Wednesday, June 15, 2022

Prajnaparamita-18K - Chapter 37 - Nobody - 337

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The Transcendent Perfection of Wisdom
in Eighteen Thousand Lines - 337
Daśa­sāhasrikā­prajñā­pāramitā

– Chapter 37 - Nobody –

Source: https://read.84000.co/translation/toh10.html

More Analysis of Mahayana Sutras : https://www.gilehtblog.com/2022/07/toc-400.html

[Note: The two truths are:
T1: conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means, merely labeled / imputed / imagined / created by the mind in dependence of its conditioning / karma (in cycle), not completely non-existence;
T2: emptiness of inherent existence, not real existence;
U2T: those two truths, like any other pair of apparent opposites, are inseparable, interdependent, co-defined, co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing / co-transcended, in harmony, in 'Union' <==> thus empty of inherent existence.
They are tools to help us to get to the 'inconceivable' by refuting what 'Reality as it is' is not:
all extreme views like: existence / dharma / causality / functionality, non-existence / non-dharma / non-causality / non-functionality, both together, neither; difference / manyness / diversity / duality, identity / oneness / sameness / non-duality, both together, neither; permanence / continuity / eternity, impermanence / discontinuity / annihilation, both together, neither; individuality, collectivity, universality, a combination of those, none of those; subjectivity, relation / action / process, objectivity, a combination of those, none of those; the 1st truth alone / dependent origination [T1], the 2nd truth alone / mere-emptiness [T2], both two truths together as if different and in opposition [2T], neither of the two truths as if identical and one [1T,]; ‘this’, ‘non-this’, both together, neither – for whatever ‘this’ is.
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The three spheres: ex.
i. The subject / actor / goer / perceiver / knower / acquirer / owner,
ii. The relation / action / going / perceiving / knowing / acquiring / having
iii. The object / result / destination / perceived / known / acquired / possessions / karma / 5 aggregates / body & speech & mind.
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Generalisations:
Whenever it is possible the comments of each section are expressed into a more global context. So they always cover more than just what is said in the various translations. The goal is to make the Big Picture more evident.
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Note: All comments within (i.e. …) or [...] are from the commentator (me), not the translators.)


[Back to Résumés of chapters 1-41]

