Thursday, June 16, 2022

Prajnaparamita-18K - Chapter 55 - Teaching the Stopping of Thought Construction - 355

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The Transcendent Perfection of Wisdom
in Eighteen Thousand Lines - 355
Daśa­sāhasrikā­prajñā­pāramitā

– Chapter 55 - The perfection of wisdom is beyond all conditioning / karma –

Source: https://read.84000.co/translation/toh10.html

More Analysis of Mahayana Sutras : https://www.gilehtblog.com/2022/07/toc-400.html

[Note: The two truths are:
T1: conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means, merely labeled / imputed / imagined / created by the mind in dependence of its conditioning / karma (in cycle), not completely non-existence;
T2: emptiness of inherent existence, not real existence;
U2T: those two truths, like any other pair of apparent opposites, are inseparable, interdependent, co-defined, co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing / co-transcended, in harmony, in 'Union' <==> thus empty of inherent existence.
They are tools to help us to get to the 'inconceivable' by refuting what 'Reality as it is' is not:
all extreme views like: existence / dharma / causality / functionality, non-existence / non-dharma / non-causality / non-functionality, both together, neither; difference / manyness / diversity / duality, identity / oneness / sameness / non-duality, both together, neither; permanence / continuity / eternity, impermanence / discontinuity / annihilation, both together, neither; individuality, collectivity, universality, a combination of those, none of those; subjectivity, relation / action / process, objectivity, a combination of those, none of those; the 1st truth alone / dependent origination [T1], the 2nd truth alone / mere-emptiness [T2], both two truths together as if different and in opposition [2T], neither of the two truths as if identical and one [1T,]; 'this', 'non-this', both together, neither – for whatever 'this' is.
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The three spheres: ex.
i. The subject / actor / goer / perceiver / knower / acquirer / owner,
ii. The relation / action / going / perceiving / knowing / acquiring / having
iii. The object / result / destination / perceived / known / acquired / possessions / karma / 5 aggregates / body & speech & mind.
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Generalisations:
Whenever it is possible the comments of each section are expressed into a more global context. So they always cover more than just what is said in the various translations. The goal is to make the Big Picture more evident.
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Note: All comments within (i.e. …) or [...] are from the commentator (me), not the translators.)


[Back to Résumés of chapters 42-87]

55. TEACHING THE STOPPING [TRANSCENDENCE] OF THOUGHT CONSTRUCTION – The perfection of wisdom is beyond all conditioning / karma.

(i.e. Résumé: The perfection of wisdom is beyond all conditioning / karma, all activities, all thought construction.
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Bodhisattvas' isolation is not merely about physical isolation in jungle, upland forest, and frontier retreats.
Bodhisattvas should be isolated from attention connected with śrāvakas,
isolated from attention connected with pratyekabuddhas.
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Bodhisattvas should not produce a thought with a false sense of superiority over other bodhisattvas because of their physical isolation, or because of a false sense of irreversibility.
Bodhisattvas should worship, rely on, and serve true spiritual friends: the thirty-seven dharmas on the side of awakening that are the teacher, father and mother, resting place and protector, island, refuge, and final ally of the bodhisattvas.
Bodhisattvas should train in this perfection of wisdom, because in this perfection of wisdom are taught in detail those dharmas in which bodhisattva great beings have to train.
Bodhisattvas should keep on paying attention without paying attention to the perfection of wisdom, keep on paying attention to the knowledge of all aspects, without apprehending anything, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes.
Why? Because all dharmas – including the three spheres, apparent opposites, the two truths, even the perfection of wisdom – are all empty of inherent existence [T1] <==> because dependently co-arisen / interdependent [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S].
Thus everything is not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither – for whatever 'this' is [Uopp].
Ex. Not existent, not non-existent…; not different, not identical…; not many, not one…; not inferior, not superior…; not defiled, not purified…; not bounded, not freed…; nor objective, not subjective…; not dependent, not independent…; not empty, not non-empty…; not isolated, not non-isolated…; not pure / perfect, not impure / imperfect…; not enlightened, not non-enlightened…; etc. …
Nothing really arises, exists, changes, becomes more or less, or ceases.
There is no independent / universal / absolute / inherently existing basis for any discrimination / differentiation / ranking in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively.
There is nothing to accept, nothing to reject, nothing to change / improve / purify in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively.
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Bodhisattvas who stays with attention connected to the perfection of wisdom and speaks about, teaches, expounds, advances, goes into detail about, explains, makes clear, and perfectly illuminates it for others will create an immeasurable / inconceivable amount of merit.
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"The perfection of wisdom is without thought construction [in absolute terms]." Meaning the perfection of wisdom is indescribable / inconceivable, beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all defining limitations, beyond all conditioning karma. And 'beyond / transcendence' doesn't mean we have to reject / negate / abandon / eliminate / stop all thinking / conceptualisation / differentiation / activities of the body speech and mind in absolute terms; but just that we have to be fully aware of their true nature & dynamic as it is while using them as mere tools / adapted skillful means, using them without apprehending anything, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes.
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It is not about rejecting / negating / abandoning / eliminating / not-doing all thinking in absolute terms, as if thoughts were inherently existing with inherently existing characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / signs such as 'evilness / badness'. That is dualistic thinking. It is about personally spontaneously non-dualistically non-conceptually directly perceiving / realising / experiencing their true nature & dynamic as it is here & now. Knowing their true nature & dynamic is enough to become free from them in the sense of not ebing fooled by them, not grasping them, not getting attached to them, not being slaves to them. No need to reject / negate / eliminate them. The relative and absolute are inseparable; it is not about accepting one truth while rejecting the other [U2T]. Apparent opposites are not really in opposition [Uopp]. Movement and rest are in Union.)

