Tuesday, June 21, 2022

Prajnaparamita-18K - Chapter 69 - Entrusting - 369

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The Transcendent Perfection of Wisdom
in Eighteen Thousand Lines - 369
Daśa­sāhasrikā­prajñā­pāramitā

– Chapter 69 - An Explanation of Meditation on the Path –

Source: https://read.84000.co/translation/toh10.html

More Analysis of Mahayana Sutras : https://www.gilehtblog.com/2022/07/toc-400.html

[Note: The two truths are:
T1: conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means, merely labeled / imputed / imagined / created by the mind in dependence of its conditioning / karma (in cycle), not completely non-existence;
T2: emptiness of inherent existence, not real existence;
U2T: those two truths, like any other pair of apparent opposites, are inseparable, interdependent, co-defined, co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing / co-transcended, in harmony, in 'Union' <==> thus empty of inherent existence.
They are tools to help us to get to the 'inconceivable' by refuting what 'Reality as it is' is not:
all extreme views like: existence / dharma / causality / functionality, non-existence / non-dharma / non-causality / non-functionality, both together, neither; difference / manyness / diversity / duality, identity / oneness / sameness / non-duality, both together, neither; permanence / continuity / eternity, impermanence / discontinuity / annihilation, both together, neither; individuality, collectivity, universality, a combination of those, none of those; subjectivity, relation / action / process, objectivity, a combination of those, none of those; the 1st truth alone / dependent origination [T1], the 2nd truth alone / mere-emptiness [T2], both two truths together as if different and in opposition [2T], neither of the two truths as if identical and one [1T,]; ‘this’, ‘non-this’, both together, neither – for whatever ‘this’ is.
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The three spheres: ex.
i. The subject / actor / goer / perceiver / knower / acquirer / owner,
ii. The relation / action / going / perceiving / knowing / acquiring / having
iii. The object / result / destination / perceived / known / acquired / possessions / karma / 5 aggregates / body & speech & mind.
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Generalisations:
Whenever it is possible the comments of each section are expressed into a more global context. So they always cover more than just what is said in the various translations. The goal is to make the Big Picture more evident.
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Note: All comments within (i.e. …) or [...] are from the commentator (me), not the translators.)


[Back to Résumés of chapters 42-87]

69. AN EXPLANATION OF MEDITATION ON THE PATH – All bodhisattva practices should be done while being aware of the Union of the Two Truths about the three spheres – ex. subject / cause, relation / action / practicing / causality, object result / effect – [U2T-3S]; otherwise they turn into poisons. All practices should be done with a bodhicitta motivation.

(i.e. Résumé: 

"Furthermore, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings become absorbed in the first concentration,

up to become absorbed in the fourth concentration,

become absorbed in the immeasurables, up to and become absorbed in the formless absorptions,

but they do not get saddled with their maturation [in absolute terms].
(i.e. Bodhisattvas practice without practicing the six paramitas, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes. Thus more and more in accord with the inconceivable true nature of Reality as it is here & now, with the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths free from all extremes & middle [U2T].)

And why?

Because they are endowed with skillful means, those skillful means endowed with which

they understand that the concentrations, immeasurables, and formless absorptions [T1]

are empty of their own mark,

up to understand that they do not occasion anything [T2] [U2T].
(i.e. Clear realization about the true nature & dynamic of all dharmas: All dharmas are not really existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth -- for whatever 'this' is. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable, beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all defining limitations, beyond all conditioning / karma. They are appearing / conventional / relative, but still empty of inherent existence; they are empty of inherent existence [T2], but still conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S] in dependence of its conditioning / karma. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T].)


"Furthermore, Subhūti, even though, starting from the production of the first thought, bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom endowed with skillful means

travel the path to eliminate what seeing and meditation eliminate,

it does not cause them to reach the result of stream enterer,

and it does not cause them to reach the result of once-returner, the result of non-returner, or the state of a worthy one [in absolute terms].
(i.e. Bodhisattvas practice without practicing the six paramitas, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes. Thus more and more in accord with the inconceivable true nature of Reality as it is here & now, with the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths free from all extremes & middle [U2T].)

And why?

Because, even while practicing the dharmas on the side of awakening,

they understand that all dharmas [T1] are empty of their own mark [T2] [U2T]
(i.e. Clear realization about the true nature & dynamic of all dharmas: All dharmas are not really existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth -- for whatever 'this' is. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable, beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all defining limitations, beyond all conditioning / karma. They are appearing / conventional / relative, but still empty of inherent existence; they are empty of inherent existence [T2], but still conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S] in dependence of its conditioning / karma. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T].)

and pass beyond the śrāvaka and pratyekabuddha level.

Subhūti, this is the bodhisattva great beings' forbearance for the non-production of dharmas.


"Furthermore, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom

become absorbed in the eight deliverances, and become absorbed in the nine serial absorptions,

but do not reach the result of stream enterer, up to do not reach the state of a worthy one [in absolute terms].
(i.e. Bodhisattvas practice without practicing the six paramitas, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes. Thus more and more in accord with the inconceivable true nature of Reality as it is here & now, with the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths free from all extremes & middle [U2T].)

And why?

Because they understand all dharmas [F.26.a]

are empty of their own mark, up to and they understand that all dharmas do not occasion anything.
(i.e. Clear realization about the true nature & dynamic of all dharmas: All dharmas are not really existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth -- for whatever 'this' is. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable, beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all defining limitations, beyond all conditioning / karma. They are appearing / conventional / relative, but still empty of inherent existence; they are empty of inherent existence [T2], but still conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S] in dependence of its conditioning / karma. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T].)


"Furthermore, Subhūti,

bodhisattva great beings master the ten tathāgata powers, four fearlessnesses,

four detailed and thorough knowledges, and great compassion,

but still they do not reach the knowledge of all aspects until they have purified a buddhafield and brought beings to maturity [in absolute terms].
(i.e. Bodhisattvas practice without practicing the six paramitas, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes. Thus more and more in accord with the inconceivable true nature of Reality as it is here & now, with the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths free from all extremes & middle [U2T].)

Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings should practice the perfection of wisdom like that." [B47]


The Lord having said that, venerable Subhūti said to him,

"Lord, bodhisattva great beings who practice the deep dharmas like that but do not get saddled with their maturation [in absolute terms] are endowed with the finest awareness."
(i.e. Bodhisattvas practice without practicing the six paramitas, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes. Thus more and more in accord with the inconceivable true nature of Reality as it is here & now, with the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths free from all extremes & middle [U2T].)


Venerable Subhūti having said that, the Lord said to him,

"Exactly so, Subhūti, exactly so!

Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings who practice the deep dharmas like that but do not get saddled with their maturation [in absolute terms] are endowed with the finest awareness.
(i.e. Bodhisattvas practice without practicing the six paramitas, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes. Thus more and more in accord with the inconceivable true nature of Reality as it is here & now, with the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths free from all extremes & middle [U2T].)

