Thursday, June 16, 2022

Prajnaparamita-18K - Chapter 42 - Revealing the unique suchness of all dharmas - 342

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The Transcendent Perfection of Wisdom
in Eighteen Thousand Lines - 342
Daśa­sāhasrikā­prajñā­pāramitā

– Chapter 42 - Revealing the unique suchness of all dharmas –

Source: https://read.84000.co/translation/toh10.html

More Analysis of Mahayana Sutras : https://www.gilehtblog.com/2022/07/toc-400.html


[Back to Résumés of chapters 42-87]

[Introductory notes:

  • All Buddhist teachings, including the Prajnaparamita Sutras, are about
    awakening from the illusions of our indirect (dualistic, conceptual) knowledge,
    from our mistaken motivations and actions based on this indirect knowledge,
    from the limitless & centerless self-conditioning / karmic cycle based on our ignorance.
    -
    All Buddhist teachings, including the Prajnaparamita Sutras, are about
    awakening to the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now (direct knowledge),
    and to choose & act more and more in accord with it.
    -
    So it is not about improving our capacity for discrimination / differentiation;
    it is not about 'accepting / affirming / seeking / doing this'
    while 'rejecting / negating / abandoning / eliminating / stopping / not-doing that'
    as if things were inherently existing,
    and having inherently existing characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / relations / oppositions / processes / activities.
    -
    It is more about personally spontaneously non-dualistically non-conceptually
    directly perceiving / realising / experiencing the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of all dharmas [U2T].
    -
    It is this inconceivable 'non-dualistic non-conceptual non-conditioned pure direct knowledge / wisdom' that is the liberating factor.
    That is the perfection of wisdom (Prajnaparamita).

  • This true nature of Reality as it is here & now, true nature & dynamic of all dharmas,
    is indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s).
    It is beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all defining limitations,
    beyond all conditioning / karma. It is beyond all conditioned indirect knowledge and activities based on them.
    It is beyond all description / conceptualisation, discrimination / differentiation / dualities,
    causality / production / laws, form / matter-energy, space & time.
    -
    And 'beyond / free-from / transcending' does not mean that we need to
    reject / negate / abandon / eliminate / stop / not-do those,
    but just to directly realise their inconceivable true nature & dynamic as it is here & now [U2T],
    -
    [U2T] We need to directly realise that all dharmas are more like a Union of being empty of inherent existence [T2], not really existent / caused / functional <==> and being conventionally dependently co-arisen relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind in dependence of its conditioning / karma [U3S], not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional / useless / meaningless. And that one aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T / U2T-3S / U2T-opp / U2T-2T].
    To understand and then directly realise the exact nature of the inter-relation between those two aspects / truths (dependent origination and emptiness) is the ultimate realisation of a Buddha.
    -
    [U3S] We need to directly realise that all perceived objects / phenomena are co-dependent / co-emergent / co-evolving with the subject / mind perceiving / fabricating / imagining / merely labeling them [U3S] in dependence of its already accumulated conditioning / karma. The perceived world is not purely objective (objects-only), not purely subjective (subject/mind-only), not purely processes / actions (processes/actions-only), not a combination of them, not none of them. And vice versa for the subject / mind, and relation / action. [U3S / U3S-2T / U3S-opp]
    The non-duality subject / observer and object / observed / world and their inter-relation / action is an important aspect to gain omniscience, liberation from all cognitive obscurations.
    -
    [Uopp] We need to directly realise that apparent opposites of any duality / triad / quad / etc. are not really different / separate / in opposition, but are more like inseparable, interdependent, co-defined, co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing / co-transcended, in harmony [T1] <==> thus all empty of inherent existence [T2] <==> merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S] in dependence of its past / conditioning / karma [Uopp / Uopp-2T / Uopp-3S].
    The non-duality of all dharmas is an important concept / tool; the Union of the three spheres [U3S], and the Union of the Two Truths [U2T] are specific cases of the Union of opposites [Uopp]; and vice versa.
    -
    [U2T-2T] We need to directly realise that even the two truths are like that : they are themselves empty of inherent existence <==> because themselves conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [U2T-2T], themselves merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S-2T]; themselves two inseparable apparent opposites [Uopp-2T].

The two truths and their relation:

  • T1: The first truth, relative truth, covers the multiplicity of conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means, merely labeled / imputed / imagined / co-created by the mind in dependence of its conditioning / karma (in a limitless and centerless cycle [U3S]), not completely non-existence / non-causality / non-functionality.
    Note: Something could be co-dependent with its parts and wholes (when applicable), with its causes & conditions and effects (when applicable), with its conceptual opposite(s) (always), and especially co-dependent with the subject / mind merely labeling / imputing it (always).
    The conventional / relative truth covers everything physical / body, conceptual / speech, mental / mind; all subjects / beings, relations / actions, objects / phenomena; all apparent opposites; even the two truths themselves. It covers all tools, adapted skillful means, words, symbols, images, concepts, ideas, truths, views, methods, practices, milestones, goals, teachings, all dharmas of the Buddha-dharma, even the Ground / Basis / Source / Suchness / Buddha-nature / Genuine-emptiness / Union of the Two Truths. It covers everything in both samsara & nirvana, pure & impure, enlightened or unenlightened.

  • T2: The second truth covers the unicity of the emptiness of inherent existence of all dharmas, not real existence / causality / functionality.

  • U2T: These two truths, like any other pair of apparent opposites, are not really separate and in opposition, but are more like: inseparable, interdependent, co-defined, co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing / co-transcended, in harmony [T1] <==> thus themselves empty of inherent existence [T2] [U2T-2T]. We call their inconceivable inter-relation 'the Union of the Two Truths'; but it is not like the coming together of two previously separate / independent things. They are more like: primordially not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable, beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all defining limitations, beyond all conditioning / karma.