37. NOBODY – Nobody is really teaching without teaching this perfection of wisdom that is perfectly pure.

(i.e. Résumé: Teaching / learning without teaching / learning this inconceivable perfection of wisdom that is perfectly pure, like all dharmas are perfectly pure, and are like space interacting with space.
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Nobody really teaches / receives / realises / completes this perfection of wisdom that is perfectly pure – because nothing can be apprehended in absolute terms [T2], just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively [T1] [U2T].
Nobody really leaves, or has to leave, samsara for nirvana – just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively.
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Those bodhisattva great beings who practice the perfection of wisdom … are those who do what is difficult.
The cultivation of the perfection of wisdom is the cultivation of space. It is without any real subject, relation / actions, objects.
Nothing really exists and changes, being 'this' or 'not-this', being complete or incomplete, being attached or not-attached, improving or declining.
For the sake of beings Bodhisattvas want to strive, want to try, want to make an effort for the sake of space; for the sake of beings want to liberate space; for the sake of all space-like dharmas want great armor; for the sake of beings want to lift up space into the sky.
Because, although, all dharmas are empty of inherent existence [T2][, not really arising / existing / changing / functioning / ceasing <==> and yet they still dependently appear and are relatively functional – with relative origination / existence / change / functionality / cessation. [T1] [U2T].
Practicing while being fully aware of this is practicing the perfection of wisdom – in accord with the inconceivable Union of the Two truths [U2T]. Practicing without practicing, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes.
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MORE ABOUT PURITY:]
He [Maitreya] will teach the extremely pure Dharma 'all dharmas are extremely pure.'
The perfection of wisdom is pure.
The perfection of wisdom is pure because all dharmas are pure.
Dharmas that are unproduced and unceasing, without defilement and without purification, are pure dharmas.
The perfection of wisdom is pure because space is pure.
Space is pure because it is unproduced and unceasing, without defilement and without purification.
The perfection of wisdom is pure because space is untainted.
The perfection of wisdom is pure because space cannot be grasped.
The perfection of wisdom is pure because space does not say anything.
The perfection of wisdom is pure because, just like the two sounds of an echo, to give an analogy, so too space does not say anything.
The perfection of wisdom is pure because space does not converse about anything.
The perfection of wisdom is pure because space cannot be apprehended.
In space there is nothing at all that can be apprehended.
The perfection of wisdom is pure because all dharmas are extremely pure, cannot be apprehended, are unproduced and unceasing, and without defilement and without purification.
The perfection of wisdom is pure because all dharmas are extremely pure.
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Those sons of a good family or daughters of a good family who are preaching the perfection of wisdom
create a lot of merit‍ — create infinite, countless, inconceivable, immeasurable amounts of merit.
Because this‍ — namely, the perfection of wisdom‍ — is a great jewel. Everything good comes from it.
In the perfection of wisdom there is no dharma that is produced or ceases, is defiled or purified, or is appropriated or rejected at all.
Because those dharmas that could be produced or cease, or could be defiled or purified, or could be appropriated or rejected [T1] do not exist [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T].
One cannot apprehend [T2] any dharma that is wholesome or unwholesome, with outflows or without outflows, a basic immorality or not a basic immorality, with afflictions or without afflictions, ordinary or extraordinary, compounded or uncompounded [T1] [U2T] in this perfection of wisdom jewel at all.
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The perfection of wisdom is not tainted by any dharma.
Because you cannot apprehend that dharma on account of which it might become tainted.
The perfection of wisdom does not add anything, remove anything, or change anything in absolute terms [T2], just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively [T1] [U2T]
because not such things really exist [in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively],
because the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now, the Union of the Two Truths [U2T], the Ground / Basis / Source, does not change.
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This‍ is a great perfection [U2T].
All dharmas are empty of the intrinsic nature of all dharmas [T2],
but still bodhisattva great beings, thanks to this perfection of wisdom,
will fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening [T1] without fully awakening to any dharma at all [T2],
will turn the wheel of the Dharma [T1] even though any Dharma that has to be engaged in or backed away from does not exist [T2],
will not see any Dharma at all [T2], and will not not see any Dharma at all either [T1] [U2T].
Because a dharma that engages or backs away [T1] cannot be apprehended [T2] [U2T],
because all dharmas absolutely do not come into being,
so emptiness does not engage, nor does it back away;
the signless and the wishless also do not engage, nor do they back away.
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From Chapter 36: The perfection of wisdom is deep, hard to realise, inconceivable because of our conditioning / karma.
The perfection of wisdom is deep, hard to realise, indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s).
The inconceivable true nature & dynamic as it is of all dharmas is like an inconceivable Union of being conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means, merely labeled / imputed by the mind, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional <==> and being empty of inherent existence, nor really existent / caused / functional. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T]. All dharmas are like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, echos, magical tricks: 'There, but not there." [U2T].
So,there are no real three stages of becoming for anything: origination, duration & change, cessation.
So, there is no independent / objective / universal / absolute / inherently existing basis for any discrimination / differentiation in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively.
So, there is nothing to accept, nothing to reject in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively.
So, in a sense, everything is primordially spaceless, timeless, equal, pure, perfect, divine, complete, free, enlightened, the inseparable three kayas, the true Buddha – in the non-dual sense of those terms: not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth – for whatever 'this' is.
It is more and more obvious when one starts to get it.
Then one needs to solidify this realisation until it becomes a certainty, and until one can act in accord with it all the time.
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From Chapter 35: It is hard to believe in this perfection of wisdom.
For many, it is hard to believe in this perfection of wisdom – because it is indescribable / inconceivable.
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Those persons who spoil the perfection of wisdom are those who spoil the Dharma …
They pass on from great hells to great hells
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"It is hard for those who do not work hard, who are without wholesome roots, and who have fallen into the clutches of bad friends to believe in this perfection of wisdom."
"Deep is this perfection of wisdom in which it is so hard for them to believe."
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It is indescribable / inconceivable of our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s); it is beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all defining limitations, beyond all conditioning / karma..
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"It is hard for those who do not work hard, have not planted wholesome roots, have fallen into the clutches of bad friends, are under the control of Māra, and are lazy, deficient in perseverance, forgetful, and without introspection to believe in this perfection of wisdom."