"Furthermore, 581 Subhūti,

  • if the śrāvaka level or pratyekabuddha level or the three realms do not retain any attraction for bodhisattva great beings even in dreams, and
    if they do not entertain the thought that they are of benefit,
    if they see all dharmas like a dream, see all dharmas like an echo, like a mirage, and like a magical creation
    and still do not actualize the very limit of reality, 582
    you should know, Subhūti, that too is a sign that irreversible bodhisattva great beings are irreversible from awakening.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, if in a dream bodhisattva great beings see a tathāgata‍ — a tathāgata, worthy one, perfectly complete buddha teaching the Dharma at the head of, and surrounded by, a retinue of many hundreds, a retinue of many thousands, a retinue of many hundreds of thousands, a retinue of many hundreds of thousands of one hundred million billion monks and nuns, laymen and laywomen, gods, nāgas, yakṣas, gandharvas, asuras, garuḍas, kinnaras, and mahoragas‍ — and if, having listened to that Dharma, thinking, 'I must understand the meaning of that Dharma,' they live having set out in the Dharma in full conformity with the Dharma, having set out in total conformity, putting into practice the Dharma in its totality,
    you should know, Subhūti, that too is a sign that irreversible bodhisattva great beings are irreversible.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, if in a dream bodhisattva great beings see a tathāgata with the thirty-two major marks of a great person, with a halo extending the length of his outstretched arms, rise up and teach the Dharma to the community of monks while suspended in the sky, and see that tathāgata demonstrate the miracle of miraculous power, magically create magical creations, and with those magical creations do the buddha's work in other world systems,
    you should know, Subhūti, that too is a sign that irreversible bodhisattva great beings are irreversible.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, if in a dream bodhisattva great beings see a settlement wiped out or a village wiped out, or burned by fire; or see poisonous wild animals; or see other types of enraged wild animals; or see those on the verge of decapitation; or see other hazards and terrors; or see suffering, mental anguish, and grief; or see the dread of thirst; or see the dread of hunger; or see the death of a mother; or see the death of a father; or see the death of a brother; or see the death of a sister; or see the death of a friend, a counselor, 583 a kinsman, or a blood relative, and they have no pain, fear, trembling, or terror‍ — if they do not tremble, feel frightened, or become terrified and if, on waking after dreaming that dream, they think, 'Hey! All these three realms are like a dream, so having fully awakened to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening, I will teach the doctrine that all the phenomena in the three realms are like a dream'‍
    then you should know, Subhūti, that too is a sign that irreversible bodhisattva great beings are irreversible.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, how do you know that when irreversible bodhisattva great beings have fully awakened to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening these three terrible forms of life will not occur as anything at all, in any way at all, in their buddhafields?
    Subhūti, you do if in a dream the bodhisattva great beings see beings in hell, or see beings in the animal world or in the world of Yama, and become possessed of mindfulness, such a mindfulness in possession of which they think, 'I will do whatever it takes so that in my buddhafield when I have fully awakened to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening these three terrible forms of life will not occur as anything at all, in any way at all.'
    And why?
    Because both dharmas‍ — the dream and the end of the dream — are not two and cannot be divided into two.
    You should know, Subhūti, that too is a sign that irreversible bodhisattva great beings are irreversible.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, if irreversible bodhisattva great beings, in a dream or awake, on seeing a village in flames think, 'These attributes, tokens, and signs, which I have while dreaming or awake, if I have the attributes, tokens, and signs that are those that you see in irreversible bodhisattva great beings, then, through this truth and this truth statement let the flames engulfing this village die down, cool down, and go out,' and if, when those irreversible bodhisattva great beings have unleashed the controlling power of truth 584 like that, the flames engulfing this village do die down, cool down, and go out, you should know,
    Subhūti, it has been prophesied that those irreversible bodhisattva great beings are irreversible from unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening.

  • "Subhūti, if those masses of flames do not obey the truth statement but burn down house after house, burn down street after street, burn down some houses but not burn down other houses, burn down some streets but not burn down other streets, then, Subhūti, irreversible bodhisattva great beings should know, when thinking about the fact that the houses of some beings burn down and the houses of other beings do not burn down, 'It is because of those beings' karma of rejecting the Dharma. In this very life that karma has come to maturity‍ — just that remainder from the karma of rejecting the Dharma has come to maturity.' Subhūti, you should know that this is a cause of, and this is a condition for irreversible bodhisattva great beings; because of those causes and because of those conditions they are irreversible bodhisattva great beings.

  • "I am going to teach something else about those attributes, those tokens, and those signs that are the attributes, tokens, and signs on account of which bodhisattva great beings are known to be irreversible.
    -
    "Subhūti, if some man or woman gets possessed by a demon, irreversible bodhisattva great beings focus as they habitually do and think like this: 'My unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening has been prophesied by earlier tathāgatas, worthy ones, perfectly complete buddhas; my aspiration regarding how I want to fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening and how I will fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening is pure; the attention I pay to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening is pure; without śrāvaka thoughts and separated from pratyekabuddha thoughts I am going to fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening, I am not not going to fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening, I am absolutely going to fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening. For the lord buddhas dwelling and maintaining themselves in countless infinite world systems, the tathāgatas, worthy ones, perfectly complete buddhas there is nothing that they do not see, or do not hear, or do not know‍ — nothing at all of which they are not aware, or that they do not directly witness, or to which they have not fully awakened. If those lord buddhas are therefore cognizant of my surpassing aspiration and I indeed will fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening, then through this truth and this truth statement, whatever demon has taken hold of or violated this man or woman, let that demon be exorcised.'
    -
    Subhūti, if when those bodhisattva great beings have said that, the demon has NOT been exorcised, then you should know, Subhūti, that those bodhisattva great beings' unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening has not been prophesied by the earlier tathāgatas, worthy ones, perfectly complete buddhas.
    -
    But if, Subhūti, when those bodhisattva great beings have said that, the demon has been exorcised, then you should know, Subhūti, that those bodhisattva great beings' unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening has been prophesied by earlier tathāgatas, worthy ones, perfectly complete buddhas.
    From those attributes, those tokens, and those signs you should know, Subhūti, that those bodhisattva great beings are irreversible.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, on account of the controlling power of truth, bodhisattva great beings not practicing the six perfections, without skillful means, not practicing the four applications of mindfulness, up to emptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness, who have not entered into the secure state of a bodhisattva, make Māra approach. Subhūti, when those bodhisattva great beings invoke the controlling power of truth with the thought, 'If I will indeed fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening, then through this truth and this truth statement that my unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening has been prophesied, may this demon be exorcised,' then Māra the wicked one eagerly gets to work, thinking, 'How will I exorcise this demon?'
    And why?
    Because Māra the wicked one is extremely powerful and very grand and the demon is not like that. Therefore, when that demon is exorcised through the controlling power of that Māra the wicked one, it occurs to those bodhisattva great beings to think, 'It has been exorcised because of my power.' Not knowing the demon has been exorcised because of the power of Māra, the bodhisattva great beings falsely project superiority over others, and deride, sarcastically compliment, make fun of, and disparage others, thinking, 'The earlier tathāgatas, worthy ones, perfect complete buddhas have prophesied my unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening, but they have not prophesied the unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening of these others.' Just because of that they get more conceited, puff themselves up with pride, distance themselves from the knowledge of all aspects, and distance themselves from the unsurpassed knowledge of a buddha. You should know that when that sort of bodhisattva great being without skillful means gets more conceited, just because of that, for such a one there are two levels. What are the two? They are these, namely, the śrāvaka level and the pratyekabuddha level. On account of the controlling power of truth, bodhisattva great beings will thus encounter the work of Māra. There they will not resort to, not worship, not follow after, not become closely acquainted with, and not attend on spiritual friends and will tighten just that bond with Māra. And why? Because they do not practice the six perfections and are not assisted by skillful means. Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings should know that this too is the work of Māra.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, how does Māra approach bodhisattva great beings not practicing the six perfections, and similarly, connect this with each, up to who have not entered into the secure state of a bodhisattva because of the controlling power of a name? 585