  • The two truths (dependent origination and emptiness) are mere temporary imperfect tools, a raft,
    to help us to get to the 'inconceivable' by refuting what 'Reality as it is' is not;
    by refuting all conditioned extreme views, like:
    existence / dharma, non-existence / non-dharma, both together, neither;
    – having characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / features / relations / oppositions / processes / activities / changes, not having characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / features / relations / oppositions / processes / activities / changes, both together, neither;
    – being joined, being disjoined, both together, neither;
    – being limited / spatially / timely, unlimited / spaceless / timeless, both together, neither;
    difference / manyness / diversity / duality, identity / oneness / sameness / non-duality, both together, neither;
    permanence / continuity / eternity, impermanence / discontinuity / annihilation, both together, neither;
    dependence / causality / production / functionality, independence / acausality / non-production / non-functionality, both together, neither;
    emptiness, non-emptiness, both together, neither;
    conventional / relative / illusory / unreal / false, absolute / universal / non-illusory / real / true, both together, neither;
    dependent origination [T1 - 1st truth only], emptiness of inherent existence [T2 - 2nd truth only],
      both truths together [2T - as if different and in opposition], neither of the two truths [1T - as if identical and one];
    subject / mind, relation / action / process, object / phenomena, a combination of those, none of those;
    past, present, future, a combination of those, none of those;
    individuality, collectivity, universality, a combination of those, none of those;
    being equal / pure / perfect / divine / complete / free / enlightened,
      being unequal / impure / imperfect / ordinary / incomplete / unenlightened, both together, neither;
    – originated/born / existent / changing / ceasing/dying, unarisen / non-existent / unchanging / unceasing, both together, neither;
    describable / conceivable / comparable, indescribable / inconceivable / incomparable, both together, neither;
    – with name & sign / existent / wishful, signlessness / emptiness / wishfulness, both together, neither;
    'this', 'not-this', both together, neither – for whatever 'this' is.

  • So, in a sense, all dharmas – physical / body, conceptual / speech, mental / mind; subject / beings, relation / action, object / phenomena; of samsara or nirvana – are like illusions / reflections / mirages / dreams / echos / magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' Not really existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed dualistic conceptual ordinary mind(s). They are like illusions … but not exactly the same. Ex. Dreaming that a bus is running toward you cannot permanently injure you; the same for a monster on TV.

  • 'The inconceivable Union of the Two Truths [U2T]' is the inconceivable unique all-encompassing timeless unborn unconditioned unchanging unceasing true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now, true nature & dynamic of all dharmas in both samsara & nirvana. It is the only thing that is like that: unborn unconditioned unchanging unceasing. It is also called the Ground / Basis / Source / Genuine-emptiness / Buddha-nature / Suchness / Dharmata / Dharmadhatu / Primordial awareness / the very limit of reality / Dharma-constituent … It looks like an 'ultimate' but nobody should grasp at it, get attached to it either. It is just like a finger pointing at the moon, not the moon itself, which is indescribable / inconceivable, and has to be directly perceived / realised / experienced in the here & now. It is what meditators are trying to directly perceive / realise / experience, their true nature as it is here & now, the true nature of their mind / subject inseparable from all phenomena / object: not one, not two, not both together, not neither. But this Ground is inseparable from its manifestations [UGM]; so it is not by rejecting appearances / thinking / concepts / the world that one will directly perceive his/her true nature as it is here & now. It is by directly realising that everything, all manifestations inseparable from the Ground, partake its primordial qualities: timelessness, spacelessness, equality, purity, perfection, divinity, completeness, freedom, enlightenment – in the non-dual sense of these words: not this, not non-this, not both together, not neither. Everything is this Ground / Union of the Two Truths [U2T].

The two truths in terms of activities:

  • T1: The first truth covers acting more and more in accord with valid useful conventional / relative / inter-subjective truths, views, methods, practices, milestones, goals, teachings … It is using valid useful conventional / relative / inter-subjective tools, adapted skillful means, words, symbols, images, concepts, ideas, truths, views, methods, practices, milestones, goals, teachings; thus acting more and more in accord with the first truth: dependent origination, relativity, causality, not complete non-existence / non-causality / non-functionality.

  • T2: The second truth covers acting without acting in absolute terms, without any grasping / attachment / apprehension / obsession / fixation / reification / reference points / absolutes about anything involved – subject, relation / action, objects –; without falling into any extreme or middle (ex. non-existence / nothingness / mere-emptiness / nihilism); not accepting / affirming / seeking / adding / improving / doing in absolute terms, not rejecting / negating / abandoning / eliminating / subtracting / stopping / not-doing anything in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively; without any di-vision between the three spheres; thus more and more the second truth: the emptiness of inherent existence of all dharmas.

  • U2T: Acting more and more in accord with the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths [U2T] is acting more and more in accord with valid useful conventional truths, methods, goals … but without grasping at anything (ex. subject / cause, relation / action / causality / production, object / effect) as if inherently existing and with inherently existing characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / relations / opposition / actions, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes.