And why?

Subhūti, it is because the bodhisattva great beings do not move from their intrinsic nature [U2T]." 678

"Lord, from which intrinsic nature do they not move?"


"Subhūti, they do not move from a non [inherently] existent thing [still appearing] [T1] [U2T]. 679
(i.e. They do not move from an awareness of the Union of the Two Truths about all dharmas [U2T] – while doing any type of actions of the body, speech and mind. An awareness free from all extremes & middle. Extremes like mere-emptiness / non-existence / nothingness / nihilism …)

-

(i.e. Clear realization: "They are not completely 'non-existent' either": All dharmas are not really existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth -- for whatever 'this' is. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable, beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all defining limitations, beyond all conditioning / karma. They are appearing / conventional / relative, but still empty of inherent existence; they are empty of inherent existence [T2], but still conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S] in dependence of its conditioning / karma. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T].)
(Note 679: "Here svabhāva (literally, "own-being") is rendered "intrinsic nature" and abhāva (literally, "no-being") "nonexistent thing." It means bodhisattvas do not move from what they intrinsically are, and intrinsically they are not anything at all.")

-

In regard to what you have said, Subhūti ‍—
'From which intrinsic nature do they not move?' ‍—

they do not move from the intrinsic nature [U2T] of form;

they do not move from the intrinsic nature [U2T] of feeling, perception, volitional factors, and consciousness;

they do not move from the intrinsic nature [U2T] of the perfection of giving, perfection of morality, perfection of patience, [F.26.b] perfection of perseverance, perfection of concentration, and perfection of wisdom;

they do not move from the intrinsic nature [U2T] of the concentrations, immeasurables, and formless absorptions;

they do not move from the intrinsic nature [U2T] of the applications of mindfulness, up to the eightfold noble path;

up to and they do not move from the intrinsic nature [U2T] of the emptiness meditative stabilization, signlessness meditative stabilization, and wishlessness meditative stabilization, and great compassion.

-

And why?

Subhūti, it is because the intrinsic nature [U2T] of these dharmas [T1]

is a non [inherently] existent [T2] thing [still appearing] [U2T].

-

Subhūti,

a non [inherently] existent [T2] thing [still appearing] [T1] [U2T]

cannot [inherently] fully awaken to

a non [inherently] existent [T2] thing [still appearing] [T1][U2T]."
(i.e. So there is no real awakening in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively. The subject / cause, relation / action / causality, object / effect cannot be inherently existent, completely non-existent, both together, neither. All sixty-four combinations are impossible. Meaning awakening is indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s).)

"Lord, can a non-existent thing fully awaken to an existent thing?"


"No, Subhūti."

"Lord, can an existent thing fully awaken to a non-existent thing?"680


"No, Subhūti."

"Lord, can a non-existent thing fully awaken to a non-existent thing?"


"No, Subhūti."

"Lord, can an existent thing fully awaken to an existent thing?"
(i.e. Clear realization: "They are not completely 'non-existent' either": All dharmas are not really existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth -- for whatever 'this' is. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable, beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all defining limitations, beyond all conditioning / karma. They are appearing / conventional / relative, but still empty of inherent existence; they are empty of inherent existence [T2], but still conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S] in dependence of its conditioning / karma. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T].)


"No, Subhūti."

"Lord, if a non-existent thing does not fully awaken to an existent thing,

an existent thing does not fully awaken to a non-existent thing,

a non-existent thing does not fully awaken to a non-existent thing,

and an existent thing does not fully awaken to an existent thing,

well then, wouldn't there be no attainment and no full awakening?"


"Subhūti, there is indeed a clear realization [T1], but it is not through this set of four productions [T2] [U2T]." [F.27.a]

"So then, Lord, what sort of thing is clear realization?"


"Seeing sameness, not like an existent thing and not like a non-existent thing either,

is clear realization

because it is without thought construction;

it is free from thought construction.

Clear realization is that sort of thing,

where those thought constructions [T1] do not exist [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T]." 681
(i.e. Clear realization: "They are not completely 'non-existent' either": All dharmas are not really existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth -- for whatever 'this' is. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable, beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all defining limitations, beyond all conditioning / karma. They are appearing / conventional / relative, but still empty of inherent existence; they are empty of inherent existence [T2], but still conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S] in dependence of its conditioning / karma. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T].)
(i.e. Thinking without thinking, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes. No thoughts in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / intersubjectively.).
(i.e. The Middle Way free from all extremes & middle: not accepting / affirming / seeking / doing anything in absolute terms, not rejecting / negating / abandoning / eliminating / not-doing anything in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively if it helps someone to get close the the inconceivable liberating Truth. Ex. Not rejecting / abandoning / eliminating / stopping all thoughts in absolute terms / all the time; but may be useful when starting to meditate.)

The Lord having said that, venerable Subhūti asked him,

"Lord, what is the bodhisattva great beings' thought construction [T1]?"
(i.e. Thinking without thinking, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes. No thoughts in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / intersubjectively.).
(i.e. The Middle Way free from all extremes & middle: not accepting / affirming / seeking / doing anything in absolute terms, not rejecting / negating / abandoning / eliminating / not-doing anything in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively if it helps someone to get close the the inconceivable liberating Truth. Ex. Not rejecting / abandoning / eliminating / stopping all thoughts in absolute terms / all the time; but may be useful when starting to meditate.)


"Subhūti,

'form is permanent' and 'impermanent' is the bodhisattva great beings' thought construction [T1];

'feeling . . . ,' 'perception . . . ,' 'volitional factors . . . ,' and 'consciousness is permanent' and 'impermanent' is the bodhisattva great beings' thought construction [T1].

'Form is happiness' and 'suffering' is the bodhisattva great beings' thought construction [T1];

'feeling . . . ,' 'perception . . . ,' 'volitional factors . . . ,' and 'consciousness is happiness' and 'suffering' is the bodhisattva great beings' thought construction [T1].

'Form has a self' and 'is selfless' is the bodhisattva great beings' thought construction [T1];

'feeling . . . ,' 'perception . . . ,' 'volitional factors . . . ,' and 'consciousness has a self' and 'is selfless' is the bodhisattva great beings' thought construction [T1].

'Form is calm' and 'not calm' is the bodhisattva great beings' thought construction [T1];

'feeling . . . ,' 'perception . . . ,' 'volitional factors . . . ,' and 'consciousness is calm' and 'not calm' is the bodhisattva great beings' thought construction [T1].

'Form has to be comprehended' and 'does not have to be comprehended' is the bodhisattva great beings' thought construction [T1];

'feeling . . . ,' 'perception . . . ,' 'volitional factors . . . ,' and 'consciousness has to be comprehended' and 'does not have to be comprehended' is the bodhisattva great beings' thought construction [T1].