  • "Māra the wicked one disguised in some form or other approaches the bodhisattva great beings and says, 'Son of a good family, the tathāgata, worthy one, perfectly complete Buddha has prophesied your unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening. This will be your name, this will be your mother's name, this will be your father's name, this will be your brother's name, this will be your sister's name, and these will be the names of your friends, counselors, kinsmen, and blood relatives.' He informs them, 'These are the names of the grandparents on your mother's and father's side going back seven generations,' and tells them, 'You are from such-and-such a city, such-and-such a town, such-and-such a settlement, and such-and-such a location; you were born in such-and-such a city, in such-and-such a town, and in such-and-such a settlement.' If they are naturally easy-going he will tell them, 'You have been naturally easy-going like this before as well.' If they are keen he will tell them, 'You have been keen before like that as well.' If they are jungle dwellers, or if they are alms-food eaters, or if they are refuse-rags wearers, or if they are later-food refusers, or if they are single-sitters, or if they are satisfied with whatever alms they get, or if they are cemetery dwellers, or if they are open-air dwellers, or if they are a tree-root dwellers, or if they are those who sleep sitting up, or if they are natural-bed users, or if they are three-robe wearers, or if they are not needy, or if they are contented, or if they are quite apart, 586 or if they have stopped having their feet massaged, 587 or if they are those who hardly speak, he will also tell them, 'Also before, like this, . . . you have been those who hardly speak.' Also, if they are those who hardly say anything he will also tell them, 'You have been uncommunicative like this before as well.' And why? He says, 'It is because you have these sorts of qualities of the ascetic and on account of that it is impossible that you did not have these qualities of the ascetic and excellent restraints before as well. Of that there is no doubt.'

  • "That earlier declaration of their name like that, and that declaration of their family line, and of the qualities of the ascetic they presently have makes them feel a false sense of pride, so again Māra the wicked one approaches them and says, 'Son of a good family, that you have such qualities of the ascetic is in line with your unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening that has been prophesied by the tathāgatas, worthy ones, perfectly complete buddhas.'
    Or else he approaches disguised as a monk; or else he approaches disguised as a nun; or else he approaches disguised as a landlord; or else he approaches disguised as their mother; or else he approaches disguised as their father, and having approached he says, 'Your unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening has been prophesied by the tathāgata, worthy one, perfectly complete Buddha. And why? Because whatever the good qualities of the irreversible bodhisattva great beings there are, you have them.'

  • "Subhūti, those bodhisattva great beings do not have the attributes, tokens, or signs of an irreversible bodhisattva great being that I have taught, so bodhisattva great beings other than them should know, Subhūti, that those bodhisattva great beings are possessed by Māra the wicked one.
    And why?
    Because they do not have those attributes, those tokens, or those signs that irreversible bodhisattva great beings have, and because of that declaration of their name, they falsely project their superiority over bodhisattva great beings other than them, and deride, sarcastically compliment, make fun of, and disparage them.

  • "Bodhisattva great beings should know, Subhūti, that this declaration of a name, through the controlling power of a name, is also the work of Māra the wicked one.
    And why?
    Subhūti, it is because bodhisattva great beings not practicing the six perfections do not know Skandhamāra, do not know form, and do not know feeling, perception, volitional factors, and consciousness, so Māra will make a prophecy of them through the controlling power of a name: 'Once you have fully awakened to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening this will be your name.'
    He declares just that name the bodhisattva great beings will have reflected on and considered, so it occurs to those bodhisattva great beings disposed to intellectual confusion and lacking skillful means to think, 'This very name that I have reflected on and considered will indeed be my name once I have fully awakened to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening.'
    Just as Māra the wicked one, or the Māra class of gods, or monks controlled by Māra's power make that declaration, so too it occurs to them to think, 'This monk has declared my production of the thought and my name exactly as they are. The names match, so the tathāgata, worthy one, perfectly complete Buddha has prophesied my unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening.'
    Subhūti, those bodhisattva great beings do not have those attributes, tokens, or signs of an irreversible bodhisattva great being that I have taught. They are without those attributes, tokens, and signs, so that declaration of a name makes them conceited and they falsely project their superiority over other bodhisattva great beings and look down on them. Their false sense of superiority, and looking down on and making fun of them make unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening distant. You should know that there are these two levels for those who are thus without skillful means, without the perfection of wisdom, without spiritual friends, and influenced by bad friends, namely, the śrāvaka level and the pratyekabuddha level.

  • "Alternatively, having wandered for a long, long time through different cycles of existence, thanks to this perfection of wisdom they may fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening. But you should know that even if they find the sight of spiritual friends and attend on them with constant joy and rejoicing, if they still do not disparage and do not regret those earlier false productions of the thought, there are two levels for them, namely, the śrāvaka level and the pratyekabuddha level.