  • Examples:
    existing without existing, being without being, having without having,
    acting without acting without any attachment / fixation / absolutes, acquiring without acquiring,
    arising without arising, changing without changing, moving / relaxing / resting without moving / relaxing / resting, ceasing without ceasing,
    seeing / perceiving without seeing / perceiving,
    apprehending without apprehending,
    constructing without constructing thoughts,
    hoping without hoping, desiring without desiring, fearing without fearing, ignoring without ignoring,
    understanding without understanding,
    knowing without knowing, finding without finding,
    paying attention to without paying attention to, standing in without standing in, settling down on without settling down on,
    entertaining without entertain the notion of the three spheres,
    producing / causing / making / occasioning without producing / causing / making / occasioning,
    generating without generating the motivations of bodhicitta,
    practicing without practicing the six paramitas,
    giving without giving, guarding without guarding morality, cultivating without cultivating patience, making without making effort,
    meditating / contemplating without meditating / contemplating, cultivating without cultivating wisdom,
    perfecting without perfecting, completing without completing,
    mastering without mastering, being skilled in without being skilled in,
    training without training, teaching without teaching, leading / guiding without leading / guiding, establishing without establishing,
    purifying / defiling without purifying / defiling the five aggregates, accomplishing without accomplishing,
    incorporating without incorporating, reaching without reaching, realising without realising,
    experiencing without experiencing, actualising without actualising, illuminating without illuminating,
    awakening without awakening, unifying without unifying,
    thinking without thinking, conceptualising without conceptualising, differentiating without differentiating,
    labeling without labeling, designating without designating, characterising without characterising, defining without defining,
    separating without separating, joining without joining, unifying without unifying,
    comparing without comparing, ranking without ranking, accumulating without accumulating,
    accepting / affirming / seeking / adding / doing without accepting / affirming / seeking / adding / doing,
    rejecting / negating / abandoning / eliminating / stopping / subtracting / not-doing without rejecting / negating / abandoning / eliminating / stopping / not-doing,
    composing without composing, liberating without liberating.

  • The important point is that in Reality as it is, in awakening / enlightenment, there are still valid useful conventional tools / adapted skillful means / qualities / virtues / words / symbols / images / concepts / thoughts / feelings / ideas / truths / views / methods / practices / goals / three spheres – subject / beings / relations / activities, objects / phenomena – / body, speech & mind … that can be used without being used to help all sentient beings still stuck in samsara because of their ignorance of the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now [U2T / U3S / Uopp / U2T-2T / Middle Way free from all extremes & middle]. Emptiness does not deny conventional truths & activities; on the contrary the two truths are primordially inseparable / interdependent / in harmony. The same for samsara & nirvana.

The three spheres: ex.

  • i. The subject / actor / goer / perceiver / knower / acquirer / owner / characteristic,

  • ii. The relation / action / going / perceiving / knowing / acquiring / having / characterisation,

  • iii. The object / result / destination / perceived / known / acquired / possessions / karma / 5 aggregates / body & speech & mind / characterised.

Generalisations:
Whenever it is possible the comments of each section are expressed into a more global context.
So they always cover more than just what is said in the various translations.
The goal is to make the Big Picture more visible.

Note: All comments within (i.e. …) or [...] are from the commentator (me), not the translators.)




42. REVEALING THE WORLD – Revealing without revealing the inconceivable unique all-pervasive timeless unborn unconditioned unchanging unceasing suchness of all dharmas, the true nature & dynamic as it is of Reality as it is here & now – including all Tathāgatas, awakening and this Perfection of Wisdom.

(i.e. Résumé: Revealing without revealing the inconceivable deep unique all-pervasive timeless unborn unconditioned unchanging unceasing Suchness of all dharmas, the true nature & dynamic as it is of Reality as it is here & now – including all Tathāgatas, awakening and this Perfection of Wisdom. This Suchness is also called the Ground / Basis / Source / Genuine-emptiness / Buddha-nature / Union of the Two Truths [U2T] / Dharmata / Dharmadhatu … free from all extremes & middle.
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Praise & protection for this Perfection of Wisdom, because : it gives birth to all the buddha-dharmas; it causes the light of knowledge to shine; it gives birth to the tathāgatas; it perfectly reveals the knowledge of a knower of all; the perfection of all other virtues is issued from it; all tathāgatas have fully awakened, are fully awakening, and will fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening; it reveals the five aggregates / the world; it reveals the true nature & dynamic of the five aggregates, of the world, as it is here & now; it reveals the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths about all dharmas [U2T / U2T-3S m/ U2T-opp / U2T-2T]. That is called the suchness of all dharmas.
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-
-
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Liberation / completion / purification / omniscience / enlightenment is not gained by rejecting / abandoning samsara / appearances and accepting / seeking nirvana / emptiness. It is gained by training and directly perceiving / realising / experiencing the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now beyond all extremes & middle [U2T].
-
So, Bodhisattvas should train in perceiving / realising / experiencing without perceiving / realising / experiencing the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths about any & all dharmas: that all dharmas are like an inconceivable Union of being empty of inherent existence [T2], not really existent / caused / functional <==> because of being conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1], merely labeled / imputed / designated by the mind [U3S] in dependence of its conditioning / karma, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional / useless / meaningless.
And vice versa; one aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T].
Note: Something could be co-dependent with its parts and wholes (when applicable), with its causes & conditions and effects (when applicable), with its conceptual opposite(s) (always), and especially co-dependent with the subject / mind merely labeling / imputing it (always).
.
That all dharmas are like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, echos, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T].
.
That all dharmas are not existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilated, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not dependent, not independent, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not empty, not non-empty, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not dependently arisen, not empty of inherent existence, not both truths together, not neither of the two truths, and there is no fifth; not equal / pure / perfect / divine / complete / free / enlightened, not unequal / impure / imperfect / ordinary / incomplete / non-enlightened, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth – for whatever 'this' is.
Meaning the true nature & dynamic as it is of any / all dharmas is indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s);
.
That all dharmas have no real three stages of becoming: origination, duration / change, cessation, or complete absence of those.
.
That there is no independent / universal / absolute / inherently existing basis to discriminate / differentiate them in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively.
.
That there is nothing to accept / affirm / seek / add / do in absolute terms, nothing to reject / nagate / abandon / eliminate / subtract / not-do in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively.
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That we may as well perceive everything as primordially equal, pure, perfect, divine, complete, free, enlightened, the inseparable three pure kayas, the true Buddha – in the non-dual sense of those terms: not this, not non-this …
.
All this applies to all dharmas: ex. the three vajras – physical / body, conceptual / speech, mental / mind –; the three spheres – subject, relation / action / process, object –; apparent opposites in any duality / triad / quad / etc.; name / label & referent / basis; the three stages of becoming – origination, duration / change, cessation –, the three times & space; all Buddha-dharmas, all words / concepts / ideas / teachings / views / methods / practices / milestones / levels / goals; samsara & nirvana; even the two truths themselves, and their 'Union', even the Ground and its manifestations.
.
This way one can still use valid useful dharmas / tools / adapted skillful means … conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively, but never in absolute terms.
That is 'acting without acting', without any grasping / attachment / apprehension / obsession / fixation / reification / reference points / absolutes about anything involved – ex. subject, relation / action, object; or apparent opposites –;
without falling into any extreme or middle in relation to any group of opposites;
without accepting / affirming / seeking / adding / improving / doing anything in absolute terms,
without rejecting / negating / abandoning / eliminating / subtracting / not-doing anything in absolute terms,
without changing / defiling / improving / purifying anything in absolute terms,
just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively if it helps somebody to get closer to the inconceivable liberating Truth;
without any di-vision between the three spheres – subject, relation / action, object –;
thus more and more in accord with the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now,
more and more in accord with the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths free from all extremes & middle.
.
The important point is that in Reality as it is, in awakening / enlightenment, there are still valid useful conventional tools / adapted skillful means / qualities / virtues / words / symbols / images / concepts / thoughts / feelings / ideas / truths / views / methods / practices / goals / three spheres – subject / beings / relations / activities, objects / phenomena – / body, speech & mind … that can be used without being used to help all sentient beings still stuck in samsara because of their ignorance of the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now [U2T / U3S / Uopp / U2T-2T / Middle Way free from all extremes & middle]. Emptiness does not deny conventional concepts, truths & activities; on the contrary the two truths are primordially inseparable / interdependent / in harmony. The same for samsara & nirvana.)