'The noble truth of suffering has to be comprehended' is thought construction [T1];

'origination has to be abandoned' is thought construction [T1];

'cessation has to be actualized' [F.27.b] is thought construction [T1];

'the path has to be cultivated' is thought construction [T1];

'the four concentrations have to be cultivated' is thought construction [T1];

'the four immeasurables have to be cultivated' is thought construction [T1];

'the four formless absorptions have to be cultivated' is thought construction [T1];

'the four applications of mindfulness, four right efforts, four legs of miraculous power, five faculties, five powers, seven limbs of awakening, and eightfold noble path have to be cultivated' is thought construction [T1];

'the emptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness gateways to liberation have to be cultivated' is thought construction [T1];

'the eight deliverances and nine serial absorptions have to be cultivated' is thought construction [T1];

'I must pass beyond the result of stream enterer, the result of once-returner, the result of non-returner, the state of a worthy one, and a pratyekabuddha's awakening' is thought construction [T1];

'I must complete the ten bodhisattva levels' is thought construction [T1];

'I must enter into the secure state of a bodhisattva' is thought construction [T1];

'I must purify a buddhafield' is thought construction [T1];

'I must bring beings to maturity' is thought construction [T1];

'I must generate the ten tathāgata powers' is thought construction [T1];

'I must complete the four fearlessnesses, four detailed and thorough knowledges, and eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha' is thought construction [T1];

'I must gain the knowledge of all aspects' is thought construction [T1];

and 'I must eliminate all residual impression connections' is thought construction [T1].
(i.e. Thinking without thinking, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes. No thoughts in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / intersubjectively.).
(i.e. The Middle Way free from all extremes & middle: not accepting / affirming / seeking / doing anything in absolute terms, not rejecting / negating / abandoning / eliminating / not-doing anything in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively if it helps someone to get close the the inconceivable liberating Truth. Ex. Not rejecting / abandoning / eliminating / stopping all thoughts in absolute terms / all the time; but may be useful when starting to meditate.)


"Therefore, bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom

  • do not construct in thought [in absolute terms] what should not be constructed in thought.
    (i.e. No thought construction in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / intersubjectively. Using words / concepts / ideas / truths / views / methods / practices / goals / teaching ...thoughts, but without any attachment / fixation / absolutes, while being fully aware of their true nature & dynamic as it is [U2T].)

  • They do not construct in thought [in absolute terms] 'form is permanent or impermanent' that should not be constructed in thought;
    (i.e. No thought construction in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / intersubjectively. Using words / concepts / ideas / truths / views / methods / practices / goals / teaching ...thoughts, but without any attachment / fixation / absolutes, while being fully aware of their true nature & dynamic as it is [U2T].)

  • they do not construct in thought [in absolute terms] 'feeling, perception, volitional factors, or consciousness is permanent or impermanent' [F.28.a] that should not be constructed in thought;
    (i.e. No thought construction in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / intersubjectively. Using words / concepts / ideas / truths / views / methods / practices / goals / teaching ...thoughts, but without any attachment / fixation / absolutes, while being fully aware of their true nature & dynamic as it is [U2T].)

  • they do not construct in thought [in absolute terms] . . . , up to 'I must gain the knowledge of all aspects' that should not be constructed in thought.
    (i.e. No thought construction in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / intersubjectively. Using words / concepts / ideas / truths / views / methods / practices / goals / teaching ...thoughts, but without any attachment / fixation / absolutes, while being fully aware of their true nature & dynamic as it is [U2T].)
    (i.e. Thinking without thinking, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes. No thoughts in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / intersubjectively.).
    (i.e. The Middle Way free from all extremes & middle: not accepting / affirming / seeking / doing anything in absolute terms, not rejecting / negating / abandoning / eliminating / not-doing anything in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively if it helps someone to get close the the inconceivable liberating Truth. Ex. Not rejecting / abandoning / eliminating / stopping all thoughts in absolute terms / all the time; but may be useful when starting to meditate.)

And why?

Because something real does not concoct something unreal and

something unreal does not concoct something real, 682 and

you cannot apprehend, apart from something real and unreal,

something doing the concocting, something being concocted,

someone who does the concocting, and somewhere the concocting happens.


"Therefore, Subhūti,

  • form, up to the knowledge of all aspects is without [T2] thought construction [T1] [U2T].
    (i.e. No thought construction in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / intersubjectively. Using words / concepts / ideas / truths / views / methods / practices / goals / teaching ...thoughts, but without any attachment / fixation / absolutes, while being fully aware of their true nature & dynamic as it is [U2T].)

  • up to awakening is without [T2] thought construction [T1] [U2T].
    (i.e. No thought construction in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / intersubjectively. Using words / concepts / ideas / truths / views / methods / practices / goals / teaching ...thoughts, but without any attachment / fixation / absolutes, while being fully aware of their true nature & dynamic as it is [U2T].)

  • Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings should thus practice the perfection of wisdom
    without [T2] thought construction [T1] [U2T],"
    (i.e. No thought construction in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / intersubjectively. Using words / concepts / ideas / truths / views / methods / practices / goals / teaching ...thoughts, but without any attachment / fixation / absolutes, while being fully aware of their true nature & dynamic as it is [U2T].)
    (i.e. Thinking without thinking, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes. No thoughts in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / intersubjectively.).
    (i.e. The Middle Way free from all extremes & middle: not accepting / affirming / seeking / doing anything in absolute terms, not rejecting / negating / abandoning / eliminating / not-doing anything in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively if it helps someone to get close the the inconceivable liberating Truth. Ex. Not rejecting / abandoning / eliminating / stopping all thoughts in absolute terms / all the time; but may be useful when starting to meditate.)

"Lord, how do bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom see all dharmas without thought construction?" 683


Venerable Subhūti having asked that, the Lord said to him, "Subhūti,

there is no intrinsic nature [T2 ] of form, up to consciousness [T1]  [U2T],

up to there is no intrinsic nature [T2] of the knowledge of all aspects [T1] [U2T].

  • That which has no intrinsic nature [but still appearing] is without [T2] thought construction [T1] [U2T].
    (i.e. No thought construction in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / intersubjectively. Using words / concepts / ideas / truths / views / methods / practices / goals / teaching ...thoughts, but without any attachment / fixation / absolutes, while being fully aware of their true nature & dynamic as it is [U2T].)

  • For that reason, Subhūti, form . . . , up to consciousness is without [T2] thought construction [T1] [U2T].
    (i.e. No thought construction in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / intersubjectively. Using words / concepts / ideas / truths / views / methods / practices / goals / teaching ...thoughts, but without any attachment / fixation / absolutes, while being fully aware of their true nature & dynamic as it is [U2T].)

