers and sisters, and so on‍ — they have served them, given them gifts, and pleased them. Both these are signs that presage being without an equal. (18–19) Their upper body is like a lion's and their shoulders are well rounded because they do not talk non-sense, do not belittle others, speak kind words, are eloquent and not jarring, and their speech is the same as the roar of a lion. Both these are signs that presage they cannot be bested. (20–21) The part between the collarbones is filled in and they know tastes as tasty because they have given the sick medicine, been their attendant, given food in accord with the diagnosis, and nursed them. Both these are signs that presage not being harmed. (22–23) They have a build like an Indian fig tree and an uṣṇīṣa on the top of their head because of giving to others in a surpassing way, first doing the work and conveying their enthusiasm to others for parks, assembly halls, places for others to get away from the heat, wells, makeshift bridges for places hard to reach, food, flower garlands, monasteries, hostels, and so on. Both these are signs that presage holding the highest office. (24–25) They have a long thin tongue and the voice of Brahmā because for a long time they have spoken with a smooth, kindly, and agreeable voice. Both these are signs that presage the acquisition of a melodious sound endowed with the five branches that make it suitable for discourse. The five branches that make a melodious sound suitable for discourse are these: understandable and recognizable, worth listening to and not discordant, deep and reverberating, not grating and easy on the ear, and non-upsetting and clear. (26) They have lion-like jaws because for a long time they have refrained from babbling non-sense and spoken in a timely manner. It is a sign presaging speech worth listening to. (27–28) They have very white teeth and even teeth because they attended to the needs of others, did not look down on them, and their livelihood was pure. Both these are signs that presage a retinue that has already been assembled. (29–30) They have teeth without gaps and have all forty teeth because for a long time they made it a habit to tell the truth and not speak behind anybody's back. Both these are signs that presage an undivided retinue. (31–32) They have dark blue eyes and a cow's eyelashes because their eyes were without greed and hatred and free from confusion, so even while being embraced and belittled they saw exactly what was going on. Both these are signs that presage polite speech.
    -
    "Subhūti, those are a tathāgata's thirty-two major marks of a great person. They shine with their natural light pervading a great billionfold world system, even an infinite number of world systems if they want that. Out of compassion the tathāgatas make a halo extending the length of their outstretched arms appear to beings. Were the lords not to have made a halo extending the length of their outstretched arms appear, even the light of the sun and the moon, eclipsed by the natural light, would not appear and there would be no months, fortnights, days, or years. The natural melodious sound resounds in a great billionfold world system. Two, three, and as many as four are pervaded with an illumination if they want that, and the melodious sound resounds in that many too.