"To illustrate, Subhūti,

  • there might be five, or ten, or twenty, or thirty, or forty, or fifty, or a hundred, or a thousand, or a hundred thousand sons of a certain woman and all of them would make an effort, 505 thinking, 'What can we do so that our mother who gave birth to us, gave us the bodies we have and gave us life, does not fall sick; what can we do so that our mother is not in danger; what can we do so that our mother lives for a long time; what can we do so that our mother is not physically uncomfortable?' Serving their mother with the finest service, protecting her with the finest protection, those sons think, 'She must not face danger to her life or grow physically weak; or be attacked by mosquitos, black flies, or poisonous crawling creatures; or suffer from cold or heat, hunger or thirst.' Thus, those sons attend on their mother with all the requirements for happiness; thus they serve their mother, thinking, 'She reveals this world to us.'

  • "Similarly, Subhūti, the tathāgatas, worthy ones, perfectly complete buddhas
    constantly and always watch over this deep perfection of wisdom with their buddha eye.
    And why?
    Because this deep perfection of wisdom gives birth to all the buddha-dharmas;
    it causes the light of knowledge to shine.

  • Also, those buddhas standing in as many world systems in the eastern direction as there are sand particles in the Gaṅgā River constantly and always watch over this deep perfection of wisdom with their buddha eye.
    And why?
    Because this deep perfection of wisdom gives birth to the tathāgatas
    and perfectly reveals the knowledge of a knower of all.

  • Therefore, those tathāgatas constantly and always watch over this deep perfection of wisdom with their buddha eye.
    And why?
    Because the perfection of concentration, perfection of perseverance, perfection of patience, perfection of morality, and perfection of giving of the tathāgatas issues forth from her;
    also inner emptiness, up to the emptiness that is the nonexistence of an intrinsic nature of the tathāgatas issues forth from her;
    also the four applications of mindfulness, right efforts, legs of miraculous power, faculties, powers, limbs of awakening, and paths issue forth from her;
    also the gateways to liberation, ten powers, four fearlessnesses, detailed and thorough knowledges, and distinct attributes of a buddha issue forth from her;
    up to also the knowledge of all aspects of all buddhas issues forth from her;
    and also stream enterers, once-returners, non-returners, worthy ones, buddhas, and tathāgatas, worthy ones, perfectly complete buddhas issue forth from her.

  • "Subhūti, it is also thanks to this deep perfection of wisdom that all those tathāgatas, worthy ones, perfectly complete buddhas, whoever they are, who have fully awakened, are fully awakening, and will fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening have fully awakened, are fully awakening, and will fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening.

  • "Subhūti, the tathāgatas, worthy ones, perfectly complete buddhas also constantly and always look out with their buddha eye for all those sons of a good family and daughters of a good family who have set out in the Great Vehicle and are writing out, reading aloud, clearly articulating, and properly paying attention to this deep perfection of wisdom.

  • Subhūti, the tathāgatas, worthy ones, perfect complete buddhas also constantly and always guard, protect, and keep safe those bodhisattva great beings, and sons of a good family and daughters of a good family so that one way or the other they will not abandon unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening."

Subhūti said, "Lord, you have said,

  •  'The perfection of wisdom gives birth to the tathāgatas, worthy ones, perfectly complete buddhas
    and reveals this world.'
    How, then, does the perfection of wisdom give birth to those bodhisattva great beings and buddhas, and
    how, Lord, does the perfection of wisdom reveal this world?
    How, Lord, is a tathāgata born from the perfection of wisdom, and
    what is this world of which the Tathāgata has spoken?"

"Subhūti," replied the Lord,

  • "this deep perfection of wisdom gives birth to a tathāgata's ten powers, four fearlessnesses, four detailed and thorough knowledges, great love, great compassion, eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha, and knowledge of all aspects, and it is on account of those, Subhūti, that a tathāgata comes to be known as a tathāgata. Therefore, Subhūti, this deep perfection of wisdom gives birth to the tathāgatas."