  • Similarly, connect this with each, up to the knowledge of all aspects is without [T2] thought construction [T1] [U2T].
    (i.e. No thought construction in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / intersubjectively. Using words / concepts / ideas / truths / views / methods / practices / goals / teaching ...thoughts, but without any attachment / fixation / absolutes, while being fully aware of their true nature & dynamic as it is [U2T].)
    (i.e. Thinking without thinking, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes. No thoughts in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / intersubjectively.).
    (i.e. The Middle Way free from all extremes & middle: not accepting / affirming / seeking / doing anything in absolute terms, not rejecting / negating / abandoning / eliminating / not-doing anything in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively if it helps someone to get close the the inconceivable liberating Truth. Ex. Not rejecting / abandoning / eliminating / stopping all thoughts in absolute terms / all the time; but may be useful when starting to meditate.)

Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom like that enter into the secure state of a bodhisattva."

The Lord having said that, venerable Subhūti asked him,

"Lord, if no [appearing] phenomenon [T1] at all can be apprehended as having an intrinsic nature [T2] [U2T],

on what path do bodhisattva great beings enter into the secure state of a bodhisattva ‍— on the śrāvaka path, or the pratyekabuddha path, or the buddha path?"


Venerable Subhūti having asked that, the Lord said to him, [F.28.b]

"Indeed, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings do not enter into the secure state of a bodhisattva on the śrāvaka path, or the pratyekabuddha path, or the buddha path, but still, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings enter into the secure state of a bodhisattva having trained on all paths.

To illustrate, Subhūti, worthy ones do indeed enter into the flawlessness that is a perfect state, having trained on all the paths, 684

but still, until they have produced the path's result they will not reach the result of a worthy one in a single instant of the path.

Similarly, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings also do indeed enter into the secure state of a bodhisattva having produced all the paths, but still, until they have reached the vajropama meditative stabilization they will not reach the knowledge of all aspects,

because they gain the knowledge of all aspects through the wisdom of the unique single instant."

The Lord having said that, venerable Subhūti inquired of him,

"Lord, if bodhisattva great beings enter into the secure state of a bodhisattva having completed all paths, in that case, Lord, given that the Aṣṭamaka path is different, the stream enterer path is different, the path of the candidate for once-returner is different, the once-returner path is different, the path of the candidate for non-returner is different, the non-returner path is different, the path of the candidate for worthy one is different, the worthy one path is different, the pratyekabuddha path is different, and the path of the tathāgata, worthy one, perfectly complete Buddha is different, well then, Lord, if all those paths are different from each other, how will bodhisattva great beings enter into the secure state of a bodhisattva [F.29.a] having completed all paths?

Lord, if bodhisattva great beings have to complete all paths to enter into the secure state of a bodhisattva,

would they not, having produced all paths, be an Aṣṭamaka;

would they not, having produced the path of seeing, be a stream enterer;

would they not, having produced the path of meditation, be a candidate for once-returner and a once returner;

up to would they not be a worthy one;

and would they not, having produced the pratyekabuddha path, be a pratyekabuddha?

Lord, there is no chance, it is impossible that bodhisattva great beings, having produced the Aṣṭamaka path, are an Aṣṭamaka,

or, having become an Aṣṭamaka enter into the secure state of a bodhisattva;

it is impossible for bodhisattva great beings to enter into the secure state of a bodhisattva and reach the knowledge of all aspects.

Similarly, it is impossible that bodhisattva great beings, having reached the result of stream enterer,

up to having reached the state of a worthy one or a pratyekabuddha's awakening,

enter into the secure state of a bodhisattva;

it is impossible for bodhisattva great beings to enter into the secure state of a bodhisattva and reach the knowledge of all aspects.

Given that it would be impossible for bodhisattva great beings to enter into the secure state of a bodhisattva and reach the knowledge of all aspects, how, Lord, are we to understand bodhisattva great beings entering into the secure state of a bodhisattva having completed all paths, and having entered into the secure state of a bodhisattva reaching the knowledge of all aspects and eliminating all residual impression connections?"


Venerable Subhūti having thus inquired, the Lord said to him,

"Exactly so, Subhūti, exactly so! Subhūti,

it is impossible for bodhisattva great beings to become an Aṣṭamaka, [F.29.b] to reach the result of stream enterer, and having produced all paths, 'enter into the secure state of a bodhisattva.'

There is no chance of it happening, it is impossible.

It is impossible that 'bodhisattva great beings enter into the secure state of a bodhisattva and gain the knowledge of all aspects.'

But still, Subhūti, starting from the production of the first thought,

bodhisattva great beings practicing the six perfections,

having beheld all eight levels, pass beyond them with knowledge and seeing.

What are the eight levels?

The exposition of the levels is this: namely, the Śuklavipaśyanā level, the Gotra level, the Aṣṭamaka level, the Darśana level, the Tanū level, the Vītarāga level, the Kṛtāvin level, and the Pratyekabuddha level.

Having passed beyond those eight levels with knowledge and seeing, they enter into the secure state of a bodhisattva.

Having entered into the secure state of a bodhisattva with the knowledge of a knower of all aspects,

they eliminate all afflictions, residual impressions, and connections.


"There, Subhūti, the knowledge of an Aṣṭamaka is a bodhisattva's forbearance; 685

the knowledge and abandonment of a stream enterer is a bodhisattva's forbearance;

the knowledge and abandonment of a once-returner is a bodhisattva's forbearance;

the knowledge and abandonment of a non-returner is a bodhisattva's forbearance;

the knowledge and abandonment of a worthy one is a bodhisattva's forbearance;

and the knowledge and abandonment of a pratyekabuddha is a bodhisattva's forbearance.

Having completed all those paths of all śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas enter into the secure state of a bodhisattva with the knowledge of a knower of path aspects, and having entered into the secure state of a bodhisattva, eliminate all afflictions, residual impressions, [F.30.a] and connections with the knowledge of a knower of all aspects.

Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings having completed all the paths should fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening,

and having fully awakened to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening, should be like fruit for all beings to live on."

The Lord having said that, venerable Subhūti asked him,

"Lord, which of these paths ‍— the śrāvaka path, the pratyekabuddha path, and the buddha path ‍— that the Lord has spoken about is this path of a knower of path aspects?"


"Subhūti," he replied, "on that bodhisattva great beings should produce a completely pure knowledge of path aspects.

Subhūti, there a completely pure knowledge of path aspects is this:

Whatever the attributes, whatever the reasons, and whatever the signs through which the knowledge of path aspects becomes completely pure, bodhisattva great beings should fully awaken to those attributes, those tokens, and those signs.

And, having fully awakened to them, in order to tame others they should also explain, expound, explicate, and make them known to others, and should establish others in them so that, one way or the other, others will understand.

On that bodhisattva great beings should accomplish vocalizations, conventional terms, and sounds with a pronunciation that makes them understood in the great billionfold world system, and they should accomplish those vocalizations, conventional terms, and sounds in order to make an echo-like understanding.

So, Subhūti, in this one of many ways, bodhisattva great beings should complete the knowledge of path aspects.

Having completed the knowledge of path aspects

they should know the aspirations of beings.