  • "Subhūti, what are a tathāgata's eighty minor signs?
    Lord buddhas have minds free from attachment to all compounded phenomena so (1) they have nails with a color like copper. Lord buddhas have minds intent on the happiness and welfare of all beings, whom they love as if they were close relatives, so (2) they have nails that are glossy. Lord buddhas have been born in the line of a high-status family so (3) they have nails that are high, not sunken. There is no basic immorality in the conduct of the lord buddhas so (4) their toes and fingers are rounded. Lord buddhas have accumulated vast wholesome roots so (5) their toes and fingers are large. Lord buddhas have gradually achieved success with wholesome roots so (6) their toes and fingers are tapering. The physical, verbal, and mental occupation and livelihood of lord buddhas are hidden so (7) the veins [on their hands] do not show. Lord buddhas have unraveled the knots of the afflictions so (8) their veins are without knots. The intentions of the lord buddhas' doctrine are hidden so (9) their anklebones do not show. Lord buddhas cause freedom from all difficulties so (10) their feet are not the same. Lord buddhas are lions among humans so (11) they go with the stride of lions. Lord buddhas are elephants among humans so (12) they go with the gait of elephants. Lord buddhas are like royal swans going into the sky so (13) they go from place to place like swans. Lord buddhas are like head bulls among persons so (14) they go with the gait of a head bull. Lord buddhas have an advantageous path so (15) they walk keeping things worthy of respect to the right. Lord buddhas look handsome so (16) they have a beautiful walk. Lord buddhas have minds that are never crooked so (17) they do not zigzag. Lord buddhas proclaim the good qualities of purified behavior so (18) they have an attractive body. Lord buddhas have cleansed away all wrong, so (19) they have a polished body. Lord buddhas teach the Dharma gradually, so (20) the body that conveys them is gradual. Lord buddhas are endowed with cleanliness of body, voice, and mind so (21) the body that conveys them is clean. Lord buddhas are naturally gentle souls so (22) they have a body that is soft. Lord buddhas have naturally pure minds so (23) they have a body that is pure. Lord buddhas have a completely developed Dharma and Vinaya so (24) they have fully developed sex organs. Lord buddhas have proclaimed big, beautiful qualities so (25) their whole body is big and beautiful. Lord buddhas have the same thought about all beings so (26) they walk at an even pace. Lord buddhas teach an extremely gentle Dharma so (27) they have a body with a very youthful color. Lord buddhas have minds that are never dejected so (28) they carry themselves without slouching. Lord buddhas have pulled up unwholesome roots so (29) they have a body that has spread out. Lord buddhas are not linked up with further existences, they have finished with them, so (30) their body is compacted together. Lord buddhas have taught well the main and subsidiary branches of dependent origination so (31) all their limbs are well proportioned. Lord buddhas have extremely clear vision so (32) their sight is undistorted and clear. Lord buddhas have students who are well behaved so (33) they have fully rounded abdomens. Lord buddhas have cleaned away the faults of saṃsāra so (34) they have thin waists. Lord buddhas have conquered the summits of pride so (35) their bellies are not stretched. Lord buddhas have prevented the Dharma from running out so (36) their bellies are not emaciated. Lord buddhas are aware of the extremely deep dharmas so (37) they have deep navels. Lord buddhas have students who are candidates for taking up what is advantageous so (38) they have navels that swirl to the right. Lord buddhas have a community of students who are very attractive so (39) they are very attractive. Lord buddhas have extremely pure minds so (40) their habitual activities are pure. Lord buddhas teach a Dharma and Vinaya free from dark instructions so (41) their bodies are free from freckles. Lord buddhas teach a Dharma for gaining a body light like a wisp of cotton so (42) their hands are extremely soft like a wisp of cotton. Lord buddhas love close relatives and common people equally and have attained the state of a mahāśramaṇa so (43) the lines on their hands are vivid. Lord buddhas remain in an extremely deep and constant state so (44) the lines on their hands are deep. Lord buddhas have proclaimed a doctrine of wide-ranging tolerance so (45) the lines on their hands are long. Lord buddhas have promulgated a code of moral training that is not too long, so (46) their mouths are not too wide. Lord buddhas have taught that all worlds are like a reflection in a mirror so (47) the reflections of shapes appear in their faces. Lord buddhas are first easy on people when they lead them so (48) their tongues are pliable. Lord buddhas are endowed with an abundance of subtle good qualities so (49) their tongues are thin. With the Dharma that is hard to fathom, lord buddhas discipline simple folk with their attachments so (50) their tongues are red. Lord buddhas were not scared by things like the trumpeting of elephants and rumble of thunder so (51) they trumpet like elephants and rumble like thunder. Lord buddhas have students whose conversations have a melodious, pleasing, gentle sound so (52) they have a voice that is melodious, pleasing, and gentle. Lord buddhas have turned back from the fetters to suffering existence so (53) their eyeteeth are tubular. Lord buddhas are skilled in disciplining people who have a keen intellect so (54) their eyeteeth are sharp. Lord buddhas have a Dharma and Vinaya that is extremely pure so (55) their eyeteeth are very white. Lord buddhas are located at an equal level so (56) their eyeteeth are even. Lord buddhas have demonstrated the clear realizations in a series so (57) their eyeteeth taper. Lord buddhas stand on the prominent mountain of wisdom so (58) they have a prominent nose. Lord buddhas have people whose Vinaya is clean so (59) they have a nose that is unsullied. Lord buddhas have clear vision so (60) they have completely cleansed eyes. Lord buddhas are endowed with the extremely wide range of buddha-dharmas so (61) they have eyes that are wide. Lord buddhas have hosts of beings packed around them so (62) their eyelashes are thick. Lord buddhas are delighted by the finest among the young gods, asuras, and humans, the black and whites of whose eyes are striking, like delightful lotus petals with black and white sections, so (63) they have delightful eyes like lotus petals with black and white sections. Lord buddhas always teach the vast so (64) their eyebrows extend a long way. Lord buddhas, by being gentle, are skilled in the Vinaya so (65) they have smooth eyebrows. Lord buddhas have knowledge of all faults from every side so (66) their eyebrows have hairs of equal length. Lord buddhas have disciplined beings whose mindstreams have been moistened by the moisture of wholesome roots so (67) their eyebrows are glossy. Lord buddhas teach the supremely extensive Dharma so (68) their ear-lobes are full and long. Lord buddhas have won the battles over afflictions so (69) their ears are equal in size. Lord buddhas discipline beings with unimpaired mindstreams so (70) they have an unimpaired faculty of hearing. Lord buddhas have eliminated everything made into a wrong view so (71) their foreheads are perfectly developed. Lord buddhas have crushed the brahmins, those following a secluded religious life, and those advancing the arguments of the opposing side so (72) they have a war elephant's broad forehead. Lord buddhas have fully carried out their highest vow so (73) their heads are very large. Lord buddhas have turned away from objects of the senses that attract ordinary people like bees who delight in one flower after the other so (74) the hair on their heads is like black bees. Lord buddhas have caused the residual impressions eliminated by seeing and meditation to diminish so (75) their hair is thick. Lord buddhas have a gentle heart to know the essentials of the doctrine so (76) their hair is soft. Lord buddhas have minds that are never disturbed so (77) their hair is not tousled. Lord buddhas never speak harshly so (78) their hair is not bristly. Lord buddhas accomplish what is advantageous to people with the fragrance of the flowers of the limbs of awakening so (79) their hair has a fragrant smell. And (80) lord buddhas have palms of the hands and soles of the feet adorned with the śrīvatsa, svastika, and nandyāvarta symbols. Subhūti, those are the eighty minor signs on a tathāgata's body.