"And what, Lord, has the Tathāgata said is the world?" asked Subhūti.

"Subhūti, the Tathāgata has said that the five aggregates are the world," replied the Lord.

"Lord, how does the perfection of wisdom reveal the five aggregates?" asked Subhūti.

"Subhūti," replied the Lord,

  • "the perfection of wisdom does not reveal those five aggregates as being destroyed,
    nor does it reveal them as being really destroyed. 506
    It does not reveal them as being produced.
    It does not reveal them as defilement.
    It does not reveal them as purification.
    It does not reveal them as increasing.
    It does not reveal them as declining.
    It does not reveal past, future, or present dharmas.
    And why?
    Because emptiness does not mean being destroyed,
    nor does it mean being really destroyed;
    because signlessness . . . , and wishlessness is not being destroyed,
    nor is it being really destroyed;
    because not occasioning anything . . . , not being produced . . . , not stopping . . . , being nonexistent . . . , and having no intrinsic nature is not being destroyed,
    nor is it being really destroyed.
    It is thus, Subhūti, that this deep perfection of wisdom is said to reveal the world.

  • "Subhūti, the tathāgatas know the infinite, countless thought activities of beings without measure, and know them thanks to the perfection of wisdom, but still, Subhūti, in this deep perfection of wisdom a being and the designation of a being are not apprehended.

  • Form and the designation of form are not apprehended;
    feeling . . . , perception . . . , volitional factors . . . , and consciousness and the designation of consciousness are not apprehended.
    The eyes, eye consciousness, and eye contact are not apprehended, and the designation of eye contact is not apprehended; the ears and a sound . . . ;
    a nose and a smell . . . ;
    a tongue and a taste . . . ;
    a body and a feeling . . . ;
    and a thinking mind, dharmas, thinking-mind consciousness, and thinking-mind contact are not apprehended, and the designation of thinking-mind contact is not apprehended.
    The perfections . . . , the thirty-seven dharmas on the side of awakening . . . , the gateways to liberation . . . , the powers . . . , the fearlessnesses . . . , the detailed and thorough knowledges . . . , up to the distinct attributes of a buddha . . . , up to the knowledge of all aspects is not apprehended, and the designation of the knowledge of all aspects is not apprehended.
    It is thus, Subhūti, that this deep perfection of wisdom reveals the world to the tathāgatas.

  • "And why?
    Because, Subhūti, if even this very perfection of wisdom does not exist and is not apprehended in this deep perfection of wisdom, how could form, feeling, perception, and volitional factors ever be apprehended;
    how could consciousness ever be apprehended;
    up to how could the knowledge of all aspects ever be apprehended?

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, the tathāgatas know for what they are the collected thoughts and distracted thoughts of as many beings designated with the designation being as there are, be they material or immaterial, with perception or without perception, or with neither perception nor nonperception, who are in this world or in other vast world systems in the ten directions.
    And why, Subhūti, do the tathāgatas know for what they are those collected thoughts and distracted thoughts of those beings?
    Subhūti, the tathāgatas know those collected thoughts and distracted thoughts of those beings for what they are through the true nature of dharmas."

"Lord, what is this true nature of dharmas such that the tathāgatas know for what they are those collected thoughts and distracted thoughts of those beings?" asked Subhūti.

"Subhūti," replied the Lord,

  • "it is that true nature of dharmas in which even the very true nature of dharmas is not apprehended, let alone collected thoughts or distracted thoughts. So, Subhūti, the tathāgatas know for what they are those collected thoughts and distracted thoughts of those beings through that true nature of dharmas.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, the tathāgatas, worthy ones, perfectly complete buddhas know those collected thoughts and distracted thoughts of those beings for what they are, as inexhaustible.
    And how, Subhūti, do they know collected thoughts and distracted thoughts for what they are, as inexhaustible?
    Subhūti, here the tathāgatas know those minds of those beings for what they are, as free from greed, as cessation, and as abandonment.
    It is thus, Subhūti, that the tathāgatas, worthy ones, perfectly complete buddhas know those collected thoughts and distracted thoughts of those beings for what they are, as isolated.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, the tathāgatas know a greedy thought of those beings for what it is, a greedy thought.
    They know a mind free from greed for what it is, a mind free from greed.
    Similarly, they know a mind with hate and free from hate, and one with confusion and free from confusion."

"Lord," asked Subhūti,

  • "how do the tathāgatas, worthy ones, perfectly complete buddhas
    know a greedy thought of those beings for what it is, a greedy thought;
    know a mind free from greed for what it is, a mind free from greed;
    and similarly, know, for what it is, a mind with hate and free from hate,
    and one with confusion and free from confusion?"

"Subhūti," replied the Lord,

  • "a mind that is greedy is not as it really is.
    And why?
    Because, Subhūti, if even mind and mental factor dharmas are not apprehended as they really are,
    what need is there to say more about those with greed and free from greed, or with hate and free from hate, or with confusion and free from confusion? . . . .
    And, Subhūti, a mind with confusion is not as it really is.
    And why?
    Because, Subhūti, if even mind and mental factor dharmas are not apprehended as they really are, what need is there to say more about a mind free from confusion?
    It is thus, Subhūti, that the tathāgatas, thanks to the perfection of wisdom,
    know a greedy mind for what it is, a greedy mind;
    and similarly knows, for what it is, a mind free from greed . . . ,
    a mind with hate and free from hate . . . ,
    and one with confusion . . . ,
    and one free from confusion for what it is, a mind free from confusion.