Everything is primordially equal, pure, perfect, divine, complete, free, enlightened, the inseparable three kayas, the true Buddha – in the non-dual sense of those terms: not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth – for whatever 'this' is.
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i.­101 – "There is no saṃsāra or nirvāṇa. Everything is pure.
The purity of the final result, the knowledge of all aspects, and the purity of the suffering aggregates is the same purity."
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i.102 – Purity is deep, illuminating, does not go from one form of life to the next, is undefiled, knows no attainment or clear realization, does not come into being anywhere, and does not help or hinder anything or take hold of any truth. Some apprehend this Perfection of Wisdom through a causal sign and make it into an absolute truth. They are far from the Perfection of Wisdom. If they apprehend even the finest qualities of a buddha, they have attachment. The attachment happens when they perceive the thought of awakening, the path, what knowledge comprehends, the results of the training ‍— all the buddhas of the three time periods and their qualities ‍— and, rejoicing in it for the sake of all beings, turn it over to the knowledge of all aspects. It is attachment because all these have no basic nature. To teach others the Perfection of Wisdom they must practice the Perfection of Wisdom [T1] without any perception of it [T2] [U2T]. To entertain any notion of tathāgatas, wholesome roots growing into awakening, or complete nirvāṇa is to have attachment.
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From Chapter 9: Causal Signs
The purity of all dharmas:
Because of the state of absolute purity bodhisattvas do not apprehend (reify, objectify) any dharma [T2] [U2T].
Not being produced, not stopping, not being defilement, not being purification, not appearing, not being apprehended, and not occasioning anything [in absolute terms] is called the purity of all dharmas.
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From Chapter 21: Subhūti
Because of absolute purity bodhisattvas then view the non [real] production [T2] of all dharmas [T1] [U2T].
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From Chapter 14: Neither Bound nor Freed
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i.­48 – "Everything is in the state of absolute natural purity where there is no production or defilement, where nothing appears or is enacted."
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All dharmas are not bound (tainted / samsara) and are not freed (purified / nirvana).
And why? Because all dharmas do not exist inherently [T2] [do not exist objectively / independently of the subject / mind].
That is why they are not bound and are not freed. [not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither – for whatever 'this' is.]
Similarly, because they are isolated and so on, they are not bound and are not freed.
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Because all dharmas are like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.',
then they are not bound and are not freed.
Because all dharmas do not exist inherently, all dharmas are not bound and are not freed.
It is because all dharmas are isolated (from the words and signs for things?), calm, empty, signless, wishless, do not occasion anything, and are not produced that they are not bound and are not freed. (see 10.30)
A form… that is wholesome, unwholesome, with afflictions, without afflictions, with basic immorality, without basic immorality, with outflows, without outflows, ordinary, extraordinary, defiled, and purified is not bound and is not freed. Because form… does not exist inherently.
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Logic: Because of being empty of inherent existence <==> because dependently co-arisen / interdependent, then all dharmas – including the Great Vehicle and Suchness – are not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither – for whatever 'this' is; and vice versa. Meaning not describable / conceivable / understood by our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s), not indescribable / inconceivable / misunderstood, not both together, not neither.
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Résumé of Madhyamaka Logic: Because all dharmas – physical, conceptual, mental; pure or impure; including the three spheres of any type of relation / action, the apparent opposites of any duality / triad / quad, even the two truths themselves – are conventionally dependently co-arise (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S] in dependence of its conditioning / karma, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional / useless / meaningless, <==> Then all dharmas are empty of inherent existence [T2], not really existent / caused / functional <==> then all dharmas are like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, echos, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T] <==> Then there are no real three stages of becoming or three times, or complete absence of those – origination / beginning / birth / coming / before / past, duration / middle / life / during / present, cessation / ending / death / going / after / future -- for any dharma; and there are no real relation or non-relation / opposition or non-opposition / separation or union / differentiation or identity … between dharmas <==> Then all dharmas are not existent / caused / functional, not non-existent / non-caused / non-functional, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilated, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not dependent / related / caused / produced, not independent / unrelated / non-caused / non-produced / spontaneous, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not empty, not non-empty, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not dependently co-arisen [T1-only], not empty of inherent existence [T2-only], not both truths together as if different and opposite [2T], not neither of the two truths as if the same and one [1T]; not equal / pure / perfect / divine / complete / free / enlightened, not unequal / impure / imperfect / ordinary / incomplete / bounded / unenlightened, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not isolated / calm / empty / signless / wishness / unoriginated / unarisen / unproduced / unconditioned / unchanging / unceasing, not non-isolated / non-calm / non-empty / non-signless / non-wishless / originated / arisen / produced / conditioned / changing / ceasing, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not bound (tainted / samsara), not free (purified / nirvana), not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth– for whatever 'this is'. Meaning the true nature & dynamic of all dharmas is indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s); beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all defining limitations, beyond all conditioning / karma; beyond causality, matter-energy, space & time, beyond being describable or indescribable, beyond being conceivable or inconceivable. <==> Then there is no independent / universal / absolute / inherently existing basis for anything, for any judgment, for any discrimination / differentiation / ranking, for any activity in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / intersubjectively. <==> Then there is nothing to accept / affirm / seek / add / do in absolute terms, nothing to reject / negate / abandon / eliminate / subtract / not-do in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively if it help someone to get closer to the inconceivable liberating Truth [U2T].)