  • "To illustrate, Subhūti, when monks incur any one of the four root downfalls, they are not followers of the secluded religious life, are not offspring of the Śākya, and do not have the good fortune in this body to reach any one of the four results of the secluded religious life.
    Similarly, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings who produce a thought with a false sense of superiority just because of the declaration of a name, who falsely project their superiority over, and look down on, other bodhisattvas just because of that utterance of a name, incur a downfall even more serious than that.
    You should know that the production of that thought is more serious even than that.
    Let alone the four serious root downfalls, Subhūti, the production of a thought with a false sense of superiority just because of the declaration of a bodhisattva's name is even more serious than the five inexpiable sins.
    You should know that the production of that thought is even more serious than that.
    Thus, such works of Māra as subtle as these will occur because of the declaration of a name.


"Furthermore, Subhūti,

  • Māra the wicked one, declaring the good qualities of isolated bodhisattva great beings, will approach, and having approached, say, 'The Tathāgata has spoken about the good qualities of isolation.'

  • "Subhūti, I have not said that jungle, upland forest, or frontier retreats are the bodhisattva great beings' isolation."

Subhūti asked,

  • "Lord, if bodhisattva great beings are not isolated in jungle, upland forest, or frontier retreats,
    what other isolation do bodhisattva great beings have?
    Lord, what other sort of isolation is there for bodhisattva great beings?"

"Subhūti," replied the Lord,

  • "if bodhisattva great beings are isolated from attention connected with śrāvakas,
    are isolated from attention connected with pratyekabuddhas,
    bodhisattva great beings are in isolation.
    Subhūti, I have endorsed that as the bodhisattva great beings' isolation.
    -
    Living in jungle, forest, and frontier retreats is not the bodhisattva great beings' isolation.

  • "If bodhisattva great beings live day and night in this isolation they truly live in isolation.
    Bodhisattva great beings‍ — that is, those in the bodhisattva great beings' isolation‍ — living in jungle, upland forest, and frontier retreats truly live in isolation.
    Even if these isolated bodhisattva great beings live on the outskirts of a town they truly live in isolation.
    Subhūti, about this bodhisattva great beings' isolation that I have endorsed, Māra the wicked one says, 'You should live in jungle, upland forest, and frontier retreats.' Because of that isolation adulterated with attention connected with śrāvakas and with attention connected with pratyekabuddhas, they do not work hard at the perfection of wisdom and do not complete the knowledge of all aspects.

  • "Dwelling in the dwelling of such impure attention, they feel a false sense of superiority over bodhisattva great beings other than them, who are dwelling on the outskirts of a town, who nevertheless have pure thoughts and attention, who are unadulterated with attention connected with śrāvakas and unadulterated with attention connected with pratyekabuddhas, and who have completed unadulterated concentrations, deliverances, meditative stabilizations, absorptions, and clairvoyances.

  • "Furthermore, even if those bodhisattva great beings without skillful means live in wild jungles stretching a hundred yojanas, devoid of predatory animals, game animals, and birds, devoid of the hideouts of thieves, where you do not encounter 588 paths where flesh-eating demons roam for a year, or a hundred years, or a thousand years, or a hundred thousand years, or a hundred thousand one hundred million billion years, or even more than that, still, if they do not know isolation, that isolation in which bodhisattva great beings live having set out with the surpassing aspiration, then those bodhisattva great being are truly adulterated. Living attached to and settling down in that isolation, they are truly defiled. With just that they do not gladden my mind. They do not have that isolation of the bodhisattva great beings that I have explained. That isolation is not evident in them. And why? Because they do not dwell in that isolation.

  • "Māra the wicked one comes into their presence and, standing in the sky above, says, 'Excellent, excellent, son of a good family. This is the unmistaken isolation taught by the Tathāgata. You should stay right in this isolation and you will quickly and fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening.'

  • Thinking their isolation is even more important than that isolation, they falsely project their superiority over other monks in the Bodhisattva Vehicle, and similarly, connect this with 589 those of good character, thinking, 'These venerable ones are living an adulterated life.'
    They urge on and project their superiority over those bodhisattva great beings who are living a life in isolation, 590 because they think they are those who live adulterated, saying 'Those who dwell in an adulterated dwelling are not those who practice dwelling in isolation.' What they should treat with respect 591 they do not treat with respect, and they feel proud of that.
    And why?
    Because they think, 'This life that I live is the truly perfect life, so it would be me the demons would seek to influence, me the demons would cause to hanker after things.
    As for those living on the outskirts of a town, who would seek to influence them and cause them to hanker after things?'
    Those bodhisattvas thus falsely project their superiority over other sons of a good family in the Bodhisattva Vehicle.
    "Subhūti, you should know that they are vulgar bodhisattvas.
    You should know that they are polluted bodhisattvas.
    You should know that they are fake bodhisattvas.
    You should know that they are the robbers of the world with its gods, humans, and asuras.
    You should know that they are robbers masquerading as monks in the world with its gods, humans, and asuras.
    You should know that they are robbers of the sons of a good family in the Bodhisattva Vehicle.
    You should not worship, should not rely on, and should not serve persons with such a disposition.
    And why?
    Subhūti, it is because such persons should be known to have an unfounded conceit.

  • "Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings who do not give up the knowledge of all aspects, and do not give up unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening‍ — bodhisattva great beings with the surpassing aspiration on account of which those bodhisattva great beings want to fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening, and want to work for the welfare of beings‍ —
    those bodhisattva great beings should not worship, should not rely on,
    and should not serve persons with such a disposition.
    They should occupy themselves with a yoga that advances their own aims, otherwise they will always be disgusted with and scared of saṃsāra and unadulterated by the three realms.
    And they should train, thinking, 'Right there too I should feel love; and right there too I should feel pity and compassion; and right there too I should produce joy and equanimity. I must act in such a way that one way or the other I will not incur such faults as those, as anyone at all in any way at all, so that they will not be produced, and if they are produced I must quickly eliminate them.'
    Subhūti, you should know that this is the courageous advance on account of the personal clairvoyance of the bodhisattva great beings.


