Thursday, June 16, 2022

Prajnaparamita-18K - Chapter 48 - Reality as it is is deep, hard to behold, hard to understand - 348

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The Transcendent Perfection of Wisdom
in Eighteen Thousand Lines - 348
Daśa­sāhasrikā­prajñā­pāramitā

– Chapter 48 - Reality as it is is deep, hard to behold, hard to understand –

Source: https://read.84000.co/translation/toh10.html

More Analysis of Mahayana Sutras : https://www.gilehtblog.com/2022/07/toc-400.html

[Note: The two truths are:
T1: conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means, merely labeled / imputed / imagined / created by the mind in dependence of its conditioning / karma (in cycle), not completely non-existence;
T2: emptiness of inherent existence, not real existence;
U2T: those two truths, like any other pair of apparent opposites, are inseparable, interdependent, co-defined, co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing / co-transcended, in harmony, in 'Union' <==> thus empty of inherent existence.
They are tools to help us to get to the 'inconceivable' by refuting what 'Reality as it is' is not:
all extreme views like: existence / dharma / causality / functionality, non-existence / non-dharma / non-causality / non-functionality, both together, neither; difference / manyness / diversity / duality, identity / oneness / sameness / non-duality, both together, neither; permanence / continuity / eternity, impermanence / discontinuity / annihilation, both together, neither; individuality, collectivity, universality, a combination of those, none of those; subjectivity, relation / action / process, objectivity, a combination of those, none of those; the 1st truth alone / dependent origination [T1], the 2nd truth alone / mere-emptiness [T2], both two truths together as if different and in opposition [2T], neither of the two truths as if identical and one [1T,]; 'this', 'non-this', both together, neither – for whatever 'this' is.
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The three spheres: ex.
i. The subject / actor / goer / perceiver / knower / acquirer / owner,
ii. The relation / action / going / perceiving / knowing / acquiring / having
iii. The object / result / destination / perceived / known / acquired / possessions / karma / 5 aggregates / body & speech & mind.
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Generalisations:
Whenever it is possible the comments of each section are expressed into a more global context. So they always cover more than just what is said in the various translations. The goal is to make the Big Picture more evident.
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Note: All comments within (i.e. …) or [...] are from the commentator (me), not the translators.)


[Back to Résumés of chapters 42-87]

48. A PRESENTATION OF THE BODHISATTVAS' TRAINING – Reality as it is is deep, hard to behold, hard to understand.

(i.e. Résumé: This perfection of wisdom is deep, hard to behold, hard to understand … Because suchness, the true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is, of all dharmas, is deep, hard to behold, hard to understand, indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s), beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all defining limitations, beyond all conditioning / karma, beyond all causality / production / laws, matter-energy, space & time.
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"This perfection of wisdom ‍— namely, the awakening of the tathāgatas ‍— is deep, hard to behold, hard to understand, not something about which you can speculate, not an object of speculative thought, calm, subtle, an object to be known by the brilliantly learned and wise, a counterpoint to all that is ordinary."
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"This doctrine is taught as a counterpoint to all that is ordinary.
Because this doctrine is not taught so any dharma will be taken up or will not be taken up.
This doctrine is not taught so some dharmas will be taken up (accepted / affirm / sought / added / done in absolute terms) or will not be taken up (rejected / negated / abandoned / eliminated / stopped / subtracted / not-done in absolute terms) [or changed / improved / purified in absolute terms].
This doctrine is in harmony with all dharmas.
This doctrine is not obstructed by anything.
This doctrine is not produced because all dharmas are not produced and do not stop.
This doctrine finds no footing because a footing for any dharma is not apprehended.
All dharmas have the same unique inconceivable all-pervading timeless unborn unconditioned unchanging unceasing pristine suchness / true nature & dynamic as it is: the Union of the Two Truths free from all extremes & middle [U2T / U3S / Uopp / U2T-2T].
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"If one cannot apprehend even just any particular dharma,
however could one apprehend the suchness of any dharma?
Suchness is deep, hard to behold, hard to understand …
In it one cannot apprehend any dharma, one cannot apprehend the suchness of any dharma.
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Bodhisattva great beings who want to awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening
should be aware not to be separated from the perfection of wisdom [T1] and skillful means [T1] [U2T].
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Is it hard or easy for a Bodhisattva to fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening?
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Some say it must be easy since all dharmas are empty of inherent existence; and thus there is nothing to awaken to. That is falling into the extreme of mere-emptiness / nothingness / non-existence.
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Some say it must be hard since it is hard to understand and then directly perceive / realise / experience that all dharmas are more like an inconceivable Union of being empty of inherent existence [T2], not really existent / caused / functional <==> and of being conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional / useless / meaningless. And that one aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other [<==>) [U2T]. That all dharmas are like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, echos, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T]: not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither.
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It is hard to understand and then directly perceive / realise / experience that apparent opposites (including the three spheres of any type of relation / action,, and the two truths themselves) are not really different / separate / in opposition, but are more like like inseparable / interdependent / co-defined / do-relative / co-dependent / co-emergent / co-evolving / co-ceasing / co-transcended / in harmony <==> thus themselves both empty of inherent existence <==> merely labeled / imputed by the mind; like illusions / reflections / mirages / dreams / echos / magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T]: not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither.
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It is hard to understand and then directly perceive / realise / experience that the subject / perceiver / knower, the relation / action and the object / perceived / known / world are not really different / separate / in opposition, but are more like like inseparable / interdependent / co-defined / do-relative / co-dependent / co-emergent / co-evolving / co-ceasing / co-transcended / in harmony <==> thus themselves both empty of inherent existence <==> merely labeled / imputed by the mind; like illusions / reflections / mirages / dreams / echos / magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T]: not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither.
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It is hard to understand and then directly perceive / realise / experience the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now: the Union of the Two Truths free from all extremes & middle [U2T / U3S / Uopp / U2T-2T].
It is hard because of our conditioning / karma (physical, conceptual, mental) that we have been accumulating for an infinity of eons.
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Ex. Are the self and the five aggregates the same or other?
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It is hard to understand and then directly perceive / realise / experience that the self and its five aggregates are not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilated, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not impure / imperfect / ordinary / incomplete / bounded / unenlightened, not pure / perfect / divine / complete / freed / enlightened, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not coming / existent / changing / going, not non-coming, non-existent, non-changing, non-going, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not dependent, not independent, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not empty, not non-empty, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not dependently arisen, not empty of inherent existence, not both truths together, not neither of the two truths, and there is no fifth; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth – for what ever 'this' is. Meaning their true nature & relationship are indescribable / inconceivable.
That is one part that is  'hard' to understand / tolerate.
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It is hard to understand / tolerate that even though all dharmas are empty of inherent existence, they are not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional / useless / meaningless. One truth does not deny the other; on the contrary, they are more like inseparable / interdependent / co-defined / do-relative / co-dependent / co-emergent / co-evolving / co-ceasing / co-transcended / in harmony <==> thus themselves both empty of inherent existence <==> merely labeled / imputed by the mind; like illusions / reflections / mirages / dreams / echos / magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T].
It is hard to transcend / go beyond / let go of our views about Reality.)