Then venerable Subhūti said to the Lord,
"Lord, the perfection of wisdom is not an agent."

The Lord responded,

  • "Subhūti, the perfection of wisdom is the non-apprehender of all dharmas."

"Lord, how do bodhisattva great beings practice the perfection of wisdom?" asked Subhūti

"Subhūti," replied the Lord,

  • "here when bodhisattva great beings practice the perfection of wisdom,
    if they do not practice form, they practice the perfection of wisdom;
    if they do not practice feeling, perception, volitional factors, or consciousness, they practice the perfection of wisdom.

  • Similarly, if they do not practice the constituents, sense fields, dependent originations, perfections, emptinesses, dharmas on the side of awakening, powers, fearlessnesses, detailed and thorough knowledges, distinct attributes of a buddha, up to or the knowledge of all aspects, they practice the perfection of wisdom.

  • "If they do not practice with the idea 'form is permanent' or 'impermanent,' they practice the perfection of wisdom.
    If they do not practice with the idea 'form is happiness' or 'suffering,' 'self' or 'selfless,' 'pleasant' or 'unpleasant,' they practice the perfection of wisdom.

  • Similarly, up to if they do not practice with the idea 'the knowledge of all aspects is happiness' or 'suffering,' 'self' or 'selfless,' 'pleasant' or 'unpleasant,' they practice the perfection of wisdom.

  • "And why?
    Because there is no such form that is permanent or impermanent, happiness or suffering, self or selfless, pleasant or unpleasant;
    there is no such feeling, perception, volitional factors, or consciousness that is permanent or impermanent, happiness or suffering, self or selfless, pleasant or unpleasant.

  • Similarly, up to there is no such knowledge of all aspects that is permanent or impermanent, happiness or suffering, self or selfless, pleasant or unpleasant.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, here when bodhisattva great beings practice the perfection of wisdom,
    if they do not practice with the idea 'form is completed' or 'not completed,' [in absolute terms]
    they practice the perfection of wisdom;
    similarly, if they do not practice with the idea 'feeling . . . ,' 'perception . . . ,' 'volitional factors . . . ,' or 'consciousness is completed' or 'not completed,' they practice the perfection of wisdom;
    and similarly, up to if they do not practice with the idea 'the knowledge of all aspects is completed' or 'not completed,' they practice the perfection of wisdom.

  • "And why?
    'Form that is completed or not completed is not form.'
    If they do not even practice like that, they practice the perfection of wisdom.

  • Similarly, 'feeling . . . ,' 'perception . . . ,' 'volitional factors . . . ,' and 'consciousness that is completed or not completed is not consciousness.'
    If they do not even practice like that, they practice the perfection of wisdom, and similarly, up to 'the knowledge of all aspects that is completed or not completed is not the knowledge of all aspects.'
    If they do not even practice like that, they practice the perfection of wisdom."

The Lord having said this, venerable Subhūti replied to him,
"Lord, such an excellent exposition for bodhisattva great beings
of those who are attached and not attached is amazing."

"Exactly so, Subhūti, exactly so!" said the Lord.

  • "The tathāgata, worthy one, perfectly complete Buddha gives an excellent exposition of the attachments and non-attachments bodhisattva great beings have.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, when bodhisattva great beings practice the perfection of wisdom,
    if they do not practice with the idea 'form is not attached [in absolute terms],' they practice the perfection of wisdom;
    if they do not practice with the idea 'feeling . . . ,' 'perception . . . ,' 'volitional factors . . . ,' or 'consciousness is not attached,' they practice the perfection of wisdom.