"Furthermore, Subhūti,

  • bodhisattva great beings with the surpassing aspiration who want to fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening should worship, rely on, and serve spiritual friends."

The Lord having said this, venerable Subhūti then asked him,

  • "Lord, whom should they know to be the spiritual friends of bodhisattva great beings?"

The Lord said to venerable Subhūti,

  • "Subhūti, they should know that lord buddhas are the spiritual friends of bodhisattva great beings.
    Subhūti, they should know that bodhisattvas are also the spiritual friends of bodhisattva great beings.
    Subhūti, they should know that śrāvakas are also the spiritual friends of bodhisattva great beings.
    Subhūti, they should know that those who speak about, set forth, teach, expound, advance, explain, go into detail about, make clear, and perfectly illuminate the six perfections are also the spiritual friends of bodhisattva great beings.
    Subhūti, they should know that the six perfections are the spiritual friends of bodhisattva great beings;
    they should know that the applications of mindfulness,
    and similarly, connect this with each, up to the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha are the spiritual friends of bodhisattva great beings;
    and they should know that suchness, the very limit of reality, and the dharma-constituent are the spiritual friends of bodhisattva great beings.

  • "Subhūti, they should know that
    the six perfections are the teachers;
    the six perfections are the path;
    the six perfections are the light;
    the six perfections are the torch;
    the six perfections are the illumination;
    the six perfections are intellectual awareness, knowledge, and wisdom;
    the six perfections are the protector;
    the six perfections are the refuge;
    the six perfections are the final ally;
    the six perfections are the mother; and
    the six perfections are the father.
    -
    The applications of mindfulness, and similarly, connect this with each,
    up to the knowledge of all aspects is the elimination of all residual impressions, connections, and afflictions. 592
    And why?
    Subhūti, it is because these thirty-seven dharmas on the side of awakening were the father and mother of the lord buddhas who were tathāgatas, worthy ones, perfectly complete buddhas in times gone by;
    because, Subhūti, these thirty-seven dharmas on the side of awakening will be the father and mother of the lord buddhas who will be tathāgatas, worthy ones, perfectly complete buddhas in times yet to come;
    and, Subhūti, because these thirty-seven dharmas on the side of awakening are the father and mother of the lord buddhas who are presently dwelling and maintaining themselves in the ten directions.
    And why?
    Subhūti, it is because past, future, and present lord buddhas issue forth from them.

  • "Therefore, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings who want to fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening, want to purify a buddhafield, and want to bring beings to maturity
    should gather beings in the four ways of gathering a retinue.
    What are the four?
    They are giving gifts, kind words, beneficial actions, and consistency between words and deeds.
    Seeing that reality, Subhūti, I too am forced to say that
    these thirty-seven dharmas on the side of awakening are the teacher, father and mother, resting place and protector, island, refuge, and final ally of the bodhisattva great beings.
    -
    Therefore, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings who want to get to a state where they are not led astray by others, who want to remain in that state where they are not led astray by others, who want to allay the doubts of others, who want to purify a buddhafield, and who want to bring beings to maturity
    _________________________________________
    should train in this perfection of wisdom.
    _________________________________________
    And why?
    Because in this perfection of wisdom are taught in detail those dharmas
    in which bodhisattva great beings have to train."

The Lord having said this, venerable Subhūti then asked him,
"Lord, what is the mark of the perfection of wisdom?"

"Subhūti," replied the Lord,

  • "the perfection of wisdom is like space, unimpeded.
    Subhūti, the perfection of wisdom is without a mark.
    The perfection of wisdom's mark does not [inherently] exist at all."
    (i.e. Clear realization: "They are not completely 'non-existent' either": All dharmas are not really existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth -- for whatever 'this' is. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable, beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all defining limitations, beyond all conditioning / karma. They are appearing / conventional / relative, but still empty of inherent existence; they are empty of inherent existence [T2], but still conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S] in dependence of its conditioning / karma. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T].)


"Lord, could you explain it this way:
the mark through which the perfection of wisdom exists
is the mark through which all phenomena exist?" asked Subhūti.

"Exactly so, Subhūti, exactly so!" said the Lord.

  • "Subhūti, the mark through which the perfection of wisdom exists
    is the mark through which all phenomena exist.
    And why?
    Subhūti,
    it is because all phenomena are isolated from an intrinsic nature,
    all phenomena [T1] are empty of an intrinsic nature [T2] [U2T].
    Subhūti, because of this one of many explanations, the mark‍ — that is, the isolated mark and emptiness mark‍ — through which the perfection of wisdom exists is that through which all phenomena exist."

The Lord having said this, venerable Subhūti inquired of him,

  • "Lord, if all phenomena are isolated from all phenomena,
    and if all phenomena are empty of all phenomena [U2T],
    Lord, how could there be the defilement and purification of beings?
    Lord, the isolated is not defiled nor is it purified [Uopp];
    emptiness is not defiled nor is it purified either,
    so the isolated and empty do not fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening.
    The isolated do not apprehend in emptiness any phenomenon that is the awakening to which they will fully awaken,
    and emptiness does not apprehend in the isolated any phenomenon that is the awakening to which they will fully awaken either,
    so how are we to understand the meaning of this statement the Lord has made?"

Venerable Subhūti having thus inquired, the Lord asked him in return,

  • "What do you think, Subhūti,
    do beings go on grasping at 'I' and grasping at 'mine' for a long time?"

"So it is, Lord; so it is, Sugata.
Beings go on grasping at 'I' and grasping at 'mine' for a long time," said Subhūti.

  • "What do you think, Subhūti,
    are grasping at 'I' and grasping at 'mine' isolated?
    Are grasping at 'I' and grasping at 'mine' empty?" asked the Lord.

"They are isolated, Lord; they are empty, Sugata," said Subhūti.

  • "What do you think, Subhūti, do beings pass through many cycles of existence
    because 593 of grasping at 'I' and grasping at 'mine'?" asked the Lord.

"So it is, Lord; so it is, Sugata.
Beings pass through many cycles of existence because of grasping at 'I' and grasping at 'mine'," said Subhūti.