Then the gods living in the desire realm and living in the form realm took up divine sandalwood powders, took up divine blue lotus, red lotus, and white lotus flowers, and specifically strewed them down on the Lord. Having strewed them they approached the Lord, went up to him, bowed their heads to the Lord's feet, and stood to one side. Even while standing to one side those gods living in the desire realm and living in the form realm said to the Lord,

  • "Lord, the tathāgatas, worthy ones, perfectly complete buddhas have thus taught in this deep perfection of wisdom:
    'Just form is the knowledge of all aspects, and the knowledge of all aspects is form.
    Just feeling . . . , perception . . . , volitional factors . . . , and consciousness is the knowledge of all aspects, and the knowledge of all aspects is consciousness.
    That which is the suchness of form and that which is the suchness of the knowledge of all aspects are a single suchness, not two and not divided.
    Similarly, connect this with that which is the suchness of . . . up to the buddhas, and that which is the suchness of . . . up to the knowledge of all aspects are a single suchness, not two and not divided.'

  • Thus, this perfection of wisdom ‍— namely, the awakening of the tathāgatas ‍— is deep, hard to behold, hard to understand, not something about which you can speculate, not an object of speculative thought, calm, subtle, an object to be known by the brilliantly learned and wise, a counterpoint to all that is ordinary."

The gods living in the desire realm and living in the form realm having said this, the Lord said to them,

  • "Exactly so, gods, exactly so!
    Gods, just form is the knowledge of all aspects, and the knowledge of all aspects is form. Just feeling . . . , perception . . . , volitional factors . . . , and consciousness is the knowledge of all aspects, and the knowledge of all aspects is consciousness.
    Similarly, connect this with each, up to just the buddha is the knowledge of all aspects, and the knowledge of all aspects is just the buddha.
    That which is the suchness of form and that which is the suchness of the knowledge of all aspects are a single suchness, not two and not divided.
    Similarly, connect this with that which is the suchness of . . . up to the buddha, and that which is the suchness of the knowledge of all aspects are a single suchness not two and not divided.

  • "Seeing this suchness forces a tathāgata to incline toward a little less work and be uninclined to teach the doctrine. And why? Ah! It is because this ‍— namely, the awakening of the tathāgatas ‍— is deep, hard to behold, hard to understand, not something about which you can speculate, not an object of speculative thought, calm, subtle, an object to be known by the brilliantly learned and wise, a counterpoint to all that is ordinary, so nobody has fully awakened to it and it has not been fully awakened to anywhere.

  • "Here where the habitual idea of two does not exist is the deep state of dharmas.
    Gods, because space is deep this doctrine is deep.
    Gods, this doctrine is deep because suchness is deep, the dharma-constituent is deep, the very limit of reality is deep, and the inconceivable element is deep.
    Gods, because the limitless and boundless . . . , the sameness of not coming and not going . . . , the sameness of not being produced and not stopping . . . , the sameness of not being defiled and not being purified . . . , the sameness of what does not occasion anything . . . , the deep state of self . . . , up to because the sameness of one who knows and one who sees is deep this doctrine is deep.

  • "Gods, because form is deep this doctrine is deep.
    Gods, because feeling, perception, volitional factors, and consciousness are deep this doctrine is deep.
    Gods, because the perfection of giving is deep this doctrine is deep.
    Gods, because the perfections of morality, patience, perseverance, concentration, and wisdom are deep this doctrine is deep.
    Ah! Gods, because inner emptiness is deep this doctrine is deep;
    because . . . up to the emptiness that is the nonexistence of an intrinsic nature is deep this doctrine is deep;
    because the applications of mindfulness are deep, and the right efforts, legs of miraculous power, faculties, powers, limbs of awakening, and path are deep this doctrine is deep;
    because the ten powers, fearlessnesses, detailed and thorough knowledges, up to the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha are deep, up to the knowledge of all aspects is deep this doctrine is deep."

The gods said,

  • "O Lord, this doctrine is taught as a counterpoint to all that is ordinary.
    And why?
    Because this doctrine is not taught so form will be taken up or will not be taken up.
    It is not taught so feeling, perception, volitional factors, or consciousness will be taken up or will not be taken up. It is not taught so . . .
    up to the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha will be taken up or will not be taken up.
    It is not taught so the buddha-dharmas will be taken up or will not be taken up.
    Lord, this deep teaching of the doctrine is not taught so the result of stream enterer will be taken up or will not be taken up.
    It is not taught so the result of once-returner, the result of non-returner, the state of a worthy one, a pratyekabuddha's awakening, or the knowledge of all aspects will be taken up or will not be taken up.

  • "Lord, the world gets involved with taking things up, thinking,
    'This is my form. I am form.
    This is my feeling . . . , perception . . . , volitional factors . . . , and consciousness.
    I am consciousness.'
    Similarly, connect this with each, up to the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha.
    'This is my result of stream enterer.
    I am the result of stream enterer.
    This is my result of once-returner.
    I am the result of once-returner.
    This is my result of non-returner.
    I am the result of non-returner.
    This is my state of a worthy one.
    I am the state of a worthy one.
    This is my pratyekabuddha's awakening.
    I am a pratyekabuddha's awakening.
    This is my knowledge of all aspects. I am a knower of all aspects.' "

"Exactly so, gods, exactly so!" replied the Lord.

  • "Gods, this doctrine is not taught so form will be taken up or will not be taken up.
    It is not taught so feeling, perception, volitional factors, and consciousness will be taken up or will not be taken up.
    Those who get involved in order to take up form, up to get involved in order to take up the knowledge of all aspects do not have the good fortune to meditate on the perfection of wisdom;
    they are incapable of meditating on, up to the perfection of concentration, perseverance, patience, morality, and giving;
    and they are incapable of meditating on, up to the knowledge of all aspects."

Subhūti then said,

  • "Lord, this doctrine is in harmony with all dharmas.
    With which dharmas is this doctrine in harmony?
    This doctrine is in harmony with the perfection of wisdom.
    Lord, this doctrine is in harmony with the perfection of concentration, the perfection of perseverance, the perfection of patience, the perfection of morality, and the perfection of giving.
    Lord, this doctrine is in harmony with inner emptiness.
    Lord, this doctrine is in harmony with . . . , up to the emptiness that is the nonexistence of an intrinsic nature.
    Lord, this doctrine is in harmony with . . . , up to the knowledge of all aspects.

  • "Lord, this doctrine is not obstructed by anything.
    What is this doctrine not obstructed by?
    This doctrine is not obstructed by form.
    This doctrine is not obstructed by feeling, perception, volitional factors, or consciousness.
    Similarly, this doctrine is not obstructed by . . . , up to the knowledge of all aspects.

  • "This doctrine, because of the sameness of space, the sameness of suchness, the sameness of the dharma-constituent, the sameness of the very limit of reality, the sameness of the inconceivable element, the sameness of emptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness, the sameness of not being produced and not stopping, and the sameness of not being defiled and not being purified, is marked by not being obstructed.