  • [1.] "It is thus, Subhūti, that bodhisattva great beings gather beings
    by the twofold way of giving material gifts and the gift of Dharma.
    Subhūti, this is the amazing and marvelous dharma of bodhisattva great beings.


[2.] "Subhūti, how do bodhisattva great beings gather beings by kind words?

  • Subhūti, here bodhisattva great beings gather beings with the six perfections‍ — the perfection of giving, perfection of morality, perfection of patience, perfection of perseverance, perfection of concentration, and perfection of wisdom. Bodhisattva great beings gather being with those six perfections, by kind words.

  • And why?
    Because all wholesome dharmas are included in these six perfections.


[3.] "Subhūti, how do bodhisattva great beings gather beings by beneficial actions?

  • "They have gathered beings for a long time with those same six perfections,
    which is to say, by giving gifts, kind words, beneficial actions, and consistency between words and deeds.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom give this advice and instruction to bodhisattva great beings: 'Hey, sons of a good family! Come here! Become skilled at syllable accomplishment. Become skilled at one syllable, become skilled at two syllables, up to become skilled at forty-five syllables. Know through one syllable that all have a decline. Know through two that all have a decline. Know through three that all have a decline. Know through . . . , up to forty-five syllables that all have a decline. Meditate on forty-five syllables being included in one syllable. Meditate on one syllable being included in forty-five syllables.' They give that advice.
    Those bodhisattva great beings, Subhūti, are skilled at one syllable; are skilled at . . . , up to forty-five syllables; are skilled at meditation on forty-five syllables being included in one syllable; are skilled at one syllable being included in forty-five syllables; and, having made themselves skilled in syllable accomplishment, they are skilled in the accomplishment of that for which there are no syllables.
    To illustrate, Subhūti, it is just like tathāgatas, worthy ones, perfectly complete buddhas.
    They are skilled in dharmas and skilled in syllables, and, being skilled in dharmas and skilled in syllables, teach the Dharma.
    Through letters they teach the Dharma for which there are no syllables.
    That Dharma, Subhūti, being the appearance of that for which there are no letters, is a magical creation."