  • "If they do not practice with the idea 'the eyes are not attached,' they practice the perfection of wisdom;
    similarly, if they do not practice with the idea 'the ears . . . ,' 'the nose . . . ,' 'the tongue . . . ,' 'the body . . . ,' or 'the thinking mind is not attached,' they practice the perfection of wisdom.

  • "If they do not practice with the idea 'the perfection of giving is not attached,' they practice the perfection of wisdom;
    similarly, if they do not practice with the idea 'the perfection of morality . . . ,' 'the perfection of patience . . . ,' 'the perfection of perseverance . . . ,' 'the perfection of concentration . . . ,' or 'the perfection of wisdom is not attached,' they practice the perfection of wisdom.

  • Similarly, if they do not practice with the idea 'the ten powers . . . ,' 'the fearlessnesses . . . ,' 'the detailed and thorough knowledges . . . ,' 'the distinct attributes of a buddha . . . ,' or 'the knowledge of all aspects is not attached,' they practice the perfection of wisdom.

  • "Subhūti, when bodhisattva great beings practice the perfection of wisdom like that,
    they do not perceive 'form is not attached';
    they do not perceive 'feeling . . . ,' 'perception . . . ,' 'volitional factors . . . ,' or 'consciousness is not attached';
    up to they do not perceive 'the knowledge of all aspects is not attached.'
    They do not perceive 'the result of stream enterer . . . ,' 'the result of once-returner . . . ,' 'the result of non-returner . . . ,' 'the state of a worthy one . . . ,' 'a pratyekabuddha's awakening,' or 'unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening is not attached.' "

Then venerable Subhūti said to the Lord,
"Lord, that there is no improvement even with such an exposition of this deep Dharma teaching,
and no decline even without an exposition, is amazing."

Venerable Subhūti having said that, the Lord replied to him,

  • "Exactly so, Subhūti, exactly so!
    Even with an exposition of the perfection of wisdom there is no improvement [in absolute terms],
    and even without an exposition there is no decline [in absolute terms].

  • "This is like, Subhūti, tathāgatas, worthy ones, perfectly complete buddhas raising their voice, for as long as they live, in praise and denigration of space.
    Though they raise their voice in praise it does not improve [in absolute terms],
    and though they raise their voice in denigration it does not decline [in absolute terms].
    Praising space does not improve it and denigrating it does not make it decline.

  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti, a voice raised in praise of illusory persons does not improve them [in absolute terms],
    and a voice raised to denigrate them does not make them decline [in absolute terms].
    They are not attached even to a voice raised in praise and do not feel enraged even by a voice raised to denigrate.
    It is similar, Subhūti, with the true nature of dharmas.
    It is like that whether it is explained, and it is like that whether it is not explained."

Subhūti said,

  • "Lord, those bodhisattva great beings who practice the perfection of wisdom, who meditate on the perfection of wisdom and are not cowed, who do the yogic practice of this perfection of wisdom and do not turn back from unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening are those who do what is difficult.
    And why?
    Lord, it is because of this:
    the cultivation of the perfection of wisdom is the cultivation of space,
    and the perfection of wisdom does not appear; 464
    the perfection of concentration, perfection of perseverance, perfection of patience, perfection of morality, and perfection of giving do not appear in space either.
    Form does not appear,
    and feeling, perception, volitional factors, and consciousness do not appear in space either.
    Inner emptiness does not appear,
    up to and the emptiness that is the non-existence of an intrinsic nature does not appear in space either.
    The applications of mindfulness do not appear;
    the right efforts, legs of miraculous power, faculties, powers, limbs of awakening, and path do not appear in space either.
    The ten powers, fearlessnesses, detailed and thorough knowledges, and distinct attributes of a buddha do not appear in space.
    The result of stream enterer does not appear,
    and similarly the result of once-returner, the result of non-returner, the state of a worthy one, and a pratyekabuddha's awakening do not appear in space,
    and neither does unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening appear in space.