They should also know the path of beings in hell, [F.30.b] and

they should know the cause and should know the result as well.

They should cause them to turn back from the path to the hells, and they should cause them to turn back from the cause and should cause them to turn back from the result as well.

Similarly, they should also know the path of the kinnaras, mahoragas, nāgas, yakṣas, and humans, and

they should know the cause and should know the result as well.

They should also know the path of the gods, and

they should know the cause and should know the result as well.

They should also know the path of Brahmā, and

they should know the cause and should know the result as well.

They should also know the path of the Ābhāsvara, Śubhakṛtsna, Bṛhatphala, Asaṃjñin, Avṛha, Atapa, and Akaniṣṭha gods, and

they should know the cause and should know the result as well.

They should also know the path of the Ākāśānantyāyatana gods, and

they should know the cause and should know the result as well,

up to they should also know the path of the Naiva­saṃjñā­nāsaṃjñāyatana gods, and

they should know the cause and should know the result as well.

They should know the four applications of mindfulness,

should know the four right efforts,

should know the four legs of miraculous power,

should know the five faculties,

should know the five powers,

should know the seven limbs of awakening, and

they should know the eightfold noble path.

They should know the emptiness gateway to liberation,

should know the signlessness gateway to liberation, and

should know the wishlessness gateway to liberation.

They should know the ten tathāgata powers,

should know the four fearlessnesses,

should know the four detailed and thorough knowledges,

should know the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha, and

should know great compassion.

They establish by way of those paths the beings who should be established in the result of stream enterer [F.31.a] in the result of stream enterer, up to establish those who should be established in the state of a worthy one in the state of a worthy one, and establish those who should be established in a pratyekabuddha's awakening in a pratyekabuddha's awakening.

They establish those who should be established in awakening in awakening.

This, Subhūti, is the bodhisattva great beings' knowledge of path aspects.


"Having trained in this, bodhisattva great beings can become involved in the aspirations of beings.

Having become involved in their aspirations, they can teach the doctrine in such a way that one way or the other their doctrine-teachings do not get lost and are not in vain.

And why?

It is because they have a perfectly proportionate, perfect comprehension that knows the higher and lower faculties of others, and they know the goings and comings and deaths and rebirths of beings as they actually are.


"Subhūti, those dharmas on the side of awakening in which bodhisattva great beings should train,

and the paths in which the śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas should train,

are all included within this perfection of wisdom,

so bodhisattva great beings should train in the perfection of wisdom."

The Lord having said that, venerable Subhūti asked him,

"Lord, if those dharmas ‍— the dharmas on the side of awakening and the awakening ‍— are not conjoined and not disjoined, are formless, cannot be pointed out, do not obstruct, and have only one mark ‍— namely, no mark ‍— how, Lord, will the dharmas on the side of awakening be those that bring about awakening?

Lord, dharmas that are not conjoined and not disjoined, are formless, cannot be pointed out, do not obstruct, and have only one mark ‍— namely, no mark ‍— do not bring about or take away any dharma [F.31.b] at all.

To illustrate, Lord, space does not bring about and does not take away any dharma.

Similarly, Lord, all dharmas are empty of their own marks and do not bring about and do not take away any dharma at all."


"Exactly so, Subhūti, exactly so!" he replied. "Subhūti, dharmas empty of their own marks do not bring about or take away any dharma at all. Subhūti, the teaching that 'the dharmas on the side of awakening bring about awakening' is for those beings who do not know that dharmas are empty of their own marks.


"Furthermore, Subhūti, form, feeling, perception, volitional factors, and consciousness; the perfection of giving, up to the perfection of wisdom; inner emptiness, outer emptiness, up to the emptiness of its own mark; the first concentration, up to the Naiva­saṃjñā­nāsaṃjñāyatana absorption; the applications of mindfulness, up to the eightfold noble path; the three gateways to liberation, the eight deliverances, the nine serial absorptions, up to the ten tathāgata powers, four fearlessnesses, four detailed and thorough knowledges, and eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha; great compassion; up to the knowledge of all aspects ‍— all those dharmas in the noble Dharma and Vinaya ‍— are not conjoined and not disjoined, are formless, cannot be pointed out, do not obstruct, and have only one mark ‍— namely, no mark.

The Tathāgata, in order to take care of all beings, [F.32.a] uses them as labeled by ordinary convention: conventionally, but not ultimately.

Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings should train in them all by knowing and seeing them.

Having trained in them as they really are by knowing and seeing them, they should realize some and not realize others."

"Lord, what are the dharmas bodhisattva great beings should realize, having trained in them by knowing and seeing, and what are the dharmas they should not realize?"


"Subhūti, they are not those that śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas have to realize by knowing and seeing.

They are all dharmas that have to be fully realized with the knowledge of a knower of all aspects.

It is thus, Subhūti, that bodhisattva great beings should train in this noble Dharma and Vinaya perfection of wisdom."

The Lord having said that, venerable Subhūti asked him,

"Lord, you say 'noble Dharma and Vinaya' again and again. Lord, what is the noble Dharma and Vinaya? Lord, to what extent does one say something is 'the noble Dharma and Vinaya'?"


Venerable Subhūti having asked that, the Lord said to him, "Subhūti, here śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, and tathāgatas, worthy ones, perfectly complete buddhas are not conjoined with and are not disjoined from greed, are not conjoined with and are not disjoined from hatred, are not conjoined with and are not disjoined from confusion, are not conjoined with and are not disjoined from the view of the perishable collection, are not conjoined with and are not disjoined from doubt, are not conjoined with and are not disjoined from grasping rules and rituals as absolute, [F.32.b] are not conjoined with and are not disjoined from attachment to sense objects, are not conjoined with and are not disjoined from malice, are not conjoined with and are not disjoined from attachment to forms, are not conjoined with and are not disjoined from attachment to formless states, are not conjoined with and are not disjoined from ignorance, are not conjoined with and are not disjoined from gross mental excitement, are not conjoined with and are not disjoined from the first concentration, up to are not conjoined with and are not disjoined from the fourth concentration, are not conjoined with and are not disjoined from love, are not conjoined with and are not disjoined from compassion, are not conjoined with and are not disjoined from joy, are not conjoined with and are not disjoined from equanimity, up to and are not conjoined with and are not disjoined from the station of neither perception nor non-perception. They are not conjoined with and are not disjoined from the compounded element or the uncompounded element.


"And why?

Because all those dharmas are formless, cannot be pointed out, do not obstruct, and have only one mark ‍— namely, no mark. Those that are formless are not conjoined with and are not disjoined from the formless. Those that cannot be pointed out are not conjoined with and are not disjoined from ones that cannot be pointed out. Those that do not obstruct are not conjoined with and are not disjoined from ones that do not obstruct. Those that have only one mark are not conjoined with and are not disjoined from ones that have only one mark; and those that have no mark are not conjoined with and are not disjoined from ones that have no mark. Subhūti, thus this perfection of wisdom of the bodhisattva great beings in which bodhisattva great beings have to train has only one mark ‍— namely, no mark. [F.33.a] It is formless, cannot be pointed out, and does not obstruct, and while training in it they do not apprehend a mark of 686 any dharma at all."