Then venerable Subhūti inquired of the Lord,

  • "Lord, if, because of the emptinesses of what transcends limits and no beginning and no end, a being absolutely cannot be apprehended, a dharma also cannot be apprehended, and a dharma's intrinsic nature cannot be apprehended, well then, Lord, how do bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom arisen from maturation, practicing the perfection of meditative stabilization, practicing the perfection of perseverance, practicing the perfection of patience, practicing the perfection of morality, practicing the perfection of giving, practicing the four concentrations, practicing the four immeasurables, practicing the four formless absorptions, practicing the thirty-seven dharmas on the side of awakening, practicing the fourteen emptinesses, practicing the signless, practicing the wishless, practicing the meditative stabilizations, practicing the eight deliverances, practicing the nine successive absorption stations, practicing the ten tathāgata powers, practicing the four fearlessnesses, practicing the four detailed and thorough knowledges, practicing the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha, practicing the thirty-two major marks and eighty minor signs of a great person, and practicing the six clairvoyances arisen from maturation teach the Dharma to beings?
    There a being and a designation of a being cannot be apprehended, and because a being cannot be apprehended, form also cannot be apprehended, up to consciousness cannot be apprehended, the six perfections cannot be apprehended, and similarly, up to the eighty minor signs cannot be apprehended, up to the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha cannot be apprehended. Form is not apprehended in that being and designation of a being that do not exist, and similarly, up to the eighty minor signs are not apprehended. If the eighty minor signs are not apprehended, Lord, how then do bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom teach the Dharma to beings?
    "Lord, those bodhisattva great beings would be inspiring beings to take up dharmas that do not exist and would be connecting them with error, would they not?
    And why?
    Lord, it is because bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of giving do not apprehend even a bodhisattva, never mind the thirty-seven dharmas on the side of awakening."

Venerable Subhūti having thus inquired, the Lord said to him,

  • "Exactly so, Subhūti, exactly so! It is exactly as you say!
    Subhūti, a being, because it cannot be apprehended, should be known as inner emptiness,
    should be known as outer emptiness, should be known as inner and outer emptiness,
    and similarly, connect this with each, up to should be known as the emptiness that is the non-existence of an intrinsic nature.
    _______________________________________________________________
    The aggregates [T1] should be known as emptiness [T2] [U2T],
    _______________________________________________________________
    the constituents should be known as emptiness,
    the sense fields should be known as emptiness, and
    _____________________________________________________________________
    dependent origination [T1] should be known as emptiness [T2] [U2T].
    _____________________________________________________________________
    The emptiness of a self, emptiness of a being, emptiness of a living being, emptiness of a creature, emptiness of one born of Manu, emptiness of a person, and the emptiness of one who lives, and of one who does, one who makes someone else do, a motivator, one who motivates, one who feels, one who makes someone else feel, one who knows, and one who sees should be known as emptiness.
    Similarly, connect this with the concentrations should be known as emptiness,
    and the immeasurables, formless absorptions, and applications of mindfulness should be known as emptiness,
    up to the thirty-seven dharmas on the side of awakening should be known as emptiness,
    __________________________________________________________
    emptiness [T1] should be known as emptiness [T2] [U2T],
    __________________________________________________________
    and signlessness and wishlessness should be known as emptiness.
    Similarly, connect this with the emptiness of the eight deliverances, emptiness of the nine serial absorptions, emptiness of the ten tathāgata powers, emptiness of the four fearlessnesses, emptiness of the four detailed and thorough knowledges, and that of the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha should be known as emptiness.
    The result of stream enterer, the result of once-returner, the result of non-returner, the state of a worthy one, and a pratyekabuddha's awakening should be known as emptiness.
    The level of a bodhisattva should be known as emptiness.
    A buddhafield should be known as emptiness.
    Awakening should be known as emptiness.
    Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings,
    __________________________________________________________________
    having thus seen that all those dharmas [T1] are empty [T2] [U2T],
    __________________________________________________________________
    teach the doctrine to beings who have gone wrong.
    They teach the doctrine so that in those emptinesses, one way or the other, they do not turn back.
    They see that all dharmas are without obscurations, do not make any dharma complicated, do not make a division, and teach the doctrine as it really is.