  • "Subhūti, how do the tathāgatas
    know a mind of beings free from greed for what it is, a mind free from greed?
    Subhūti, a mind that has greediness is not a mind that is free from greediness.
    And why?
    Because, Subhūti, two thoughts do not meet together.
    Therefore, Subhūti, a mind that is free from greediness is not a greedy mind.
    Similarly, a mind that is free from hatred is not a mind with hate . . . .
    And a mind that is free from a confused state is not a mind with confusion.
    And why?
    Because, Subhūti, two thoughts do not come together.
    Therefore, Subhūti, the tathāgatas
    know a mind of those beings free from confusion for what it is, a mind free from confusion.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, thanks to this deep perfection of wisdom the tathāgatas
    know an inclusive thought of other beings or other persons for what it is, an inclusive thought.
    Subhūti, how do the tathāgatas know an inclusive thought of other beings or other persons for what it is, an inclusive thought?
    Subhūti, here the tathāgatas know that a thought of other beings or other persons is not inclusive, that a thought is not constricted, that a thought does not increase, that a thought is not reduced, that a thought does not come, and that a thought does not go.
    And why?
    Subhuti, it is because no intrinsic nature is apprehended which might make it inclusive, up to come and go. Therefore, Subhūti, the tathāgatas, thanks to this deep perfection of wisdom, know an inclusive thought of other beings or other persons for what it is, an inclusive thought.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, thanks to this deep perfection of wisdom the tathāgatas
    know a great thought of other beings or other persons for what it is, a thought that has become great.
    Furthermore, Subhūti, how do the tathāgatas, thanks to this deep perfection of wisdom, know a thought of other beings or other persons for what it is, a thought that has become great?
    Subhūti, here the tathāgatas do not view the intrinsic nature of a thought of other beings or other persons as coming, going, being stationary, being produced, stopping, or as lasting and then changing into something else.
    And why?
    Subhuti, it is because an intrinsic nature that comes or goes, or arises or stops, or lasts or lasts and then changes into something else does not exist.
    Therefore, Subhūti, the tathāgatas, thanks to this deep perfection of wisdom, know a thought of other beings or other persons for what it is, a thought that has become great.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, thanks to this deep perfection of wisdom the tathāgatas
    know an immeasurable thought of other beings or other persons for what it is, an immeasurable thought.
    Furthermore, Subhūti, how do the tathāgatas, thanks to this deep perfection of wisdom, know an immeasurable thought of other beings or other persons for what it is, an immeasurable thought?
    Subhūti, here the tathāgatas view that thought of other beings or other persons as not there, as not not there, as not fixed, and as not not fixed.
    And why?
    Subhūti, it is because streams of thought are without outflows 507 and immeasurable, because a foundation on which they might persist does not exist.
    Therefore, Subhūti, the tathāgatas, thanks to this deep perfection of wisdom, know an immeasurable thought of other beings or other persons for what it is, an immeasurable thought.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, thanks to this deep perfection of wisdom the tathāgatas
    know a thought of other beings or other persons that does not show itself for what it is, a thought that does not show itself.
    Subhūti, how do the tathāgatas know a thought of other beings or other persons that does not show itself for what it is, a thought that does not show itself?
    Subhūti, here, because it is empty of its own mark, the tathāgatas, thanks to this deep perfection of wisdom, view that thought of other beings or other persons as without a mark and separated from an intrinsic nature. Therefore, Subhūti, the tathāgatas, thanks to this deep perfection of wisdom, know that thought of other beings or other persons that does not show itself for what it is, a thought that does not show itself.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, thanks to this deep perfection of wisdom the tathāgatas
    know an invisible thought of other beings or other persons for what it is, an invisible thought.
    Subhūti, how do the tathāgatas, thanks to this deep perfection of wisdom, know an invisible thought of other beings or other persons for what it is, an invisible thought?
    Subhūti, here, those thoughts of others are not even visible to the five eyes of a tathāgata;
    therefore, Subhūti, the tathāgatas, worthy ones, perfectly complete buddhas, thanks to this deep perfection of wisdom, know an invisible thought of other beings or other persons for what it is, an invisible thought.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, thanks to this deep perfection of wisdom the tathāgatas
    know the thoughts of other beings or other persons that have moved excessively, are freed from movement, have moved to abridge, or are expanded for what they are, 508 thoughts that have moved excessively, are freed from movement, have moved to abridge, or are expanded.
    Subhūti, how do the tathāgatas, thanks to this deep perfection of wisdom, know the thoughts of other beings or other persons that have moved excessively, are freed from movement, have moved to abridge, or are expanded for what they are, thoughts that have moved excessively, are freed from movement, have moved to abridge, or are expanded?
    Subhūti, here, the tathāgatas, thanks to this deep perfection of wisdom, know those thoughts of other beings or other persons as follows. When the thoughts of beings who have moved excessively, are freed from movement, have moved to abridge, or are expanded arise, whichever of them arises they all arise based on form, or based on feeling, or based on perception, or based on volitional factors, or based on consciousness. Therefore, Subhūti, thanks to this deep perfection of wisdom the tathāgatas know the thoughts of other beings or other persons that have moved excessively, are freed from movement, have moved to abridge, or are expanded for what they are.

  • " 'Just this statement ‍— "the soul and the world are permanent" ‍— is true, the others are false' refers to form.
    'Just this statement ‍— "the soul and the world are impermanent . . .
    both permanent and impermanent . . .
    neither permanent nor impermanent" ‍— is true, the others are false' refers to form.
    (i.e. All dharmas are not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilated, not both together, not neither.)
    -
    Connect this in the same way also with feeling, perception, and volitional factors. 'Just this statement ‍— "the soul and the world are permanent" ‍— is true, the others are false' refers to consciousness.
    'Just this statement ‍— "the soul and the world are impermanent . . . both permanent and impermanent . . . neither permanent nor impermanent" ‍— is true, the others are false' refers to consciousness.