  • "This doctrine is not produced because form is not produced and does not stop;
    because feeling, perception, volitional factors, and consciousness are not produced and do not stop;
    and similarly, because . . . , up to the knowledge of all aspects is not produced and does not stop.

  • "This doctrine finds no footing because a footing for form is not apprehended;
    because a footing for feeling, perception, volitional factors, and consciousness is not apprehended; and similarly, because . . . , up to a footing for the knowledge of all aspects is not apprehended."

Then the gods living in the desire realm and living in the form realm said to the Lord,

  • "Lord, the elder Subhūti takes after the Lord.
    Why?
    Because whatever the elder Subhūti teaches, he teaches it all with emptiness as his point of departure."

Venerable Subhūti then responded to the gods living in the desire realm and living in the form realm,

  • "Gods, you say, 'Lord, this elder Subhūti takes after the Lord.'
    And how does he takes after him, how does the elder Subhūti take after the Lord?
    The suchness of the Tathāgata has not come and has not gone.
    Similarly, the suchness of Subhūti has not come and has not gone.
    In that way the elder Subhūti takes after the Tathāgata.

  • "Just that suchness of the Tathāgata is the suchness of all dharmas,
    and that suchness of all dharmas is the suchness of Subhūti.
    In that way the elder Subhūti takes after the Tathāgata.

  • "Just as the suchness of the Tathāgata is established, so too is the suchness of the elder Subhūti established, so the elder Subhūti takes after the Lord.
    Just as the suchness of the Tathāgata is unchanging and undifferentiated, so too with the suchness of the elder Subhūti, it also is unchanging and cannot be differentiated.
    Just as the suchness of the Tathāgata is not obstructed by anything, so too the suchness of all dharmas is not obstructed by anything.
    The suchness of the Tathāgata and the suchness of all dharmas are not two and cannot be divided into two.
    Suchness is not made.
    There is nothing of which that suchness is not the suchness. Because there is nothing of which that suchness is not the suchness and it is never not suchness, therefore suchness is not two and cannot be divided into two. In that way the elder Subhūti takes after the Tathāgata.

  • "That suchness of the Tathāgata is totally unchanging and undifferentiated.
    So too the suchness of the elder Subhūti is totally unchanging and undifferentiated. Just as the suchness of the Tathāgata is not broken apart, is not different, and cannot be apprehended, so too the suchness of all dharmas is not broken apart, is not different, and cannot be apprehended. Similarly, the suchness of the elder Subhūti is not broken apart, is not different, and cannot be apprehended either. In that way the elder Subhūti takes after the Tathāgata.

  • "The suchness of the Tathāgata is not other than the suchness of all phenomena, and what is not other than the suchness of all phenomena is never not suchness. It is always suchness. The suchness of the elder Subhūti is like that. Therefore, since it is not something else, even though the elder Subhūti takes after the Tathāgata he does not take after him in anything. Just as the suchness of the Tathāgata is not past, is not future, and is not present, so too the suchness of all phenomena is not past, is not future, and is not present. Similarly, the suchness of the elder Subhūti is not past, is not future, and is not present. Therefore, it is said the elder Subhūti 'takes after the Tathāgata.'

  • "Gods, here you should know the suchness of the Tathāgata that is the same, through the suchness of the past that is the same, and the sameness of the suchness of the past, through the sameness of the suchness of the Tathāgata; the sameness of the suchness of the Tathāgata, through the sameness of the suchness of the future, and the sameness of the suchness of the future, through the sameness of the suchness of the Tathāgata; and the sameness of the suchness of the Tathāgata, through the sameness of the suchness of the present, and the sameness of the suchness of the present, through the sameness of the suchness of the Tathāgata. Therefore, the suchness of the past, future, and present and the suchness of the Tathāgata are not two and cannot be divided into two.

  • "The suchness of the Tathāgata is the suchness of form. The suchness of form is the suchness of the Tathāgata. Similarly, the suchness of the Tathāgata is the suchness of feeling, perception, volitional factors, and consciousness. Therefore, the suchness of form, the suchness of feeling, perception, volitional factors, and consciousness, and the suchness of the Tathāgata are not two and cannot be divided into two. Similarly, connect this with the suchness of the Tathāgata is the suchness of self. The suchness of self is the suchness of the Tathāgata. Similarly, the suchness of the Tathāgata is the suchness of . . . , up to one who knows and one who sees. The suchness of . . . , up to one who knows and one who sees is the suchness of the Tathāgata. Therefore, the suchness of self, up to the suchness of one who knows and one who sees, and the suchness of the Tathāgata are not two and cannot be divided into two.

  • Similarly, connect this with the suchness of the perfection of giving, the suchness of the perfection of morality, patience, perseverance, concentration and wisdom, and the suchness of the Tathāgata are not two and cannot be divided into two. The suchness of inner emptiness, the suchness of . . . , up to the emptiness that is the nonexistence of an intrinsic nature, and the suchness of the Tathāgata are not two and cannot be divided into two. The suchness of the applications of mindfulness, the suchness of the right efforts, legs of miraculous power, faculties, powers, limbs of awakening, and path, and the suchness of the Tathāgata are not two and cannot be divided into two. The suchness of the Tathāgata is the suchness of the ten tathāgata powers, fearlessnesses, detailed and thorough knowledges, and eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha, and the suchness of . . . , up to the knowledge of all aspects. The suchness of . . . , up to the knowledge of all aspects is the suchness of the Tathāgata. Therefore, the suchness of the knowledge of all aspects and the suchness of the Tathāgata are not two and cannot be divided into two.

  • "Gods, thanks to this perfect suchness the Tathāgata has fully awakened to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening and gets to be called Tathāgata."

As this "Suchness" chapter was being expounded the great billionfold world system shook in six ways: it quaked, quaked greatly, and quaked violently; shook, shook greatly, and shook violently; stirred, stirred greatly, and stirred violently; resounded, resounded greatly, and resounded violently; roared, roared greatly, and roared violently; and was disturbed, greatly disturbed, and violently disturbed. The eastern direction rose up and the western direction sank down; the western direction rose up and the eastern direction sank down; the northern direction rose up and the southern direction sank down; the southern direction rose up and the northern direction sank down; the edges rose up and the middle sank down; and the middle rose up and the edges sank down.


Then the gods living in the desire realm and living in the form realm took up divine sandalwood powders and strewed them near, strewed them in front, strewed them all around the Lord and the elder Subhūti and exclaimed,

  • "Lord, it is amazing how this elder Subhūti takes after the Lord because of the suchness of the Tathāgata!"