"Subhūti," said the Lord,

  • "there are therefore beings passing through many cycles of existence, so there is defilement.
    Those beings who do not grasp at 'I' and do not grasp at 'mine' and hence are without grasping, Subhūti, they do not pass through many cycles of existence.
    And those not passing through many cycles of existence, Subhūti, are not defiled, so there is purification as well."


The Lord having said this, venerable Subhūti said to him,

  • "Lord, bodhisattva great beings practicing like that do not practice [T2] in form [T1] [U2T].
    They do not practice in feeling, perception, volitional factors, or consciousness;
    up to they do not practice in the applications of mindfulness;
    up to they do not practice in the four detailed and thorough knowledges.
    And why?
    Because all those dharmas‍ — those who are practicing [subject],
    that by means of which they are practicing [relation / action],
    and that in which they are practicing‍ [object] [T1-3S] — cannot be apprehended [T2-3S] [U3S / U2T-3S].
    -
    Lord, the world with its gods, humans, and asuras cannot break bodhisattva great beings practicing like that.
    Lord, none of the śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas can surpass bodhisattva great beings practicing like that.
    And why?
    Because they are located in a place that is unsurpassed, namely, in the secure state of a bodhisattva.
    Lord, that place is unsurpassed because the bodhisattva great beings
    __________________________________________________________
    keep on paying attention to the knowledge of all aspects.
    __________________________________________________________
    Lord, bodhisattva great beings practicing like that are close to the knowledge of all aspects."


The Lord continued,

  • "What do you think, Subhūti, were all the beings, as many as there are in Jambudvīpa, to obtain human bodies, and, having obtained human bodies, to have fully awakened to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening, and were a son of a good family or daughter of a good family to attend on them, to respect, revere, honor, and worship them with the requirements‍ — robes, alms, beds and seats, and medicines for sicknesses‍ — for as long as they lived and to have transformed those wholesome roots into unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening, what do you think, Subhūti?
    Based on that would that son of a good family or daughter of a good family create a lot of merit?"

"A lot, Lord; a lot, Sugata," said Subhūti

  • "Subhūti," said the Lord, "a son of a good family or daughter of a good family
    ________________________________________________________________
    who stays with attention connected to the perfection of wisdom
    ________________________________________________________________
    and speaks about, teaches, expounds, advances, goes into detail about,
    explains, makes clear, and perfectly illuminates it for others
    will create a lot more merit than that.

  • Similarly, connect this with each, up to were all the beings, as many as there are in a great billionfold world system, to simultaneously obtain human bodies, and were a certain son of a good family or daughter of a good family to establish them in the ten wholesome actions, and in the four concentrations, the four immeasurables, the four formless absorptions, the result of stream enterer, and similarly, connect this with each, up to to establish them in a pratyekabuddha's awakening, and to establish them in unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening, and were they to have transformed those wholesome roots into unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening, what do you think, Subhūti?
    Based on that, would that son of a good family or daughter of a good family create a lot of merit?"

"A lot, Lord; a lot, Sugata," said Subhūti.

  • "Subhūti," continued the Lord, "a son of a good family or daughter of a good family
    ________________________________________________________________
    who stays with attention connected to the perfection of wisdom
    ________________________________________________________________
    speaking about, teaching, expounding, advancing, going into detail about,
    explaining, making clear, and perfectly illuminating it for others
    will create a lot more merit than that.______________________________
    ________________________________________________________________
    -
    Subhūti, those bodhisattva great beings will have become worthy of the offerings of all beings.
    And why?
    Because apart from the tathāgata, worthy one, perfectly complete Buddha, no other being occupies such a station as the bodhisattva great beings do.
    Why?
    Because sons of a good family 594
    practicing the perfection of wisdom find and produce within themselves great love;
    practicing the perfection of wisdom they see all beings as if condemned to execution and find and produce within themselves great compassion;
    and dwelling in that dwelling, experiencing a delightful feeling of joy they find and produce within themselves great joy, but still they do not dwell together with that causal sign, so they also obtain great equanimity.
    Subhūti, this‍ — that is, the great illumination of the perfection of wisdom,
    and the great illumination of the perfection of concentration, perseverance, patience, morality, and giving‍ —
    is the great illumination of the wisdom of bodhisattva great beings.
    Even though those sons of a good family have not become buddhas, they have become worthy of the offerings of all beings and are irreversible from unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening.
    They get close to the knowledge of all aspects, so those requirements of theirs come to have a great result, a great benefit. 595

  • "Therefore, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings who want to behave so a city's almsgiving is fruitful,
    want to guide beings on the path, want to cause a great illumination,
    want to completely release beings who are in bondage, and
    want to reveal the unsurpassed wisdom eye to all beings
    ______________________________________________________________________________________
    should dwell in the perfection of wisdom, going over it again and again in their minds.
    ______________________________________________________________________________________

  • "Subhūti, if bodhisattva great beings pay attention with this attention connected to the perfection of wisdom, then, when bodhisattva great beings are paying attention with this attention connected to the perfection of wisdom,
    _____________________________________________________________________________________
    they should also engage in conversation connected to just the perfection of wisdom.
    _____________________________________________________________________________________

  • But even while they are engaged in conversation connected to just the perfection of wisdom,
    _________________________________________________________________________________________
    they should also pay attention with this attention connected to the perfection of wisdom.
    _________________________________________________________________________________________
    They should act in such a way that they dwell paying attention with this attention connected to the perfection of wisdom,
    providing no opportunity for any other attention, dwelling, day and night, without giving up endeavoring for this attention connected to the perfection of wisdom.

  • "To illustrate, Subhūti, say there is a person who has never found a precious jewel before. Later on, they find a precious jewel and become overjoyed, ecstatic, and filled with mental happiness from finding a precious jewel. If, right afterward, they were to lose the precious jewel they had found they would, based on that, experience intense suffering and intense mental unhappiness. Their mind would be constantly and always on that precious jewel, thinking, 'Oh no! Alas! I have lost my precious jewel.'
    Similarly, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings should think 'this is a precious jewel'
    _________________________________________________________________________________________
    and never be separated from the attention connected with the knowledge of all aspects."
    _________________________________________________________________________________________

The Lord having said this, venerable Subhūti inquired of him,

  • "Lord, given that
    all attention is separated from an intrinsic nature,
    that all attention is empty of an intrinsic nature,
    how, Lord, are bodhisattva great beings never separated from attention connected to the knowledge of all aspects?
    You cannot apprehend a bodhisattva, attention, or the knowledge of all aspects given that they are separated from an intrinsic nature."