The Lord having said that, venerable Subhūti asked him,

"Lord, they should not train in the mark of form, and they should not train in the mark of feeling, perception, volitional factors, or consciousness; they should not train in the mark of the eyes, and they should not train in the mark of the ears, nose, tongue, body, or thinking mind; they should not train in the mark of a form, and they should not train in the mark of a sound, a smell, a taste, a feeling, or dharmas; they should not train in the mark of the earth element, and they should not train in the mark of the water element, fire element, wind element, space element, or consciousness element; they should not train in the mark of the perfection of giving, and they should not train in the mark of the perfection of morality, perfection of patience, perfection of perseverance, perfection of concentration, or perfection of wisdom; they should not train in the mark of inner emptiness, up to and they should not train in the mark of the emptiness that is the non-existence of an intrinsic nature; they should not train in the mark of the first concentration, up to and they should not train in the mark of the fourth concentration; they should not train in the mark of love, and they should not train in the mark of compassion, joy, or equanimity; they should not train in the mark of the station of endless space, up to and they should not train in the mark of the station of neither perception nor non-perception; they should not train in the mark of the four applications of mindfulness, up to and they should not train in the mark of the eightfold noble path; they should not train in the mark of the emptiness meditative stabilization, signlessness meditative stabilization, or wishlessness meditative stabilization; they should not train in the mark of the absorptions [F.33.b] in the gateways to liberation; they should not train in the mark of the ten tathāgata powers, they should not train in the mark of the four fearlessnesses, they should not train in the mark of the four detailed and thorough knowledges, they should not train in the mark of the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha, and they should not train in the mark of great compassion; they should not train in the mark of the truth of suffering, and they should not train in the mark of the truth of origination, cessation, or noble path; they should not train in the mark of dependent origination in the order in which it unfolds and in the order in which it does not unfold; they should not train in the mark of the compounded element, and they should not train in the mark of the uncompounded element? Lord, if they should not train in the marks of those dharmas, and should not train in the mark of the compounded, how, Lord, without having trained in the mark of dharmas and the mark of volitional factors will a bodhisattva great being transcend the śrāvaka and pratyekabuddha levels? How, even without having transcended the śrāvaka and pratyekabuddha levels, will they enter into the secure state of a bodhisattva? How, even without having entered into the secure state of a bodhisattva, will they gain the knowledge of all aspects? How, even without having gained the knowledge of all aspects, will they turn the wheel of the Dharma? And how, even without having turned the wheel of the Dharma, will they release beings in the Śrāvaka Vehicle, or in the Pratyekabuddha Vehicle, or in the Great Vehicle from saṃsāra?"


Venerable Subhūti having asked that, the Lord said to him, "Subhūti, were there to be a mark of any dharma, bodhisattva great beings would have to train in that mark. But, Subhūti, because all dharmas have no mark, are formless, [F.34.a] cannot be pointed out, and do not obstruct, and thus have only one mark ‍— namely, no mark ‍— therefore bodhisattva great beings should not train in those marks; they should not even train in the unmarked.

And why?

Subhūti, it is not because those earlier with marks later become unmarked. It is because, even earlier, Subhūti, they were unmarked and now, too, they are unmarked, so bodhisattva great beings should therefore not train in marks, and should not train in the unmarked either.

And why?

Subhūti, it is because whether the tathāgatas arise or whether the tathāgatas do not arise, the element of marks simply remains." 687

The Lord having said that, venerable Subhūti further inquired of him,

"Lord, if all dharmas are unmarked, do not have various marks, and do not have even one mark, how, Lord, will bodhisattva great beings meditate on the perfection of wisdom? Lord, without meditating on the perfection of wisdom bodhisattva great beings will not be able to transcend the śrāvaka and pratyekabuddha levels. Without having transcended the śrāvaka and pratyekabuddha levels, bodhisattva great beings also will not be able to enter into the secure state of a bodhisattva, and without having entered into the secure state of a bodhisattva great being, also will not be able to produce forbearance for the non-production of dharmas. Without having produced forbearance for the non-production of dharmas, they will not be able to produce clairvoyance, and without having produced clairvoyance, bodhisattva great beings will not be able to purify a buddhafield and bring beings to maturity. [F.34.b] Without having purified a buddhafield and brought beings to maturity, bodhisattva great beings will not be able to gain the knowledge of all aspects, and without having gained the knowledge of all aspects, they will not be able to turn the wheel of the Dharma. Without having turned the wheel of the Dharma, they will not be able to establish beings in the result of stream enterer, will not be able to establish beings in the result of once-returner, will not be able to establish beings in the result of non-returner, will not be able to establish beings in the state of a worthy one, will not be able to establish beings in a pratyekabuddha's awakening, and will not be able to establish beings in unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening. They will not be able to establish beings in the bases of meritorious action arisen from giving, will not be able to establish beings in the bases of meritorious action arisen from morality, and will not be able to establish beings in the bases of meritorious action arisen from meditation."


Venerable Subhūti having said that, the Lord said to him, "Exactly so, Subhūti, exactly so! Subhūti, all dharmas are unmarked, do not have various marks, and do not have even one mark, so, Subhūti, meditation on the unmarked is meditation on the bodhisattva great beings' perfection of wisdom."

"Lord, in what way is meditation on the unmarked, meditation on the perfection of wisdom?"


"Subhūti, the disintegration of meditation on all dharmas is meditation on the perfection of wisdom."

"Lord, how is the disintegration of meditation on all dharmas, meditation on the perfection of wisdom?"


"The disintegration of meditation on form is meditation on the perfection of wisdom, and

the disintegration of meditation [F.35.a] on feeling, perception, volitional factors, and consciousness is meditation on the perfection of wisdom;

the disintegration of meditation on the eyes is meditation on the perfection of wisdom, and

the disintegration of meditation on the ears, nose, tongue, body, and thinking mind is meditation on the perfection of wisdom;

the disintegration of meditation on a form is meditation on the perfection of wisdom, and

the disintegration of meditation on a sound, a smell, a taste, a feeling, and dharmas is meditation on the perfection of wisdom;

the disintegration of meditation on something accepted is meditation on the perfection of wisdom, and

the disintegration of meditation on something rejected is meditation on the perfection of wisdom;

the disintegration of meditation on the first concentration is meditation on the perfection of wisdom, and

the disintegration of meditation on the second, third, and fourth concentration is meditation on the perfection of wisdom;

the disintegration of meditation on love is meditation on the perfection of wisdom, and

the disintegration of meditation on compassion, joy, and equanimity is meditation on the perfection of wisdom;

the disintegration of meditation on the station of endless space is meditation on the perfection of wisdom,