  • "To illustrate, a tathāgata's magical creation magically creates many hundred million magical creations. It establishes one in giving; establishes another in morality; and establishes another in patience, another in perseverance, another in meditative stabilization, another in wisdom, another in the concentrations, another in the immeasurables, another in the formless absorptions, another in the applications of mindfulness, up to another in the eightfold noble path, up to and another in the knowledge of all aspects. It establishes one in the result of stream enterer, up to and establishes another in awakening.
    Subhūti, what do you think, on account of that magical creation has there been an increase in any dharma?"

"No, Lord," he replied.

"Subhūti," continued the Lord,

  • "through this one of many explanations, you should know just how bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom teach the doctrine to beings, releasing them from errors by way of their not being bound and not being freed, and establishing them in things as they really are.

  • And why?
    Subhūti, it is because form is not bound and is not freed; (i.e. not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither)
    and feeling, perception, volitional factors, and consciousness are not bound and is not freed.
    Form's state of not being bound and not being freed is not form;
    feeling's . . . , perception's . . . , volitional factors' . . . , and consciousness's state of not being bound and not being freed is not consciousness,
    up to compounded and uncompounded dharmas' state of not being bound and not being freed is not compounded and uncompounded dharmas.

  • And why?
    Subhūti, it is because form . . . , up to consciousness . . . , up to compounded and uncompounded dharmas are absolutely pure.

  • "Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom teach the doctrine to beings
    but do not apprehend them as beings.
    __________________________________________________________________________________________
    Furthermore, standing in a way that does not apprehend [T2] dharmas [T1] [U2T],_________
    bodhisattva great beings stand by way of not apprehending [T2] 'form is empty,' [T1] [U2T]
    __________________________________________________________________________________________
    up to by way of not apprehending 'consciousness is empty,'
    up to by way of not apprehending 'compounded and uncompounded dharmas are empty.'

  • "Compounded and uncompounded dharmas are not located anywhere.

  • And why?
    It is because they have no intrinsic nature where they might be located,
    so something non-existent is not located in something non-existent;
    something's own existence is not located in something non-existent;
    and something else's existence is not located in something non-existent
    or in something's own existence.

  • And why?
    Subhūti, it is because they all cannot be apprehended
    and what cannot be apprehended is not located anywhere.
    Therefore, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom
    ________________________________________________________
    meditate on all those dharmas [T1] as empty [T2] [U2T].
    ________________________________________________________
    Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom like that have not done anything wrong to the lord buddhas, the bodhisattvas, the pratyekabuddhas, the worthy ones, or any noble beings.

  • And why?
    Subhūti, it is because the lord buddhas, the bodhisattvas, the pratyekabuddhas, the worthy ones, and all the noble beings understand just that true dharmic nature of dharmas, and having understood
    ________________________________________________________v_________________________________
    it teach the doctrine to beings without going beyond that true dharmic nature of dharmas,
    __________________________________________________________________________________________
    because the dharma-constituent does not go beyond anything,
    and suchness and the very limit of reality do not go beyond anything either.

  • Why?
    Because they have no intrinsic nature that goes beyond anything."

The Lord having said that, venerable Subhūti asked him,

  • "Lord, if, in the dharma-constituent, there is no going beyond,
    and in suchness and at the very limit of reality there is no going beyond,
    well then, Lord, is form one thing and the dharma-constituent another,
    suchness another, and the very limit of reality another?