Venerable Subhūti having thus inquired, the Lord replied to him,

  • "Subhūti, if bodhisattva great beings know this:
    'All phenomena [T1] are separated from an intrinsic nature [T2] [U2T].
    They are not made by śrāvakas, they are not made by pratyekabuddhas, and they are not made by buddhas.
    They stay as what they are‍ — the dharma-constituent, the establishment of dharmas, the certification of dharmas, suchness, unmistaken suchness, unaltered suchness, and the very limit of reality,' then those bodhisattva great beings are not separated from the perfection of wisdom.
    And why?
    Subhūti, given that the perfection of wisdom [T1] is separated from an intrinsic nature [T2] [U2T]
    and the perfection of wisdom [T1] is empty of an intrinsic nature [T2] [U2T],
    it is because it has no increase and it has no decline."


"Lord, given that
the perfection of wisdom [T1] is separated from an intrinsic nature and empty of an intrinsic nature [T2] [U2T[,
how will bodhisattva great beings succeed at the perfection of wisdom
and fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening?" asked Subhūti.

"Subhūti," replied the Lord,

  • "even though they have had success at the perfection of wisdom,
    they do not become more or less of a bodhisattva great being.
    The very limit of reality does not become more or less.
    The dharma-constituent does not become more or less.
    And why?
    Because the perfection of wisdom is not one and it is not two either.
    Subhūti, if bodhisattva great beings do not feel cowed, tense up, tremble, feel frightened, or become terrified when such an exposition is being given, they stand on the irreversible level; they are supreme.
    Those bodhisattva great beings are practicing the perfection of wisdom."
    Then venerable Subhūti asked the Lord,

"Lord, is it the emptiness of the perfection of wisdom, its state of ringing hollow, being in vain, being a fraud, and being pointless, that practices the perfection of wisdom?"

"No it is not, Subhūti," said the Lord.

"Lord, can you apprehend any dharma other than the perfection of wisdom that is practicing the perfection of wisdom?"

"No you cannot, Subhūti."

"Lord, does the perfection of wisdom practice the perfection of wisdom?"

"No it does not, Subhūti."

"Lord, does emptiness practice emptiness?" he asked.

"No it does not, Subhūti."

"Lord, does something other than emptiness practice emptiness?"

"No it does not, Subhūti."

"Lord, does form practice the perfection of wisdom?
Do feeling, perception, volitional factors, or consciousness practice the perfection of wisdom?"

"No they do not, Subhūti."

"Lord, do the six perfections practice the perfection of wisdom?
And similarly, up to do the four detailed and thorough knowledges practice the perfection of wisdom?"

"No they do not, Subhūti."

"Lord, is it the emptiness of form, its state of ringing hollow, being in vain, being a fraud, and being pointless;
its suchness, unmistaken suchness, and unaltered suchness;
its true dharmic nature, dharma-constituent, establishment of dharmas, and certification of dharmas;
or its very limit of reality that practices the perfection of wisdom?"

"No it is not, Subhūti."

"Lord, similarly, up to is it the emptiness of the four fearlessnesses, their state of ringing hollow, being in vain, being a fraud, or being pointless that practices the perfection of wisdom?"

"No it is not, Subhūti."

"Lord, if those dharmas do not practice the perfection of wisdom, how, Lord,
do bodhisattva great beings practice when they practice the perfection of wisdom?"

Venerable Subhūti having asked this, the Lord asked him in return,

"What do you think, Subhūti,
do you see that dharma which is the dharma practicing the perfection of wisdom?"

"No I do not, Lord."

"What do you think, Subhūti,
do you see that perfection of wisdom which bodhisattvas have to practice?"

"No I do not, Lord."

"What do you think, Subhūti,
is there any dharma that has been apprehended in that dharma you do not see?

"No there is not, Lord."

"What do you think, Subhūti,
in that dharma that has not been apprehended, will there be
production or stopping [origination, duration and cessation]?"

"No there will not, Lord."

"Subhūti,

  • this is the bodhisattva great beings' forbearance for the non-production of dharmas.
    Subhūti, the unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening of bodhisattva great beings endowed with such forbearance will be prophesied.
    Subhūti, this is the Tathāgata's fearlessness and detailed and thorough knowledge, so it is impossible that bodhisattva great beings accomplishing like this, practicing like this, endeavoring like this, making an effort like this will not reach knowledge of unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening, the great knowledge, the knowledge of all aspects.
    And why?
    Because those bodhisattva great beings have reached forbearance for the non-production of dharmas
    and will therefore be set on that until they have fully awakened to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening."

The Lord having said this, venerable Subhūti then asked him,

  • "Lord, is the bodhisattvas' unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening prophesied
    because there will be the production of all the dharmas?"

"No it is not, Subhūti."

  • "Lord, is the bodhisattvas' unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening prophesied
    because there will be the non-production of all the dharmas?"

"No it is not, Subhūti."

  • "Lord, if the bodhisattvas' unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening
    is not prophesied because of the production of all the dharmas,
    and not because of the non--production of all the dharmas,
    then why, Lord, is the unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening of bodhisattva great beings prophesied?"

Venerable Subhūti having asked this, the Lord asked him in return,

  • "What do you think, Subhūti, do you see that dharma, the dharma of which unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening is being prophesied?"

  • "No I do not, Lord," he replied.
    "I do not see that dharma, Lord, the dharma of which unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening is being prophesied.
    And, Lord, I also do not see the dharma that is a full awakening, or on account of which there would be a full awakening, or one who becomes fully awakened to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening."


"Exactly so, Subhūti, exactly so!" he said.