Then the elder Subhūti, picking up the thread of this conversation with those gods, said to those gods,

  • "Gods, the elder Subhūti
    does not take after form,
    does not take after anything other than form,
    does not take after the suchness of form,
    and does not take after anything other than the suchness of form.
    -
    He does not take after feeling . . . , perception . . . , volitional factors . . . , or consciousness, does not take after anything other than consciousness, does not take after the suchness of consciousness, and does not take after anything other than the suchness of consciousness. Similarly, connect this with each, up to he does not take after the knowledge of all aspects, does not take after anything other than the knowledge of all aspects, does not take after the suchness of the knowledge of all aspects, and does not take after anything other than the suchness of the knowledge of all aspects. He does not take after the compounded, does not take after anything other than the compounded, does not take after the suchness of the compounded, and does not take after anything other than the suchness of the compounded. He does not take after the uncompounded, does not take after anything other than the uncompounded, does not take after the suchness of the uncompounded, and does not take after anything other than the suchness of the uncompounded. And why? Because the dharma that is taken after, and the dharma that takes after, do not exist and are not apprehended."

Then the venerable Śāriputra said to the Lord,

  • "Suchness, unmistaken suchness, unaltered suchness, the true nature of dharmas, the dharma-constituent, the establishment of dharmas, the certification of dharmas, the very limit of reality, and the inconceivable element are deep. In them you cannot apprehend form, nor can you apprehend the suchness of form;
    if you cannot apprehend even just form, however could you apprehend the suchness of form?
    In them you cannot apprehend feeling . . . , perception . . . , volitional factors . . . , or consciousness, nor can you apprehend the suchness of consciousness. And if you cannot apprehend even just consciousness, however could you apprehend the suchness of consciousness? Similarly, connect this with each, up to in them you cannot apprehend the knowledge of all aspects, nor can you apprehend the suchness of the knowledge of all aspects. And if you cannot apprehend even just the knowledge of all aspects, however could you apprehend the suchness of the knowledge of all aspects?"

"Śāriputra, exactly so! Exactly so!" said the Lord.

  • "Suchness, Śāriputra, is deep.
    In it you cannot apprehend form, you cannot apprehend the suchness of form.
    And if you cannot apprehend even just form, however could you apprehend the suchness of form? In it you cannot apprehend feeling . . . , perception . . . , volitional factors . . . , and consciousness, nor can you apprehend the suchness of consciousness. And if you cannot apprehend even just consciousness, however could you apprehend the suchness of consciousness. Similarly, connect this with each, up to you cannot apprehend the knowledge of all aspects, nor can you apprehend the suchness of the knowledge of all aspects. And if you cannot apprehend even just the knowledge of all aspects, however could you apprehend the suchness of the knowledge of all aspects."

As this "Suchness, Unmistaken Suchness, Unaltered Suchness" chapter was being expounded,
two hundred monks stopped taking hold of anything and their minds were freed from contamination.
Dust-free and stainless, the Dharma eye of five hundred nuns became clear about the dharmas. 536

Five thousand bodhisattvas gained forbearance for the nonproduction of dharmas.

Sixty bodhisattvas lacking in what is necessary stopped taking hold of anything and their minds were freed from contamination.

  • "Śāriputra, those bodhisattvas attended on five hundred buddhas.
    They gave gifts, guarded morality, cultivated patience, made a vigorous effort, became absorbed in concentration, and cultivated wisdom, but uninformed by the perfection of wisdom and uninformed by skillful means, they practiced thus, thinking, 'This is to be given. We will give it to them. We will guard this morality. We will cultivate this patience. We will make this vigorous effort. We will become absorbed in this concentration. We will cultivate this wisdom.' Practicing like that they were separated from the perfection of wisdom and were not assisted by skillful means, so practicing the cultivation of giving, morality, patience, perseverance, concentration, and wisdom with perceptions of difference, and not apprehending the absence of difference, they did not enter into the secure state of a bodhisattva. And because they did not enter into the secure state of a bodhisattva they reached the result of stream enterer, reached . . . , up to the result of a worthy one.

  • "Furthermore, Śāriputra, even though those bodhisattva great beings' path of emptiness, or signlessness, or wishlessness is present, still they are separated from the perfection of wisdom and have not been assisted by skillful means, so, having actualized the very limit of reality, they have become śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas."

Śāriputra then asked,

  • "Why, Lord, even though they have similarly cultivated just those dharmas ‍— emptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness ‍— did those separated from skillful means actualize the very limit of reality and become śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas,
    while those other bodhisattvas, Lord, will, thanks to skillful means, by cultivating just those dharmas ‍— emptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness ‍— fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening?"

"Śāriputra," replied the Lord,

  • "here some separated from the thought of the knowledge of all aspects, who cultivate emptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness without resorting to skillful means, become śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas. -
    Śāriputra, here those bodhisattva great beings not separated from the thought of the knowledge of all aspects, thanks to skillful means, cultivate emptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness, enter into the secure state of a bodhisattva, and fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening.

  • "To illustrate, Śāriputra, a winged bird with a physical body of a hundred yojanas, or a physical body of two hundred yojanas, or three hundred yojanas, or four hundred yojanas, or five hundred yojanas thinks it will come from the Trāyastriṃśa class of gods to this Jambudvīpa, but that bird is one without the proper wings to do it. It thinks, 'I have to take off from the Trāyastriṃśa class of gods and go to Jambudvīpa,' but if, halfway to landing on the earth, it has second thoughts ‍— 'Hey! I had better set down in the Trāyastriṃśa class of gods' ‍— what do you think, Śāriputra, would that bird therefore be able to set down in the Trāyastriṃśa class of gods?"

"No, Lord, it would not be able to," replied Śāriputra.

  • The Lord said, "If it were to think halfway, 537
    'Hey! I must set down unharmed and uninjured in Jambudvīpa,'
    what do you think, Śāriputra, would that bird set down unharmed and uninjured in Jambudvīpa?"

"No, Lord, it would not be able to," replied Śāriputra.

  • "That bird would be harmed or become injured and would suffer death or near death before landing in Jambudvīpa. And why? Because that will happen for sure since its physical body is big, its wings are stunted, and it has taken off from such a high place."

  • "It is similar, Śāriputra," continued the Lord, "with bodhisattvas who, for as many eons as there are sand particles in the Gaṅgā River, give gifts, guard morality, cultivate patience, make an effort at perseverance, and become absorbed in concentration, but are separated from the perfection of wisdom and not assisted by skillful means. Their entrance is bigger, they think a bigger thought, they are assisted by an immeasurable beneficial intention to fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening, but still they will fall to the śrāvaka level or the pratyekabuddha level. And why? Because those bodhisattva great beings have given gifts, guarded morality, cultivated patience, made an effort at perseverance, and generated concentration separated from the thought of the knowledge of all aspects. Those bodhisattvas will still be separated from the perfection of wisdom and skillful means and fall to the śrāvaka level or the pratyekabuddha level.

  • "Śāriputra, bodhisattvas who habitually focus thoughts on the morality, meditative stabilization, wisdom, freedom, and knowledge and seeing of liberation of past, future, and present lord buddhas, who fully retain and make them into causal signs, still do not know the morality, still do not know . . . , up to the knowledge and seeing of liberation of the tathāgatas, and, without knowing and comprehending, hear the words emptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness and grasp the state of peace as a causal sign. Having grasped it as a causal sign they transform it 538 into unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening. The bodhisattvas who transform it like that will stand on the śrāvaka level or the pratyekabuddha level. And why? Śāriputra, it is because that is what happens to bodhisattvas separated from the perfection of wisdom and skillful means who dedicate the wholesome roots to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening. They fall to the śrāvaka level or the pratyekabuddha level.