  • Is consciousness one thing and compounded and uncompounded dharmas, dharmas that are ordinary and extraordinary, and those with outflows and without outflows another?"

"No, Subhūti," he replied.

  • "Form is not one thing and the dharma-constituent is not another [UGM].
    Suchness is not one thing and the very limit of reality is not another.
    Consciousness is not one thing, up to and all dharmas are not another.
    The dharma-constituent is not one thing and suchness and the very limit of reality are not another."

The Lord having said that, venerable Subhūti asked further,

  • "Lord, if form is not one thing and the dharma-constituent is not another,
    up to consciousness is not one thing,
    up to all compounded and uncompounded dharmas are not one thing,
    and similarly, up to and the dharma-constituent is not another,
    well then, Lord, how can you make a detailed presentation of the bad results of wicked dharmas as 'the hells, the animal world, and the world of Yāma,' the good results of bright dharmas as 'the gods and human beings,' the wicked and bright results of wicked and bright dharmas as 'a mixture of happiness and suffering,' and the bright, not wicked, results of bright, not wicked, dharmas as 'the result of stream enterer, result of once-returner, result of non-returner, state of a worthy one, pratyekabuddha's awakening, and unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening'?"

Venerable Subhūti having asked that, the Lord said to him,

  • "Subhūti,
    _____________________________________________________________________________________________
    an exposition of a detailed presentation of results is simply based on conventional truth [T1].
    An exposition of a detailed presentation of results is impossible as ultimate truth [T2].______
    _____________________________________________________________________________________________

  • And why?

  • Because name and form are not produced and do not stop, are not defiled and not purified; those dharmas are undifferentiated, not something that can be talked about‍ — that is, they are an emptiness of what transcends limits and an emptiness of no beginning and no end."

The Lord having said that, venerable Subhūti asked him,

  • "Lord, if the detailed presentation of results is based on conventional truth [T1]
    and does not exist ultimately [T2] [U2T],
    well then, Lord, would not simple, ordinary folk come to be in the result of stream enterer,
    or the result of once-returner, the result of non-returner, the state of a worthy one, a pratyekabuddha's awakening, and in unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening?"

Venerable Subhūti having asked that, the Lord said to him,

  • "Subhūti, were simple, ordinary folk to know the conventional truth or the ultimate truth, well then, for them there would also be a detailed presentation of the result of stream enterer, the result of once-returner, the result of non-returner, the state of a worthy one, a pratyekabuddha's awakening, and unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening.
    If they were to know 'the conventional truth' or 'the ultimate truth' they would not be counted as simple, ordinary folk, but they do not have such comprehension, so for them there is no detailed presentation of the result of stream enterer, the result of once-returner, the result of non-returner, the state of a worthy one, a pratyekabuddha's awakening, and unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening.
    Therefore, Subhūti, for simple, ordinary folk there is no path and there is no presentation of the path.
    Simple, ordinary folk do not cultivate the path so how could there be a presentation of the results?

  • For noble persons there is a path and there is a presentation of the path.
    They cultivate the path so there is a presentation of the results as well."

Then venerable Subhūti asked the Lord,

  • "Lord, when they have become habituated to the path,
    does the result appear and do they attain the result?"
    (i.e. Is enlightenment caused / produced, or attained like a destination, as a result of the path or without any path?)

  • "No, Subhūti. The result does not appear, and they do not attain the result from having become habituated to the path; nor, Subhūti, do they attain the result from having not become habituated to the path.
    They do not attain the result with the path and not with what is not the path, and not without standing on the path.
    It is thus, Subhūti, that bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom present the results in detail to beings but do not make a presentation of the results in a way that curbs (produce / control) the dharma-constituent."