  • "Those bodhisattva great beings who have buckled on armor for the sake of beings
    want 465 to strive, want to try, want to make an effort for the sake of space.
    Lord, those bodhisattva great beings who want armor for the sake of beings want to liberate space.
    Lord, those bodhisattva great beings who want armor for the sake of all space-like dharmas want great armor.
    Lord, those bodhisattva great beings who want great armor for the sake of beings want to lift up space into the sky.
    Lord, those bodhisattva great beings who want to fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening gain the perfection of perseverance.
    It is to those bodhisattva great beings wanting that sort of armor, Lord, that I bow down.

  • "And why?
    To illustrate, Lord, if this great billionfold world system were filled with tathāgatas like a thicket of sugarcane, or a thicket of naḍa reeds, or a thicket of bamboo, or a thicket of rushes, or a thicket of rice, or a thicket of sesame, and were those tathāgatas for an eon or for even more than an eon to explain the Dharma, and were each of those tathāgatas to bring infinite, countless beings to maturity, still, a decline or increase in the mass of beings would not appear.
    And why?
    Because of the non-existence of beings, and because of the isolation of beings.
    By the same token, Lord, I have said, 'Those bodhisattva great beings who will fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening for the sake of beings want to liberate space.' "

Then it occurred to some monk or other to think this:

  • "I bow down to Bhagavatī Prajñāpāramitā,
    where no dharma is produced and no dharma is stopped [T2]
    and yet there is the aggregate of morality;
    there is the aggregate of wisdom and the aggregate of meditative stabilization, aggregate of liberation, and aggregate of knowledge and seeing of liberation;
    there is the result of stream enterer, and there is the result of once-returner, the result of non-returner, the state of a worthy one, and a pratyekabuddha's awakening;
    there is also unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening; there are the Three Jewels‍ — Buddha, Dharma, and Saṅgha‍ — and there is the turning of the wheel of the Dharma [T1] [U2T]."

Then Śatakratu, head of the gods, asked venerable Subhūti,
"Venerable monk Subhūti, what yogic practice are the bodhisattva great beings who are doing the yogic practice of this perfection of wisdom doing?"

"Kauśika," replied Subhūti,

  • "bodhisattva great beings who think they should train in this perfection of wisdom do a yogic practice in space."

Then Śatakratu, head of the gods, inquired of the Lord,
"Lord, how should I guard, protect, and keep safe sons of a good family and daughters of a good family who take up, bear in mind, read aloud, master, and properly pay attention to this perfection of wisdom?"

Subhūti asked in return,

  • "Kauśika, do you see that dharma you have to guard, protect, and keep safe?"

  • "Venerable monk Subhūti, I do not see that dharma I have to guard, protect, and keep safe," replied Śatakratu,

"Kauśika," Subhūti continued,

  • "if sons of a good family or daughters of a good family stand in this perfection of wisdom as it has been expounded, just that will guard, protect, and keep them safe.
    Humans and even non-humans find no opportunity to hurt them if they are inseparable from this perfection of wisdom as it has been expounded.
    Kauśika, whoever thinks that they have to guard, protect, and keep safe bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom thinks that they have to guard, protect, and keep space safe.

  • "What do you think, Kauśika, can you guard, protect, and keep safe
    an illusion, a mirage, a dream, an echo, or an apparition?"

"No, venerable monk Subhūti, you cannot," said Śatakratu.

  • "Similarly, Kauśika," said Subhūti, "anyone who thinks they will guard, protect, and keep safe bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom will in that case just become frustrated and get tired out.

  • "What do you think, Kauśika, can you guard, protect, and keep safe
    the dharma-constituent, the very limit of reality, suchness, or the inconceivable element?"

"No, venerable monk Subhūti, you cannot," said Śatakratu.

  • "Similarly, Kauśika," said Subhūti, "anyone who thinks they will guard, protect, and keep safe bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom will in that case just become frustrated and tire themselves out."

Śatakratu responded,

  • "To the extent, venerable monk Subhūti, that bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom comprehend all dharmas to be like a dream, like an illusion, like an echo, like a mirage, like an apparition, like the city of the gandharvas‍ — that they comprehend all dharmas to be like a magical creation‍ — bodhisattva great beings with such a comprehension
    still do not falsely project it as a dream,
    do not project the dream as 'mine,'
    do not project anything in a dream,
    do not project a causal sign of a dream,
    up to do not falsely project it as a magical creation,
    do not project the magical creation as 'mine,'
    do not project anything in a magical creation, and
    do not falsely project a causal sign of a magical creation."