  • "Śāriputra, here you should know that when bodhisattva great beings, starting from the production of the first thought, are inseparable from the thought of the knowledge of all aspects, give gifts, guard morality, cultivate patience, make an effort at perseverance, become absorbed in concentration, are not separated from the perfection of wisdom and skillful means, and therefore do not grasp all the morality, meditative stabilization, wisdom, freedom, and knowledge and seeing of liberation of past, future, and present lord buddhas as causal signs, and do not grasp the emptiness meditative stabilization, signless meditative stabilization, and wishless meditative stabilization as causal signs, then, Śāriputra, they do not fall to the śrāvaka level or the pratyekabuddha level. And why? Because those bodhisattva great beings, starting from the production of the first thought, have given gifts but not grasped at a causal sign; have guarded morality, cultivated patience, made an effort at perseverance, become absorbed in concentration, and cultivated wisdom but not grasped at a causal sign; have not grasped at the morality, meditative stabilization, wisdom, freedom, or knowledge and seeing of liberation of past, future, and present lord buddhas as causal signs; and have not grasped the emptiness meditative stabilization, signless meditative stabilization, or wishless meditative stabilization as causal signs either. Thus, Śāriputra, the practice without having grasped at causal signs, with a mind separated from causal signs of giving gifts, guarding morality, cultivating patience, making an effort at perseverance, becoming absorbed in concentration, and cultivating wisdom, and similarly, connect this with each, up to the knowledge of all aspects is the bodhisattva great beings' skillful means."

"Lord," said Śāriputra,

  • "the way I understand the meaning of what you, Lord, have said is that the unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening of bodhisattva great beings who, starting from the production of the first thought, are not separated from the perfection of wisdom and skillful means is not open to doubt.
    And why?
    Lord, it is because those bodhisattva great beings, starting from the production of the first thought, do not apprehend any dharma that might fully awaken, or through which there might be full awakening, nor any form that might be awakened to, nor any feeling, perception, volitional factors, or consciousness, nor . . . , similarly, up to the knowledge of all aspects that might be awakened to.

  • "And Lord, it should be known that the unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening of those sons of a good family or daughters of a good family in the Bodhisattva Vehicle separated from the perfection of wisdom and separated from skillful means is doubtful.
    Why?
    Lord, it is because whatever gifts those sons of a good family or daughters of a good family in the Bodhisattva Vehicle separated from the perfection of wisdom and skillful means have bestowed, they bestowed them all having grasped at a causal sign, and because whatever morality they guarded . . . , patience they cultivated . . . , perseverance they made an effort at . . . , or concentrations they became absorbed in, they became absorbed in them all too having grasped at a causal sign. The unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening of those sons of a good family or daughters of a good family in the Bodhisattva Vehicle should be known as doubtful because of that.

  • "Therefore, Lord, bodhisattva great beings who want to awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening should be aware not to be separated from the perfection of wisdom and skillful means.
    They should stand in the perfection of wisdom and skillful means and should bestow gifts,
    should guard morality, should cultivate patience, should make an effort at perseverance,
    should become absorbed in concentration, and
    should cultivate wisdom [T1] by way of not apprehending anything [T2] [U2T],
    with a mind endowed with signlessness.
    They should practice . . . , up to the knowledge of all aspects like that."


Then the gods living in the desire realm and living in the form realm said to the Lord,

  • "Lord, it is going to be hard for unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening to come about for bodhisattva great beings.
    They have to want to awaken fully to all dharmas but those dharmas do not exist and cannot be apprehended."

"Exactly so, gods!" said the Lord.

  • "It is going to be hard for unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening to come about.
    Gods!
    -
    Even though I have fully awakened to all dharmas in all their aspects [T1],
    still I did not apprehend any dharma that might fully awaken [T2] [U2T],
    or through which I might fully awaken, or any dharma I might awaken to.
    -
    And why? Gods,
    it is because all dharmas are absolutely pure (i.e. not dependently arisen / produced / conditioned)."

Then venerable Subhūti said to the Lord,

  • "Lord, you have said,
    'It is going to be hard for unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening to come about.'
    -
    The way I understand the meaning of what you, Lord, have said, the way it occurs to me, is
    that the full awakening to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening must be easy.
    -
    And why?
    -
    Because there is nobody who fully awakens, and there is nothing that is fully awakened to,
    so all dharmas [T1] are empty [T2] [U2T],
    and where all dharmas are empty,
    any dharma that might fully awaken, through which there might be full awakening, or to which they might awaken [T1] does not exist [T2] [U2T].
    -
    And why?
    -
    Lord, it is because any dharma that will increase or decrease, any dharma to be bestowed, up to any concentration to become absorbed in, any dharma . . . up to the knowledge of all aspects to practice [T1] does not exist [T2] [U2T].
    Somebody who might fully awaken, something through which there might be full awakening, and something to be fully awakened to ‍— all those dharmas [T1] are empty [T2] [U2T].
    -
    In this way, Lord,
    it must be easy for bodhisattva great beings to fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening.
    -
    And why?
    -
    Lord, it is because form [T1] is empty of an intrinsic nature of form [T2] [U2T];
    feeling . . . , perception . . . , volitional factors . . . , and consciousness [T1] is empty of an intrinsic nature of consciousness [T2] [U2T];
    and similarly, up to the knowledge of all aspects [T1] is empty of an intrinsic nature of the knowledge of all aspects [T2] [U2T]."

Then venerable Śāriputra said to venerable Subhūti,

  • "Venerable Subhūti, according to this one of many explanations,
    the full awakening to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening must be hard.
    -
    And why?
    -
    Venerable Subhūti, it is because it would not occur to space to think, 'I will fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening.'
    Similarly, Venerable Subhūti, it would not occur to bodhisattva great beings to think, 'I will fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening.'
    -
    And why?
    -
    Because all dharmas are like space [T2],
    and yet, while still believing all dharmas are like space [T2],
    bodhisattva great beings fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening [T1] [U2T].
    -
    If bodhisattva great beings do not believe that dharmas are like space,
    but still [believe that] it is easy to fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening,
    full awakening would not be hard,
    and bodhisattvas, as many of them as there are sand particles in the Gaṅgā River,
    would not turn back 539 from unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening.
    -
    Therefore, Venerable Subhūti, according to this one of many explanations,
    the full awakening to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening must be hard.
    -
    It is obvious full awakening is not easy."

Then venerable Subhūti asked venerable Śāriputra,

  • "Venerable Śāriputra, what do you think,
    does form turn back from unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening?"

"No it does not, Venerable Subhūti," he replied.

  • "Do you think feeling, perception, volitional factors, and consciousness turn back from unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening?"