  • "Similarly, 'Just this statement ‍— "the soul and the world are finite" ‍— is true, the others are false' refers to form.
    'Just this statement ‍— "the soul and the world are not finite . . .
    both finite and not finite . . .
    neither finite nor not finite" ‍— is true, the others are false' refers to form.
    (i.e. All dharmas are not finite, not infinite, not both together, not neither.)
    -
    Connect this in the same way also with feeling, perception, and volitional factors. 'Just this statement ‍— "the soul and the world are finite" ‍— is true, the others are false' refers to consciousness.
    'Just this statement ‍— "the soul and the world are not finite . . . both finite and not finite . . . neither finite nor not finite" ‍— is true, the others are false' refers to consciousness.

  • " 'Just this statement ‍— "the soul and the world continue to exist after death" ‍— is true, the others are false' refers to form.
    'Just this statement ‍— "the soul and the world do not continue to exist after death . . .
    both continue to exist and do not continue to exist . . .
    neither continue to exist nor not continue to exist" ‍— is true, the others are false' refers to form.
    (i.e. All dharmas are not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilated, not both together, not neither.)
    -
    Connect this in the same way also with feeling, perception, and volitional factors. 'Just this statement ‍— "the soul and the world continue to exist after death" ‍— is true, the others are false' refers to consciousness. 'Just this statement ‍— "the soul and the world do not continue to exist after death . . . both continue to exist and do not continue to exist . . . neither continue to exist nor not continue to exist" ‍— is true, the others are false' refers to consciousness.

  • " 'Just this statement ‍— "the living being is the body . . . the living being is one thing and the body is another" ‍— is true, the others are false' refers to form.
    (i.e. All dharmas are not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither.)
    -
    Connect this in the same way also with feeling, perception, and volitional factors. 'Just this statement ‍— "the living being is the body . . . the living being is one thing and the body is another" ‍— is true, the others are false' refers to consciousness.
    Therefore, Subhūti, the tathāgatas, thanks to this deep perfection of wisdom, know the thoughts of other beings or other persons that have moved excessively, are freed from movement, have moved to abridge, or are expanded for what they are.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, thanks to this deep perfection of wisdom the tathāgatas know form.
    How do they know form?
    They know it just as they know suchness without distortion, without conceptualization, without a causal sign, without effort, without thought construction, and without apprehending anything.
    (i.e. The true nature of Reality as it is here & now, or all dharmas, is indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s), beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all defining limitations, beyond all conditioning / karma.)
    -
    Similarly, they know feeling . . . , perception . . . , volitional factors . . . , and consciousness.
    How do they know consciousness?
    They know it just as they know suchness without distortion, without conceptualization, without a causal sign, without effort, without thought construction, and without apprehending anything.
    -
    Therefore, Subhūti, the tathāgatas, thanks to this deep perfection of wisdom, know the thoughts of other beings and other persons that have moved excessively, are freed from movement, have moved to abridge, or are expanded for what they are.

  • "Therefore, Subhūti,
    the suchness of the thoughts of other beings or other persons that have moved excessively, are freed from movement, have moved to abridge, or are expanded
    is the suchness of the aggregates, constituents, and sense fields.
    The suchness of the aggregates, constituents, and sense fields is the suchness of all dharmas.
    The suchness of all dharmas is the suchness of the six perfections.
    The suchness of the six perfections is the suchness of the thirty-seven dharmas on the side of awakening.
    The suchness of the thirty-seven dharmas on the side of awakening is the suchness of the emptinesses.
    The suchness of the emptinesses is the suchness of the eight gateways to liberation.
    The suchness of the eight gateways to liberation is the suchness of the nine serial absorptions.
    The suchness of the nine serial absorptions is the suchness of the ten tathāgata powers.
    The suchness of the ten tathāgata powers is the suchness of the fearlessnesses.
    The suchness of the fearlessnesses is the suchness of the detailed and thorough knowledges.
    The suchness of the detailed and thorough knowledges is the suchness of love and compassion.
    The suchness of love and compassion is the suchness of the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha.
    The suchness of the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha is the suchness of the knowledge of all aspects.
    The suchness of the knowledge of all aspects is the suchness of wholesome and unwholesome dharmas.
    The suchness of wholesome and unwholesome dharmas is the suchness of dharmas that are ordinary and extraordinary, are with outflows and without outflows, are basic immorality and not basic immorality, are with afflictions and without afflictions, are defilement and purification, and are compounded and uncompounded.
    The suchness of dharmas that are compounded and uncompounded is the suchness of past, future, and present dharmas.
    The suchness of past, future, and present dharmas is the suchness of a stream enterer.
    The suchness of a stream enterer is the suchness of the result of stream enterer, and similarly, the suchness of a once-returner, a non-returner, a worthy one, and a pratyekabuddha.
    The suchness of a pratyekabuddha is the suchness of a pratyekabuddha's awakening.
    The suchness of a pratyekabuddha's awakening is the suchness of unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening.
    The suchness of unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening is the suchness of a tathāgata.
    The suchness of a tathāgata is the suchness of all beings.

Therefore, Subhūti, the suchness of a tathāgata
and the suchness of all beings is a single suchness,
an unbroken suchness,
and that unbroken suchness is not extinguished,
and since it is not extinguished it is non-dual.

"Subhūti,
the tathāgatas have fully awakened to this suchness of all dharmas
thanks to this perfection of wisdom.
-
Subhūti, this perfection of wisdom gives birth to the tathāgatas.
Similarly, Subhūti, this perfection of wisdom reveals the world.
Therefore, Subhūti, the tathāgatas, worthy ones, perfectly complete buddhas comprehend the suchness of all dharmas, comprehend the unmistaken suchness, and the unaltered suchness that is the suchness on account of which they are called a tathāgata, worthy one, perfectly complete buddha."