  • "Subhūti, it does not occur to bodhisattva great beings not apprehending [T2] all phenomena [T1] [U2T]
    to think, 'I will become fully awakened; on account of this I will become fully awakened; I will become fully awakened to this.'
    And why?
    Subhūti, it is because
    all these ideas do not occur to bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom.
    And why?
    ________________________________________________________________________________
    Subhūti, it is because the perfection of wisdom is without thought construction."
    ________________________________________________________________________________
    (i.e. Thinking without thinking, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes. No thoughts in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / intersubjectively.)
    (i.e. Clear realization: "They are not completely 'non-existent' either": All dharmas are not really existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth -- for whatever 'this' is. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable, beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all defining limitations, beyond all conditioning / karma. They are appearing / conventional / relative, but still empty of inherent existence; they are empty of inherent existence [T2], but still conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S] in dependence of its conditioning / karma. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T].)
    (i.e. The Middle Way free from all extremes & middle: not accepting / affirming / seeking / doing anything in absolute terms, not rejecting / negating / abandoning / eliminating / not-doing anything in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively if it helps someone to get close the the inconceivable liberating Truth. Ex. Not rejecting / abandoning / eliminating / stopping all thoughts in absolute terms / all the time; but may be useful when starting to meditate.)

This was the fifty-fifth chapter, "Teaching the Stopping of Thought Construction," of "The Perfection of Wisdom in Eighteen Thousand Lines." [B41]




Access to other chapters on the Blog:
(Work in progress. Empty files means they are not done yet.)

  1. Chapter 0 – Introduction to the Sutra

  2. Chapter 1 – Introduction / the Assembly

  3. Chapter 2 – Production of the Thought

  4. Chapter 3 – designation [U2T]

  5. Chapter 4 – Equal to the Unequal

  6. Chapter 5 – Tongue

  7. Chapter 6 – Subhūti

  8. Chapter 7 – Entry into flawlessness

  9. Chapter 8 – The Religious Mendicant Śreṇika

  10. Chapter 9 – Causal Signs

  11. Chapter 10 – Illusion-like

  12. Chapter 11 – Embarrassment

  13. Chapter 12 – Elimination of Views

  14. Chapter 13 – The Six Perfections

  15. Chapter 14 – Neither Bound nor Freed

  16. Chapter 15 – Meditative Stabilization

  17. Chapter 16 – Dhāraṇī Gateway

  18. Chapter 17 – Level Purification

  19. Chapter 18 – The Exposition of Going Forth in the Great Vehicle [cause / path]

  20. Chapter 19 – Surpassing

  21. Chapter 20 – Not Two

  22. Chapter 21 – Subhūti

  23. Chapter 22 – Śatakratu

  24. Chapter 23 – Hard to Understand

  25. Chapter 24 – Unlimited

  26. Chapter 25 – Second Śatakratu

  27. Chapter 26 – Getting Old

  28. Chapter 27 – Reliquary

  29. Chapter 28 – Declaration of the Good Qualities of the Thought of Awakening

  30. Chapter 29 – Different Tīrthika Religious Mendicants

  31. Chapter 30 – The Benefits of Taking Up and Adoration

  32. Chapter 31 – Physical Remains

  33. Chapter 32 – The Superiority of Merit

  34. Chapter 33 – Dedication

  35. Chapter 34 – Perfect Praise of the Quality of Accomplishment

  36. Chapter 35 – Hells

  37. Chapter 36 – Teaching The Purity of all Dharmas

  38. Chapter 37 – Nobody

  39. Chapter 38 – Cannot Be Apprehended

  40. Chapter 39 – The Northern Region

  41. Chapter 40 – The Work of Māra

  42. Chapter 41 – Not Complete Because of Māra

  43. Chapter 42 – Revealing the World

  44. Chapter 43 – Inconceivable

  45. Chapter 44 – Made Up

  46. Chapter 45 – A Boat

  47. Chapter 46 – Teaching the Intrinsic Nature of All Dharmas

  48. Chapter 47 – Taming Greed

  49. Chapter 48 – A Presentation of the Bodhisattvas' Training

  50. Chapter 49 – Irreversibility

  51. Chapter 50 – Teaching the Signs of Irreversibility

  52. Chapter 51 – Skillful means

  53. Chapter 52 – Completion of the Means

  54. Chapter 53 – The Prophecy about Gaṅgadevī

  55. Chapter 54 – Teaching the Cultivation of Skillful Means

  56. Chapter 55 – Teaching the Stopping of Thought Construction [in absolute terms]

  57. Chapter 56 – Equal Training

  58. Chapter 57 – Practice

  59. Chapter 58 – Exposition of the Absence of Thought Construction [in absolute terms]

  60. Chapter 59 – non-attachment

  61. Chapter 60 – Entrusting

  62. Chapter 61 – Inexhaustible

  63. Chapter 62 – Leaping Above Absorption

  64. Chapter 63 – Many Inquiries about the Two Dharmas

  65. Chapter 64 – Perfectly Displayed

  66. Chapter 65 – Worshiping, Serving, and Attending on Spiritual Friends as Skillful Means

  67. Chapter 66 – A Demonstration of Skillful Means

  68. Chapter 67 – Morality

  69. Chapter 68 – Growing and Flourishing

  70. Chapter 69 – An Explanation of Meditation on The Path

  71. Chapter 70 – An Explanation of Serial Action, Training, and Practice

  72. Chapter 71 – The True Nature of Dharmas That Cannot Be Apprehended

  73. Chapter 72 – Teaching the Absence of Marks

  74. Chapter 73 – Exposition of the Major Marks and Minor Signs and the Completion of Letters

  75. Chapter 74 – Exposition of the Sameness of Dharmas

  76. Chapter 75 – Exposition of non-complication –

  77. Chapter 76 – The Armor for Bringing Beings to Maturity

  78. Chapter 77 – Teaching the Purification of a Buddhafield

  79. Chapter 78 – Teaching the Skillful Means for the Purification of a Buddhafield

  80. Chapter 79 – Teaching the non- Existence of an Intrinsic Nature

  81. Chapter 80 – Teaching that there is No Defilement or Purification

  82. Chapter 81 – Yogic Practice of the Ultimate

  83. Chapter 82 – The Unchanging True Nature of Dharmas

  84. Chapter 83 – Categorization of a Bodhisattva's Training

  85. Chapter 84 – Collection

  86. Chapter 85 – Sadāprarudita

  87. Chapter 86 – Dharmodgata

  88. Chapter 87 – Entrusting

  89. Résumés in bullet points of all chapters.




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