"No they do not, Venerable Subhūti," he replied.

  • Similarly, connect this with each, up to "Do you think suchness turns back from unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening?"

"No it does not, Venerable Subhūti," he replied.

  • "Venerable Śāriputra, what do you think, is the dharma that turns back from unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening other than form?"

"No it is not, Venerable Subhūti," he replied.

  • "Do you think the dharma that turns back from unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening is other than feeling, perception, volitional factors, or consciousness?"

"No it is not, Venerable Subhūti," he replied.

  • Similarly, connect this with each, up to "Do you think the dharma that turns back from unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening is other than the knowledge of all aspects?"

"No it is not, Venerable Subhūti," he replied.

  • "Venerable Śāriputra, what do you think,
    is it the suchness of form that turns back from unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening,
    up to is it the suchness of the knowledge of all aspects that turns back from unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening?"

"No it is not, Venerable Subhūti," he replied.

  • "Venerable Śāriputra, what do you think, is the dharma that turns back from unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening other than the suchness of form?"

"No it is not, Venerable Subhūti," he replied.

  • Similarly, "Do you think the dharma that turns back from unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening is other than . . . , up to the suchness of the knowledge of all aspects?"

"No it is not, Venerable Subhūti," he replied.

  • "Venerable Śāriputra, what do you think,
    does suchness turn back from unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening?"

"No it does not, Venerable Subhūti," he replied.

  • "Venerable Śāriputra, what do you think,
    does the true nature of dharmas turn back from unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening?
    Do you think the dharma-constituent, the establishment of dharmas, the certification of dharmas, the very limit of reality, or the inconceivable element turn back from unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening?"

"No they do not, Venerable Subhūti," he replied.

  • "Venerable Śāriputra, what do you think, is the dharma that turns back from unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening other than suchness?"

"No it is not, Venerable Subhūti," he replied.

  • "Venerable Śāriputra, what do you think, is the dharma that turns back from unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening other than . . . , up to the inconceivable element?"

"No it is not, Venerable Subhūti," he replied.

  • "So, since as things stand in truth these dharmas cannot be apprehended (i.e. not the same, not other, not both together, nt neither),
    what then is that dharma that turns back from unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening?"

Venerable Subhūti having asked this, venerable Śāriputra said to him,

  • "According to the way things are in the elder Subhūti's teaching 540
    there is no bodhisattva great being who turns back from unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening,
    and therefore there will be no presentation of the awakenings of those three persons to do with the Bodhisattva Vehicle ‍— those three persons to do with the Bodhisattva Vehicle about whom the Tathāgata has given an explanation. According to the elder Subhūti's teaching, bodhisattva great beings will be this ‍— namely, in just a single Bodhisattva Vehicle."

Then venerable Pūrṇa Maitrāyaṇī­putra said to venerable Śāriputra,

  • "Venerable Śāriputra, you must ask the elder Subhūti
    whether the elder Subhūti accepts even a single awakening."

Venerable Śāriputra then asked of venerable Subhūti,

  • "Venerable Subhūti, do you accept that there is a bodhisattva great being in the Buddha Vehicle?"

Venerable Subhūti asked venerable Śāriputra in return,

  • "Venerable Śāriputra, do you accept that in suchness there are three bodhisattvas: the bodhisattva in the Śrāvaka Vehicle, the bodhisattva in the Pratyekabuddha Vehicle, and the bodhisattva in the Buddha Vehicle?"

"No, Venerable Subhūti," he replied.

  • "Venerable Śāriputra, in suchness can you apprehend three bodhisattvas?"

"No, Venerable Subhūti," he replied.

  • "Venerable Śāriputra, can suchness be apprehended as one type, or two types, or three types?"

"No, Venerable Subhūti," he replied.

  • "Venerable Śāriputra, in suchness can you apprehended even one bodhisattva?"

"No, Venerable Subhūti," he replied.

Venerable Subhūti then said,

  • "So, since as things stand in truth these dharmas cannot be apprehended,
    what, Venerable Śāriputra, made you think, 'This bodhisattva is in the Śrāvaka Vehicle, this bodhisattva is in the Pratyekabuddha Vehicle, and this bodhisattva is in the Buddha Vehicle'?

  • "Thus, Venerable Śāriputra, bodhisattva great beings whose minds are not cowed, who do not tense up, and who do not experience regret when bodhisattva great beings categorized in terms of the suchness of all dharmas are not specifically qualified 541 ‍—
    they will go forth to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening."

Then the Lord said to venerable Subhūti,

  • "Subhūti, your confident readiness to explain like this through the Buddha's might is excellent!
    Therefore, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings whose minds are not cowed, who do not tense up, and who do not experience regret ‍— who do not tremble, feel frightened, or become terrified when bodhisattva great beings categorized in terms of the suchness of all dharmas are not specifically qualified ‍—
    those bodhisattva great beings will go forth to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening."

Then venerable Śāriputra asked the Lord,

  • "Lord, to which awakening will bodhisattva great beings with such qualities as those go forth?"

"Śāriputra," replied the Lord,

  • "those bodhisattva great beings will go forth to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening."


Then venerable Subhūti asked the Lord,

  • "Lord, how should bodhisattva great beings
    who want to go forth to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening
    stand?"

"Subhūti," replied the Lord,

  • "bodhisattva great beings stand with a thought that makes all beings equal: 542
    'I must produce a balanced thought toward all beings, not produce an unbalanced thought.
    I must focus on all beings with a balanced thought, not focus on all beings with an unbalanced thought.
    -
    I must generate great love and great compassion for all beings.
    I must focus on all beings with great love.
    I must not focus on any beings callously.
    I must stop feeling superior to any beings.
    I must focus on all beings without being devious.
    -
    I must produce a thought to be of benefit to all beings, not produce a thought to harm them.
    I must focus on all beings with a thought to benefit them, not focus on them with a thought to harm them.
    I must produce a thought that I am not offended by any beings, not produce a thought that I am offended.
    I must produce a thought not to injure any beings, not produce a thought to injure them.
    I must focus on all beings with a thought not to injure them, not focus on them with a thought to injure them.
    -
    I must produce a thought that all beings are mothers.
    I must produce a thought that all beings are brothers, sisters, friends, kinsmen, and blood relatives.
    I must focus on all beings with the thought they are mothers.
    I must focus on all beings with the thought they are brothers, sisters, friends, kinsmen, up to blood relatives.

  • " 'I must stop killing,
    I must inspire others to stop killing,
    I must speak in praise of stopping killing, and
    I must speak in praise of others stopping killing as well, welcoming it.

  • " 'I must stop stealing,
    I must inspire others to stop stealing,
    I must speak in praise of stopping stealing, and
    I must speak in praise of others stopping stealing as well, welcoming it.

  • " 'I must stop illicit sex because of lust,
    I must inspire others to stop illicit sex because of lust,
    I must speak in praise of stopping illicit sex because of lust, and
    I must speak in praise of others stopping illicit sex because of lust as well, welcoming it.'