  • "Lord, if the results have not been presented in detail by curbing the compounded element and the uncompounded element, given that you, Lord, have said, 'This is the result of stream enterer because three fetters have been eliminated; this is the result of once-returner because of a weakening of attachment to sense objects and malice; this is the result of non-returner because the fetters that are associated with living in the desire realm have been eliminated; this is the state of a worthy one because the five fetters that are associated with the upper realms have been eliminated; a pratyekabuddha's awakening is to "every dharma qualified by origination, all of them, are subject to cessation"; and the elimination of all residual impression connections is perfect, complete awakening,' then, Lord, how am I to understand what you have said, Lord, that 'the results have not been presented in detail by curbing (causing / producing) the compounded and uncompounded dharmas'?"
    (i.e. Are those milestones caused / produced, or attained like a destination, as a result of the path or without any path?)

"Subhūti," asked the Lord in return,

  • "is the result of stream enterer, or the result of once-returner, or the result of non-returner, or the state of a worthy one, or a pratyekabuddha's awakening, or unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening compounded or are they uncompounded?"

"They are uncompounded, Lord; they are uncompounded, Sugata," he replied.

  • "Subhūti, is there a curb (causality / production) on an uncompounded dharma?" asked the Lord.

"No, Lord."

  • "Subhūti, when a son of a good family or daughter of a good family realizes that compounded or uncompounded dharmas have only one mark‍ — that is, no mark‍ — at that time do they curb (cause / produce / attain) any compounded or uncompounded dharma?"

"No, Lord."

  • "In that way, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom teach the doctrine to beings based on not curbing (not caussing, not producing, not attaining) anything‍ (in absolute terms) — that is, by way of inner emptiness, up to the emptiness of its own mark.
    They personally do not settle down on, and they do not cause others to settle down on, any dharma at all,
    be it the perfection of giving, or the perfection of morality, or the perfection of patience, or the perfection of perseverance, or the perfection of concentration, or the perfection of wisdom, or the first concentration, or . . . , up to the fourth concentration, or love, or compassion, or joy, or equanimity, or . . . , up to the station of neither perception nor non-perception, or the applications of mindfulness, or . . . , up to the eightfold noble path, or . . . , up to the knowledge of all aspects.
    And because they do not settle down, they are not attached to anything.

  • "This is like a tathāgata's magical creation. It also gives gifts, and also is not attached to any result except for the welfare of all beings‍ — their passing into nirvāṇa‍ — and also will not experience the result of giving.
    It does not stand in any dharma at all, up to the six perfections, up to in dharmas that are with outflows and without outflows, ordinary and extraordinary, and compounded and uncompounded.
    Similarly, Subhūti,
    ____________________________________________________________________________________________
    bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom also practice all dharmas [T1]
    but do not stand in and are not attached to any dharma [T2] [U2T].__________________________
    ____________________________________________________________________________________________
    And why?
    Because they have understood well what marks the dharmas as the dharmas."

This was the seventy-third chapter, "Exposition of the Major Marks and Minor Signs and the Completion of Letters," of "The Perfection of Wisdom in Eighteen Thousand Lines."




Access to other chapters on the Blog:
(Work in progress. Empty files means they are not done yet.)