the disintegration of meditation on the station of endless consciousness is meditation on the perfection of wisdom,

the disintegration of meditation on the station of nothing-at-all is meditation on the perfection of wisdom, and

the disintegration of meditation on the station of neither perception nor non-perception is meditation on the perfection of wisdom;

the disintegration of meditation on mindfulness of the Buddha is meditation on the perfection of wisdom, and

the disintegration of meditation on mindfulness of the Dharma, mindfulness of the Saṅgha, mindfulness of morality, mindfulness of giving away, mindfulness of the gods, mindfulness of disgust, mindfulness of breathing in and out, mindfulness of death, and mindfulness of what is included in the body [F.35.b] is meditation on the perfection of wisdom;

the disintegration of meditation on the idea of impermanence, the idea of suffering, and the idea of selflessness is meditation on the perfection of wisdom;

the disintegration of meditation on dependent origination is meditation on the perfection of wisdom;

the disintegration of meditation on the idea of self is meditation on the perfection of wisdom, and

the disintegration of meditation on the idea of a being, the idea of a living being, the idea of a creature, the idea of one born of Manu, the idea of a child of Manu, the idea of one who lives, the idea of person, the idea of one who does, and the idea of one who makes someone else do is meditation on the perfection of wisdom;

the disintegration of meditation on the idea of permanence, the idea of beauty, the idea of happiness, and the idea of self is meditation on the perfection of wisdom;

the disintegration of meditation on the applications of mindfulness is meditation on the perfection of wisdom, and

the disintegration of meditation on the right efforts, legs of miraculous power, faculties, powers, seven limbs of awakening, and eightfold noble path is meditation on the perfection of wisdom;

the disintegration of meditation on the emptiness meditative stabilization is meditation on the perfection of wisdom,

the disintegration of meditation on the signlessness meditative stabilization is meditation on the perfection of wisdom, and the disintegration of meditation on the wishlessness meditative stabilization is meditation on the perfection of wisdom;

the disintegration of meditation on the eight deliverances is meditation on the perfection of wisdom;

the disintegration of meditation on the nine serial absorptions is meditation on the perfection of wisdom;

the disintegration of meditation on the meditative stabilization [F.36.a] with applied and sustained thought, and the meditative stabilization without either applied or sustained thought is meditation on the perfection of wisdom;

the disintegration of meditation on the noble truth of suffering is meditation on the perfection of wisdom, and

the disintegration of meditation on the noble truth of origination, cessation, and the path is meditation on the perfection of wisdom;

the disintegration of meditation on knowledge of suffering is meditation on the perfection of wisdom,

the disintegration of meditation on knowledge of origination is meditation on the perfection of wisdom,

the disintegration of meditation on knowledge of cessation is meditation on the perfection of wisdom, and

the disintegration of meditation on knowledge of the path is meditation on the perfection of wisdom;

the disintegration of meditation on knowledge of extinction is meditation on the perfection of wisdom,

the disintegration of meditation on knowledge of non-production is meditation on the perfection of wisdom,

the disintegration of meditation on knowledge of dharma is meditation on the perfection of wisdom,

the disintegration of meditation on knowledge of subsequent realization is meditation on the perfection of wisdom,

the disintegration of meditation on conventional knowledge is meditation on the perfection of wisdom,

the disintegration of meditation on knowledge of mastery is meditation on the perfection of wisdom, and

the disintegration of meditation on knowledge in accord with sound is meditation on the perfection of wisdom;

the disintegration of meditation on the perfection of giving is meditation on the perfection of wisdom, and

the disintegration of meditation on the perfection of morality, perfection of patience, perfection of perseverance, perfection of concentration, and perfection of wisdom is meditation on the perfection of wisdom;

the disintegration of meditation on inner emptiness, outer emptiness, inner and outer emptiness, the emptiness of emptiness, great emptiness, the emptiness of ultimate reality, [F.36.b] and similarly, connect this with each, up to the emptiness that is the non-existence of an intrinsic nature is meditation on the perfection of wisdom;

the disintegration of meditation on the ten tathāgata powers is meditation on the perfection of wisdom,

the disintegration of meditation on the four fearlessnesses is meditation on the perfection of wisdom,

the disintegration of meditation on the four detailed and thorough knowledges is meditation on the perfection of wisdom,

the disintegration of meditation on the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha is meditation on the perfection of wisdom, and

the disintegration of meditation on great compassion is meditation on the perfection of wisdom;

the disintegration of meditation on the result of stream enterer is meditation on the perfection of wisdom,

the disintegration of meditation on the result of once-returner, the result of non-returner, and the state of a worthy one is meditation on the perfection of wisdom, and

the disintegration of meditation on a pratyekabuddha's awakening is meditation on the perfection of wisdom;

the disintegration of meditation on the knowledge of all aspects is meditation on the perfection of wisdom;

and

the disintegration of meditation on the abandonment of all residual impression connections is meditation on the perfection of wisdom."

The Lord having said that, venerable Subhūti asked the Lord,

"Lord, how is the disintegration of meditation on form, meditation on the perfection of wisdom; and similarly, up to how is the disintegration of meditation on the abandonment of all residual impression connections, meditation on the perfection of wisdom?"


Venerable Subhūti having asked that, the Lord said to him,

"Subhūti, here bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom

do not meditate on 'form is an existent thing,'

and do not meditate on 'feeling, perception, volitional factors, or consciousness [F.37.a] is an existent thing.'

And why?

Subhūti, it is

because someone with the notion of an existent thing is not meditating on the perfection of wisdom.

Similarly, connect this with each, up to it is

because someone with the notion that the knowledge of all aspects is an existent thing is not meditating on the perfection of wisdom.


"They do not meditate on 'greed, hatred, or confusion is an existent thing.'

They do not meditate on 'a bad proclivity or a snare is an existent thing.'

And why?

Subhūti, it is because for someone with the notion of an existent thing there is no meditation on the perfection of giving, and no meditation on the perfection of morality, perfection of patience, perfection of perseverance, perfection of concentration, or perfection of wisdom.

And why?

Subhūti, it is because they are attached to an existent thing.

But they do not get attached to giving, morality, patience, perseverance, concentration, or wisdom.

There is no liberation for someone attached to the two extremes, thinking 'this is me,' in reference to an existent thing.

Subhūti, someone with the notion of an existent thing is not meditating on the applications of mindfulness;

is not meditating on the right efforts, legs of miraculous power, faculties, powers, limbs of awakening, or path; is not meditating on emptiness; and is not meditating on signlessness or wishlessness.

Similarly, connect this with each, up to is not meditating on the knowledge of all aspects.

And why?

Subhūti, it is because they are attached to an existent thing."

The Lord having said that, venerable Subhūti asked him,

"Lord, what is an existent thing?

What is a non-existent thing?"