"That is how bodhisattva great beings
who want to go forth to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening
should stand.

  • Similarly, "
    'I must stop . . . up to wrong view,
    I must inspire others to stop wrong view,
    I must speak in praise of stopping wrong view, and
    I must speak in praise of others stopping wrong view as well, welcoming it.'

"That is how bodhisattva great beings
who want to go forth to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening
should stand.

  • " 'I must become absorbed in the first concentration,
    I must inspire others to become absorbed in the first concentration,
    I must speak in praise of becoming absorbed in the first concentration, and
    I must speak in praise of others becoming absorbed in the first concentration as well, welcoming it. Similarly,
    -
    I must become absorbed in . . . up to the fourth concentration,
    up to I must speak in praise of others becoming absorbed in . . . up to the fourth concentration as well, welcoming it.'

"Furthermore, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings
who want to go forth to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening

  • must become absorbed in loving-kindness,
    up to 'I must speak in praise of others becoming absorbed in loving-kindness as well, welcoming it.
    I must do the same with compassion, joy, and equanimity as well.

  • " 'I must become absorbed in the station of endless space. Similarly,
    up to I must speak in praise of others becoming absorbed in the station of endless space as well, welcoming it.
    -
    I must do the same with . . . up to the station of neither perception nor nonperception absorption.

  • " 'I must complete the perfection of giving,
    I must inspire others to take up the perfection of giving,
    I must speak in praise of the perfection of giving, and
    I must speak in praise of others completing the perfection of giving as well, welcoming it.
    -
    I must complete . . . up to the perfection of wisdom,
    I must inspire others to take up the perfection of wisdom,
    I must speak in praise of the perfection of wisdom, and
    I must speak in praise of others completing the perfection of wisdom as well, welcoming it.'

"That is how bodhisattva great beings
who want to go forth to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening
should stand.

  • " 'I must become absorbed in inner emptiness,
    I must inspire others to become absorbed in inner emptiness,
    I must speak in praise of inner emptiness, and
    I must speak in praise of others becoming absorbed in inner emptiness as well, welcoming it. Similarly,
    -
    I must become absorbed in . . . up to the emptiness that is the nonexistence of an intrinsic nature,
    I must inspire others to become absorbed in the emptiness that is the nonexistence of an intrinsic nature,
    I must speak in praise of the emptiness that is the nonexistence of an intrinsic nature, and
    I must speak in praise of others becoming absorbed in the emptiness that is the nonexistence of an intrinsic nature as well, welcoming it.

  • " 'I must cultivate the four applications of mindfulness,
    I must inspire others to take up the applications of mindfulness,
    I must speak in praise of the applications of mindfulness, and
    I must speak in praise of others cultivating the applications of mindfulness as well, welcoming it.
    I must do the same with . . . up to the eightfold noble path.

  • " 'I must become absorbed in the emptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness meditative stabilization,
    I must inspire others to take up the emptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness meditative stabilization,
    I must speak in praise of the emptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness meditative stabilization, and
    I must speak in praise of others becoming absorbed in the emptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness meditative stabilization as well, welcoming it.

  • " 'I must become absorbed in the eight deliverances,
    I must inspire others to take up the eight deliverances,
    I must speak in praise of the eight deliverances, and
    I must speak in praise of others becoming absorbed in the eight deliverances as well, welcoming it.

  • " 'I must complete the ten tathāgata powers,
    I must inspire others to take up the ten tathāgata powers,
    I must speak in praise of the ten tathāgata powers, and
    I must speak in praise of others completing the ten tathāgata powers as well, welcoming it.
    -
    Similarly, I must complete the four fearlessnesses, the four detailed and thorough knowledges, the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha, great love, and great compassion.
    I must inspire others to take up . . . up to great love, and great compassion,
    I must speak in praise of great compassion, and
    I must speak in praise of others completing great compassion as well, welcoming it.

  • " 'I must become absorbed in dependent origination in the order in which it unfolds and in the order in which it does not unfold,
    I must inspire others to take up dependent origination in the order in which it unfolds and in the order in which it does not unfold,
    I must speak in praise of dependent origination, and
    I must speak in praise of others becoming absorbed in dependent origination as well, welcoming it.'

"That is how bodhisattva great beings
who want to go forth to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening
should stand.

  • " 'I must comprehend suffering.
    I must abandon origination.
    I must actualize cessation.
    I must cultivate the path.
    I must inspire others to take up the comprehension of suffering, the abandoning of origination, the actualization of cessation, and the cultivation of the path.
    I must speak in praise of the comprehension of suffering, up to the cultivation of the path, and
    I must speak in praise of others becoming absorbed in the comprehension of suffering, the abandoning of origination, the actualization of cessation, and the cultivation of the path as well, welcoming it.

  • " 'I must produce knowledge to actualize the knowledge that is the result of stream enterer, but I should not actualize the very limit of reality.
    I must inspire others to actualize the knowledge that is the result of stream enterer.
    -
    I must produce knowledge to actualize the knowledge that is the result of once-returner, but I should not actualize the very limit of reality.
    I must inspire others to actualize the knowledge that is the result of once-returner.
    -
    I must produce knowledge to actualize the knowledge that is the result of non-returner, but I should not actualize the very limit of reality.
    I must inspire others to actualize the knowledge that is the result of non-returner.
    -
    I must produce knowledge to actualize the knowledge that is the state of a worthy one, but I should not actualize the very limit of reality.
    I must inspire others to actualize the knowledge that is the state of a worthy one.
    -
    I must enter into the secure state of a bodhisattva,
    I must inspire others to enter into the secure state of a bodhisattva,
    I must speak in praise of the secure state of a bodhisattva, and
    I must speak in praise of others entering into the secure state of a bodhisattva as well, welcoming it.'

"That is how bodhisattva great beings
who want to go forth to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening
should stand.

  • " 'I must bring beings to maturity,
    I must inspire others to bring beings to maturity,
    I must speak in praise of bringing beings to maturity, and
    I must speak in praise of others bringing beings to maturity as well, welcoming it.
    -
    I must purify a buddhafield,
    I must inspire others to purify a buddhafield,
    I must speak in praise of purifying a buddhafield, and
    I must speak in praise of others purifying a buddhafield as well, welcoming it.
    -
    I must produce a bodhisattva's clairvoyance,
    I must inspire others to produce a bodhisattva's clairvoyance,
    I must speak in praise of producing a bodhisattva's clairvoyance, and
    I must speak in praise of others producing a bodhisattva's clairvoyance as well, welcoming it.
    -
    I must produce the knowledge of a knower of all aspects,
    I must inspire others to take up the knowledge of a knower of all aspects,
    I must speak in praise of the knowledge of a knower of all aspects, and
    I must speak in praise of others producing the knowledge of a knower of all aspects as well, welcoming it.
    -
    I must eliminate all residual impressions, connections, and afflictions.
    I must inspire others to eliminate all residual impressions, connections, and afflictions.
    I must speak in praise of knowledge of the elimination of all residual impressions, connections, and afflictions, and
    I must speak in praise of others eliminating all residual impressions, connections, and afflictions as well, welcoming it.'