  1. Chapter 0 – Introduction to the Sutra

  2. Chapter 1 – Introduction / the Assembly

  3. Chapter 2 – Production of the Thought

  4. Chapter 3 – designation [U2T]

  5. Chapter 4 – Equal to the Unequal

  6. Chapter 5 – Tongue

  7. Chapter 6 – Subhūti

  8. Chapter 7 – Entry into flawlessness

  9. Chapter 8 – The Religious Mendicant Śreṇika

  10. Chapter 9 – Causal Signs

  11. Chapter 10 – Illusion-like

  12. Chapter 11 – Embarrassment

  13. Chapter 12 – Elimination of Views

  14. Chapter 13 – The Six Perfections

  15. Chapter 14 – Neither Bound nor Freed

  16. Chapter 15 – Meditative Stabilization

  17. Chapter 16 – Dhāraṇī Gateway

  18. Chapter 17 – Level Purification

  19. Chapter 18 – The Exposition of Going Forth in the Great Vehicle [cause / path]

  20. Chapter 19 – Surpassing

  21. Chapter 20 – Not Two

  22. Chapter 21 – Subhūti

  23. Chapter 22 – Śatakratu

  24. Chapter 23 – Hard to Understand

  25. Chapter 24 – Unlimited

  26. Chapter 25 – Second Śatakratu

  27. Chapter 26 – Getting Old

  28. Chapter 27 – Reliquary

  29. Chapter 28 – Declaration of the Good Qualities of the Thought of Awakening

  30. Chapter 29 – Different Tīrthika Religious Mendicants

  31. Chapter 30 – The Benefits of Taking Up and Adoration

  32. Chapter 31 – Physical Remains

  33. Chapter 32 – The Superiority of Merit

  34. Chapter 33 – Dedication

  35. Chapter 34 – Perfect Praise of the Quality of Accomplishment

  36. Chapter 35 – Hells

  37. Chapter 36 – Teaching The Purity of all Dharmas

  38. Chapter 37 – Nobody

  39. Chapter 38 – Cannot Be Apprehended

  40. Chapter 39 – The Northern Region

  41. Chapter 40 – The Work of Māra

  42. Chapter 41 – Not Complete Because of Māra

  43. Chapter 42 – Revealing the World

  44. Chapter 43 – Inconceivable

  45. Chapter 44 – Made Up

  46. Chapter 45 – A Boat

  47. Chapter 46 – Teaching the Intrinsic Nature of All Dharmas

  48. Chapter 47 – Taming Greed

  49. Chapter 48 – A Presentation of the Bodhisattvas' Training

  50. Chapter 49 – Irreversibility

  51. Chapter 50 – Teaching the Signs of Irreversibility

  52. Chapter 51 – Skillful means

  53. Chapter 52 – Completion of the Means

  54. Chapter 53 – The Prophecy about Gaṅgadevī

  55. Chapter 54 – Teaching the Cultivation of Skillful Means

  56. Chapter 55 – Teaching the Stopping of Thought Construction [in absolute terms]

  57. Chapter 56 – Equal Training

  58. Chapter 57 – Practice

  59. Chapter 58 – Exposition of the Absence of Thought Construction [in absolute terms]

  60. Chapter 59 – non-attachment

  61. Chapter 60 – Entrusting

  62. Chapter 61 – Inexhaustible

  63. Chapter 62 – Leaping Above Absorption

  64. Chapter 63 – Many Inquiries about the Two Dharmas

  65. Chapter 64 – Perfectly Displayed

  66. Chapter 65 – Worshiping, Serving, and Attending on Spiritual Friends as Skillful Means

  67. Chapter 66 – A Demonstration of Skillful Means

  68. Chapter 67 – Morality

  69. Chapter 68 – Growing and Flourishing

  70. Chapter 69 – An Explanation of Meditation on The Path

  71. Chapter 70 – An Explanation of Serial Action, Training, and Practice

  72. Chapter 71 – The True Nature of Dharmas That Cannot Be Apprehended

  73. Chapter 72 – Teaching the Absence of Marks

  74. Chapter 73 – Exposition of the Major Marks and Minor Signs and the Completion of Letters

  75. Chapter 74 – Exposition of the Sameness of Dharmas

  76. Chapter 75 – Exposition of non-complication –

  77. Chapter 76 – The Armor for Bringing Beings to Maturity

  78. Chapter 77 – Teaching the Purification of a Buddhafield

  79. Chapter 78 – Teaching the Skillful Means for the Purification of a Buddhafield

  80. Chapter 79 – Teaching the non- Existence of an Intrinsic Nature

  81. Chapter 80 – Teaching that there is No Defilement or Purification

  82. Chapter 81 – Yogic Practice of the Ultimate

  83. Chapter 82 – The Unchanging True Nature of Dharmas

  84. Chapter 83 – Categorization of a Bodhisattva's Training

  85. Chapter 84 – Collection

  86. Chapter 85 – Sadāprarudita

  87. Chapter 86 – Dharmodgata

  88. Chapter 87 – Entrusting

  89. Résumés in bullet points of all chapters.




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