Subhūti said,

  • "Lord, this ‍— namely, the perfection of wisdom, the suchness of all dharmas, unmistaken suchness, and unaltered suchness ‍— is deep.
    Lord, this suchness has made the awakening of the lord buddhas clear.
    Lord, who with the exception of bodhisattvas irreversible from awakening, persons who have a perfect view, and worthy ones whose outflows have dried up believes this?
    Lord, these dharmas are deep.
    The Tathāgata has revealed them having fully awakened."

"It is because suchness is not extinguished, Subhūti," said the Lord.

  • "And why is it not extinguished?
    Suchness is not extinguished because all dharmas are not extinguished.
    Subhūti, this ‍— namely, the suchness of all dharmas ‍— the Tathāgata has explained having fully awakened to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening."

This was the forty-second chapter, "Revealing the World," of "The Perfection of Wisdom in Eighteen Thousand Lines."




Access to other chapters on the Blog:
(Work in progress. Empty files means they are not done yet.)

  1. Chapter 0 – Introduction to the Sutra

  2. Chapter 1 – Introduction / the Assembly

  3. Chapter 2 – Production of the Thought

  4. Chapter 3 – designation [U2T]

  5. Chapter 4 – Equal to the Unequal

  6. Chapter 5 – Tongue

  7. Chapter 6 – Subhūti

  8. Chapter 7 – Entry into flawlessness

  9. Chapter 8 – The Religious Mendicant Śreṇika

  10. Chapter 9 – Causal Signs

  11. Chapter 10 – Illusion-like

  12. Chapter 11 – Embarrassment

  13. Chapter 12 – Elimination of Views

  14. Chapter 13 – The Six Perfections

  15. Chapter 14 – Neither Bound nor Freed

  16. Chapter 15 – Meditative Stabilization

  17. Chapter 16 – Dhāraṇī Gateway

  18. Chapter 17 – Level Purification

  19. Chapter 18 – The Exposition of Going Forth in the Great Vehicle [cause / path]

  20. Chapter 19 – Surpassing

  21. Chapter 20 – Not Two

  22. Chapter 21 – Subhūti

  23. Chapter 22 – Śatakratu

  24. Chapter 23 – Hard to Understand

  25. Chapter 24 – Unlimited

  26. Chapter 25 – Second Śatakratu

  27. Chapter 26 – Getting Old

  28. Chapter 27 – Reliquary

  29. Chapter 28 – Declaration of the Good Qualities of the Thought of Awakening

  30. Chapter 29 – Different Tīrthika Religious Mendicants

  31. Chapter 30 – The Benefits of Taking Up and Adoration

  32. Chapter 31 – Physical Remains

  33. Chapter 32 – The Superiority of Merit

  34. Chapter 33 – Dedication

  35. Chapter 34 – Perfect Praise of the Quality of Accomplishment

  36. Chapter 35 – Hells

  37. Chapter 36 – Teaching The Purity of all Dharmas

  38. Chapter 37 – Nobody

  39. Chapter 38 – Cannot Be Apprehended

  40. Chapter 39 – The Northern Region

  41. Chapter 40 – The Work of Māra

  42. Chapter 41 – Not Complete Because of Māra

  43. Chapter 42 – Revealing the World

  44. Chapter 43 – Inconceivable

  45. Chapter 44 – Made Up

  46. Chapter 45 – A Boat

  47. Chapter 46 – Teaching the Intrinsic Nature of All Dharmas

  48. Chapter 47 – Taming Greed

  49. Chapter 48 – A Presentation of the Bodhisattvas' Training

  50. Chapter 49 – Irreversibility

  51. Chapter 50 – Teaching the Signs of Irreversibility

  52. Chapter 51 – Skillful means

  53. Chapter 52 – Completion of the Means

  54. Chapter 53 – The Prophecy about Gaṅgadevī

  55. Chapter 54 – Teaching the Cultivation of Skillful Means

  56. Chapter 55 – Teaching the Stopping of Thought Construction [in absolute terms]

  57. Chapter 56 – Equal Training

  58. Chapter 57 – Practice

  59. Chapter 58 – Exposition of the Absence of Thought Construction [in absolute terms]

  60. Chapter 59 – non-attachment

  61. Chapter 60 – Entrusting

  62. Chapter 61 – Inexhaustible

  63. Chapter 62 – Leaping Above Absorption

  64. Chapter 63 – Many Inquiries about the Two Dharmas

  65. Chapter 64 – Perfectly Displayed

  66. Chapter 65 – Worshiping, Serving, and Attending on Spiritual Friends as Skillful Means

  67. Chapter 66 – A Demonstration of Skillful Means

  68. Chapter 67 – Morality

  69. Chapter 68 – Growing and Flourishing

  70. Chapter 69 – An Explanation of Meditation on The Path

  71. Chapter 70 – An Explanation of Serial Action, Training, and Practice

  72. Chapter 71 – The True Nature of Dharmas That Cannot Be Apprehended

  73. Chapter 72 – Teaching the Absence of Marks

  74. Chapter 73 – Exposition of the Major Marks and Minor Signs and the Completion of Letters

  75. Chapter 74 – Exposition of the Sameness of Dharmas

  76. Chapter 75 – Exposition of non-complication –

  77. Chapter 76 – The Armor for Bringing Beings to Maturity

  78. Chapter 77 – Teaching the Purification of a Buddhafield

  79. Chapter 78 – Teaching the Skillful Means for the Purification of a Buddhafield

  80. Chapter 79 – Teaching the non- Existence of an Intrinsic Nature

  81. Chapter 80 – Teaching that there is No Defilement or Purification

  82. Chapter 81 – Yogic Practice of the Ultimate

  83. Chapter 82 – The Unchanging True Nature of Dharmas

  84. Chapter 83 – Categorization of a Bodhisattva's Training

  85. Chapter 84 – Collection

  86. Chapter 85 – Sadāprarudita

  87. Chapter 86 – Dharmodgata

  88. Chapter 87 – Entrusting

  89. Résumés in bullet points of all chapters.




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