"Kauśika," said Subhūti,

  • "if bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom
    do not falsely project form,
    do not project form as 'mine,'
    do not project anything onto form,
    and do not project a causal sign of form,
    then they do not falsely project it as a dream,
    do not project the dream as 'mine,'
    do not project anything onto a dream,
    do not falsely project a causal sign of a dream;
    up to they do not falsely project it as a magical creation,
    do not project the magical creation as 'mine,'
    do not project anything onto a magical creation,
    and do not falsely project a causal sign of a magical creation.
    Similarly, if they do not falsely project feeling . . . perception . . . volitional factors . . . or consciousness,
    do not falsely project consciousness as 'mine,'
    do not project anything onto consciousness,
    and do not project a causal sign of consciousness,
    up to do not falsely project the knowledge of all aspects,
    do not project the knowledge of all aspects as 'mine,'
    do not project anything onto the knowledge of all aspects, and
    do not project a causal sign of the knowledge of all aspects,
    then they do not falsely project it as a dream,
    do not project the dream as 'mine,'
    do not project anything onto a dream,
    do not project a causal sign of a dream,
    up to do not falsely project it as a magical creation,
    do not project the magical creation as 'mine,'
    do not project anything onto a magical creation,
    and do not falsely project a causal sign of a magical creation."

Then through the power of the Buddha, all the Cāturmahā­rājika gods and the Trāyastriṃśa, Yāma, Tuṣita, Nirmāṇarati, Para­nirmita­vaśa­vartin, Brahmakāyika, Brahmapurohita, Brahmapārṣadya, up to the Śuddhāvāsa class of gods, as many as there were stationed in the great billionfold world system, took divine sandalwood powders and specifically strewed them right over the Lord, approached the Lord, went up to him, bowed their heads to the feet of the Lord, and stood to one side.

Then all the Cāturmahā­rājika, Indra, Brahmā, up to the Śuddhāvāsa class of gods focused their thoughts, as they habitually do, through the power of the Buddha on a thousand buddhas in the eastern direction appearing in just these ways 466 teaching the Dharma with just these words; on monks, all of them with the name Subhūti, asking about this very perfection of wisdom and about this very chapter of the Perfection of Wisdom;
and on Śatakratus, heads of the gods, all of them asking, through the power of the Buddha, about this very perfection of wisdom.
Similarly, they focused their thoughts, as they habitually do, through the power of the Buddha on a thousand buddhas each in the south, west, and north, below and above, and the intermediate directions as well, appearing in just these ways teaching the Dharma with just these words;
on monks, all of them with the name Subhūti, asking about this very perfection of wisdom, about this very chapter of the Perfection of Wisdom; and on Śatakratus, heads of the gods, all of them asking, through the power of the Buddha, about this very perfection of wisdom.

Then the Lord said to venerable Subhūti,

  • "Subhūti, the bodhisattva great being Maitreya,
    having fully awakened to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening,
    will teach just this perfection of wisdom at just this place on the earth as well.
    Those tathāgatas, worthy ones, perfectly complete buddhas that appear during this Fortunate Age will also, having fully awakened to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening, teach just this perfection of wisdom at just this place on the earth."

The Lord having said this, venerable Subhūti then inquired of him,
"Lord, with which attributes, tokens, and signs will the bodhisattva great being Maitreya, having fully awakened to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening, teach this perfection of wisdom?"

The Lord said,

  • "Subhūti, here the bodhisattva great being Maitreya,
    having fully awakened to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening,
    will not teach the Dharma 'form is permanent' or 'impermanent';
    and similarly, he will not teach the Dharma 'form is happiness' or 'suffering,' 'form is self' or 'selfless,' or 'form is pleasant' or 'unpleasant.' He will not teach the Dharma 'form is bound' or 'freed.'

  • "Similarly,
    he will not teach the Dharma 'feeling . . . ,' 'perception . . . ,' 'volitional factors . . . ,' or 'consciousness is permanent' or 'impermanent';
    and similarly, he will not teach the Dharma 'consciousness is happiness' or 'suffering,' 'consciousness is self' or 'selfless,' or 'consciousness is pleasant' or 'unpleasant.'
    He will not teach the Dharma 'consciousness is bound' or 'freed.'