"Subhūti, that is how bodhisattva great beings
who want to go forth to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening
should stand.

  • " 'I must take possession of a perfect lifespan.
    I must inspire others to have a perfect lifespan.
    I must speak in praise of having a perfect lifespan, and
    I must speak in praise of others taking possession of a perfect lifespan as well, welcoming it.
    -
    I must make sure the good doctrine lasts.
    I must inspire others to make sure the good doctrine lasts.
    I must speak in praise of making sure the good doctrine lasts, and
    I must speak in praise of others making sure the good doctrine lasts as well, welcoming it.'

"Subhūti, that is how bodhisattva great beings
who want to go forth to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening
should stand.

  • That is how bodhisattva great beings should train in the perfection of wisdom and skillful means.
    Training like that, standing like that, 543
    their form [T1] will be without obscuration [T2] [U2T];
    their feeling, perception, volitional factors, and consciousness [T1] will also be without obscuration.
    Similarly, connect this with each, up to the lasting of the doctrine [T1] will be without obscuration.
    -
    And why?
    -
    Because even in the past those bodhisattva great beings
    did not seize [T2] form [T1] [U2T];
    did not seize [T2] feeling, perception, volitional factors, or consciousness [T1] [U2T]; and similarly,
    did not seize [T2] . . . up to the knowledge of all aspects [T1] [U2T].
    -
    And why?
    -
    Because even that form [T1] that has not been seized is not form [T2] [U2T],
    and similarly, up to even that knowledge of all aspects [T1] that has not been seized is not the knowledge of all aspects [T2] [U2T]."

During this exposition of the positioning of the bodhisattva, two thousand bodhisattvas gained forbearance for the nonproduction of dharmas.

This was the forty-eighth chapter, "A Presentation of the Bodhisattvas' Training," of "The Perfection of Wisdom in Eighteen Thousand Lines."




Access to other chapters on the Blog:
(Work in progress. Empty files means they are not done yet.)

  1. Chapter 0 – Introduction to the Sutra

  2. Chapter 1 – Introduction / the Assembly

  3. Chapter 2 – Production of the Thought

  4. Chapter 3 – designation [U2T]

  5. Chapter 4 – Equal to the Unequal

  6. Chapter 5 – Tongue

  7. Chapter 6 – Subhūti

  8. Chapter 7 – Entry into flawlessness

  9. Chapter 8 – The Religious Mendicant Śreṇika

  10. Chapter 9 – Causal Signs

  11. Chapter 10 – Illusion-like

  12. Chapter 11 – Embarrassment

  13. Chapter 12 – Elimination of Views

  14. Chapter 13 – The Six Perfections

  15. Chapter 14 – Neither Bound nor Freed

  16. Chapter 15 – Meditative Stabilization

  17. Chapter 16 – Dhāraṇī Gateway

  18. Chapter 17 – Level Purification

  19. Chapter 18 – The Exposition of Going Forth in the Great Vehicle [cause / path]

  20. Chapter 19 – Surpassing

  21. Chapter 20 – Not Two

  22. Chapter 21 – Subhūti

  23. Chapter 22 – Śatakratu

  24. Chapter 23 – Hard to Understand

  25. Chapter 24 – Unlimited

  26. Chapter 25 – Second Śatakratu

  27. Chapter 26 – Getting Old

  28. Chapter 27 – Reliquary

  29. Chapter 28 – Declaration of the Good Qualities of the Thought of Awakening

  30. Chapter 29 – Different Tīrthika Religious Mendicants

  31. Chapter 30 – The Benefits of Taking Up and Adoration

  32. Chapter 31 – Physical Remains

  33. Chapter 32 – The Superiority of Merit

  34. Chapter 33 – Dedication

  35. Chapter 34 – Perfect Praise of the Quality of Accomplishment

  36. Chapter 35 – Hells

  37. Chapter 36 – Teaching The Purity of all Dharmas

  38. Chapter 37 – Nobody

  39. Chapter 38 – Cannot Be Apprehended

  40. Chapter 39 – The Northern Region

  41. Chapter 40 – The Work of Māra

  42. Chapter 41 – Not Complete Because of Māra

  43. Chapter 42 – Revealing the World

  44. Chapter 43 – Inconceivable

  45. Chapter 44 – Made Up

  46. Chapter 45 – A Boat

  47. Chapter 46 – Teaching the Intrinsic Nature of All Dharmas

  48. Chapter 47 – Taming Greed

  49. Chapter 48 – A Presentation of the Bodhisattvas' Training

  50. Chapter 49 – Irreversibility

  51. Chapter 50 – Teaching the Signs of Irreversibility

  52. Chapter 51 – Skillful means

  53. Chapter 52 – Completion of the Means

  54. Chapter 53 – The Prophecy about Gaṅgadevī

  55. Chapter 54 – Teaching the Cultivation of Skillful Means

  56. Chapter 55 – Teaching the Stopping of Thought Construction [in absolute terms]

  57. Chapter 56 – Equal Training

  58. Chapter 57 – Practice

  59. Chapter 58 – Exposition of the Absence of Thought Construction [in absolute terms]

  60. Chapter 59 – non-attachment

  61. Chapter 60 – Entrusting

  62. Chapter 61 – Inexhaustible

  63. Chapter 62 – Leaping Above Absorption

  64. Chapter 63 – Many Inquiries about the Two Dharmas

  65. Chapter 64 – Perfectly Displayed

  66. Chapter 65 – Worshiping, Serving, and Attending on Spiritual Friends as Skillful Means

  67. Chapter 66 – A Demonstration of Skillful Means

  68. Chapter 67 – Morality

  69. Chapter 68 – Growing and Flourishing

  70. Chapter 69 – An Explanation of Meditation on The Path

  71. Chapter 70 – An Explanation of Serial Action, Training, and Practice

  72. Chapter 71 – The True Nature of Dharmas That Cannot Be Apprehended

  73. Chapter 72 – Teaching the Absence of Marks

  74. Chapter 73 – Exposition of the Major Marks and Minor Signs and the Completion of Letters

  75. Chapter 74 – Exposition of the Sameness of Dharmas

  76. Chapter 75 – Exposition of non-complication –

  77. Chapter 76 – The Armor for Bringing Beings to Maturity

  78. Chapter 77 – Teaching the Purification of a Buddhafield

  79. Chapter 78 – Teaching the Skillful Means for the Purification of a Buddhafield

  80. Chapter 79 – Teaching the non- Existence of an Intrinsic Nature

  81. Chapter 80 – Teaching that there is No Defilement or Purification

  82. Chapter 81 – Yogic Practice of the Ultimate

  83. Chapter 82 – The Unchanging True Nature of Dharmas

  84. Chapter 83 – Categorization of a Bodhisattva's Training

  85. Chapter 84 – Collection

  86. Chapter 85 – Sadāprarudita

  87. Chapter 86 – Dharmodgata

  88. Chapter 87 – Entrusting

  89. Résumés in bullet points of all chapters.




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