"Subhūti," replied the Lord,

"an existent thing is duality;

a non-existent thing is non-duality."
(i.e. Clear realization: "They are not completely 'non-existent' either": All dharmas are not really existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth -- for whatever 'this' is. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable, beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all defining limitations, beyond all conditioning / karma. They are appearing / conventional / relative, but still empty of inherent existence; they are empty of inherent existence [T2], but still conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S] in dependence of its conditioning / karma. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T].)

"Lord, what is duality?"


"Subhūti, the perception of form is a duality,

the perception [F.37.b] of feeling, perception, and volitional factors is a duality,

and the perception of consciousness is a duality;

the perception of the eyes, up to the perception of thinking mind is a duality;

the perception of a form, up to the perception of dharmas is a duality;

and similarly, connect this with each, up to the perception of buddha, the perception of awakening, the perception of a compounded element, the perception of an uncompounded element, and all perceptions, as many as there are, and non-perceptions, as many as there are, they are all duality.

To the extent there is duality, to that extent there is an existent thing.

To the extent there is an existent thing, to that extent there are volitional factors.

To the extent there are volitional factors, to that extent beings are not free from birth, old age, sickness, death, pain, lamentation, suffering, mental anguish, and grief.

In this way, Subhūti, you should know that for someone with dualistic perception there is no giving, there is no morality, there is no patience, there is no perseverance, there is no concentration, there is no wisdom, there is no path, and there is no clear realization.

Given that there is not even the patience that arises in a natural order, 688 how could there ever be the comprehension of form,

up to the comprehension of consciousness,

and similarly, also connect this with each, up to the knowledge of all aspects.

How could there be, for someone for whom there is no meditation on the path, the result of stream enterer, up to the state of a worthy one, a pratyekabuddha's awakening, and the abandonment of all residual impression connections?"


This was the sixty-ninth chapter, "An Explanation of Meditation on the Path," of "The Perfection of Wisdom in Eighteen Thousand Lines."




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  1. Chapter 0 – Introduction to the Sutra

  2. Chapter 1 – Introduction / the Assembly

  3. Chapter 2 – Production of the Thought

  4. Chapter 3 – designation [U2T]

  5. Chapter 4 – Equal to the Unequal

  6. Chapter 5 – Tongue

  7. Chapter 6 – Subhūti

  8. Chapter 7 – Entry into flawlessness

  9. Chapter 8 – The Religious Mendicant Śreṇika

  10. Chapter 9 – Causal Signs

  11. Chapter 10 – Illusion-like

  12. Chapter 11 – Embarrassment

  13. Chapter 12 – Elimination of Views

  14. Chapter 13 – The Six Perfections

  15. Chapter 14 – Neither Bound nor Freed

  16. Chapter 15 – Meditative Stabilization

  17. Chapter 16 – Dhāraṇī Gateway

  18. Chapter 17 – Level Purification

  19. Chapter 18 – The Exposition of Going Forth in the Great Vehicle [cause / path]

  20. Chapter 19 – Surpassing

  21. Chapter 20 – Not Two

  22. Chapter 21 – Subhūti

  23. Chapter 22 – Śatakratu

  24. Chapter 23 – Hard to Understand

  25. Chapter 24 – Unlimited

  26. Chapter 25 – Second Śatakratu

  27. Chapter 26 – Getting Old

  28. Chapter 27 – Reliquary

  29. Chapter 28 – Declaration of the Good Qualities of the Thought of Awakening

  30. Chapter 29 – Different Tīrthika Religious Mendicants

  31. Chapter 30 – The Benefits of Taking Up and Adoration

  32. Chapter 31 – Physical Remains

  33. Chapter 32 – The Superiority of Merit

  34. Chapter 33 – Dedication

  35. Chapter 34 – Perfect Praise of the Quality of Accomplishment

  36. Chapter 35 – Hells

  37. Chapter 36 – Teaching The Purity of all Dharmas

  38. Chapter 37 – Nobody

  39. Chapter 38 – Cannot Be Apprehended

  40. Chapter 39 – The Northern Region

  41. Chapter 40 – The Work of Māra

  42. Chapter 41 – Not Complete Because of Māra

  43. Chapter 42 – Revealing the World

  44. Chapter 43 – Inconceivable

  45. Chapter 44 – Made Up

  46. Chapter 45 – A Boat

  47. Chapter 46 – Teaching the Intrinsic Nature of All Dharmas

  48. Chapter 47 – Taming Greed

  49. Chapter 48 – A Presentation of the Bodhisattvas' Training

  50. Chapter 49 – Irreversibility

  51. Chapter 50 – Teaching the Signs of Irreversibility

  52. Chapter 51 – Skillful means

  53. Chapter 52 – Completion of the Means

  54. Chapter 53 – The Prophecy about Gaṅgadevī

  55. Chapter 54 – Teaching the Cultivation of Skillful Means

  56. Chapter 55 – Teaching the Stopping of Thought Construction [in absolute terms]

  57. Chapter 56 – Equal Training

  58. Chapter 57 – Practice

  59. Chapter 58 – Exposition of the Absence of Thought Construction [in absolute terms]

  60. Chapter 59 – non-attachment

  61. Chapter 60 – Entrusting

  62. Chapter 61 – Inexhaustible

  63. Chapter 62 – Leaping Above Absorption

  64. Chapter 63 – Many Inquiries about the Two Dharmas

  65. Chapter 64 – Perfectly Displayed

  66. Chapter 65 – Worshiping, Serving, and Attending on Spiritual Friends as Skillful Means

  67. Chapter 66 – A Demonstration of Skillful Means

  68. Chapter 67 – Morality

  69. Chapter 68 – Growing and Flourishing

  70. Chapter 69 – An Explanation of Meditation on The Path

  71. Chapter 70 – An Explanation of Serial Action, Training, and Practice

  72. Chapter 71 – The True Nature of Dharmas That Cannot Be Apprehended

  73. Chapter 72 – Teaching the Absence of Marks

  74. Chapter 73 – Exposition of the Major Marks and Minor Signs and the Completion of Letters

  75. Chapter 74 – Exposition of the Sameness of Dharmas

  76. Chapter 75 – Exposition of non-complication –

  77. Chapter 76 – The Armor for Bringing Beings to Maturity

  78. Chapter 77 – Teaching the Purification of a Buddhafield

  79. Chapter 78 – Teaching the Skillful Means for the Purification of a Buddhafield

  80. Chapter 79 – Teaching the non- Existence of an Intrinsic Nature

  81. Chapter 80 – Teaching that there is No Defilement or Purification

  82. Chapter 81 – Yogic Practice of the Ultimate

  83. Chapter 82 – The Unchanging True Nature of Dharmas

  84. Chapter 83 – Categorization of a Bodhisattva's Training

  85. Chapter 84 – Collection

  86. Chapter 85 – Sadāprarudita

  87. Chapter 86 – Dharmodgata

  88. Chapter 87 – Entrusting

  89. Résumés in bullet points of all chapters.




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