  • "He will not teach the Dharma 'form is past,' 'is future,' or 'is present.'
    Similarly, he will not teach the Dharma 'feeling . . . ,' 'perception . . . ,' 'volitional factors . . . ,' or 'consciousness is past,' 'is future,' or 'is present.'
    Similarly, up to he will not teach the Dharma 'the knowledge of all aspects is past,' 'is future,' or 'is present.' He will not teach the Dharma 'the knowledge of all aspects is bound' or 'freed.' "

Then venerable Subhūti asked the Lord,
"Lord, how will the bodhisattva great being Maitreya, having fully awakened to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening, teach this perfection of wisdom?"

"Subhūti," replied the Lord,

  • "He [Maitreya] will teach the extremely pure Dharma 'form is extremely pure,'
    and similarly, he will teach the extremely pure Dharma 'feeling, perception, volitional factors, and consciousness are extremely pure.'
    Similarly, up to he will teach the extremely pure Dharma 'the knowledge of all aspects is extremely pure.' "

"Lord, the perfection of wisdom is pure,' said Subhūti.

"Subhūti," replied the Lord,

  • "the perfection of wisdom is pure because form is pure.
    Subhūti, the perfection of wisdom is pure because feeling, perception, volitional factors, and consciousness are pure, up to Subhūti, the perfection of wisdom is pure because the knowledge of all aspects is pure."

Subhūti asked,
"In what way, Lord, is the perfection of wisdom pure because form is pure?
In what way is the perfection of wisdom pure because feeling, perception, volitional factors, and consciousness are pure, up to in what way, Lord, is the perfection of wisdom pure because the knowledge of all aspects is pure?"

"Subhūti," replied the Lord,

  • "form that is unproduced and unceasing, without defilement and without purification, is pure form.

  • Subhūti, feeling . . . , perception . . . , volitional factors . . . , and consciousness that is unproduced and unceasing, without defilement and without purification, is pure consciousness. Similarly, Subhūti, up to the knowledge of all aspects that is unproduced and unceasing, without defilement and without purification, is the pure knowledge of all aspects.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti,
    the perfection of wisdom is pure because space is pure."

"In what way, Lord, is the perfection of wisdom pure because space is pure?" asked Subhūti.

"Subhūti," replied the Lord,

  • "space is pure because it is unproduced and unceasing, without defilement and without purification.

  • "Subhūti,
    the perfection of wisdom is pure because space is untainted."

"In what way, Lord, is the perfection of wisdom pure because space is untainted?" asked Subhūti.

"Subhūti," replied the Lord,

  • "the perfection of wisdom is pure because space cannot be grasped."

"In what way, Lord, is the perfection of wisdom pure because space cannot be grasped?" asked Subhūti.

"Subhūti," replied the Lord,

  • "the perfection of wisdom is pure because space does not say anything."

"In what way, Lord, is the perfection of wisdom pure because space does not say anything?" asked Subhūti.

The Lord replied,

  • "The perfection of wisdom is pure because, Subhūti, just like the two sounds of an echo, to give an analogy, so too space does not say anything.

  • "Subhūti,
    the perfection of wisdom is pure because space does not converse about anything."

"In what way, Lord, is the perfection of wisdom pure because space does not converse about anything?" asked Subhūti.

"Subhūti," replied the Lord,

  • "in space there is no conversation at all, so the perfection of wisdom is pure because space does not converse about anything.

  • "Subhūti, the perfection of wisdom is pure because space cannot be apprehended."

"In what way, Lord, is the perfection of wisdom pure because space cannot be apprehended?" asked Subhūti.

"Subhūti," replied the Lord,

  • "in space there is nothing at all that can be apprehended,
    so the perfection of wisdom is pure because space cannot be apprehended.

  • "Subhūti, the perfection of wisdom is pure because form is extremely pure, cannot be apprehended, is unproduced and unceasing, and without defilement and without purification.
    Similarly, Subhūti, the perfection of wisdom is pure because feeling, perception, volitional factors, and consciousness are extremely pure, cannot be apprehended, are unproduced and unceasing, and are without defilement and without purification.
    Similarly, Subhūti, up to the perfection of wisdom is pure because the knowledge of all aspects is extremely pure, cannot be apprehended, is unproduced and unceasing, and is without defilement and without purification.
    Subhūti, the perfection of wisdom is pure because all dharmas are extremely pure, cannot be apprehended, are unproduced and unceasing, and are without defilement and without purification."

"In what way, Lord, is the perfection of wisdom pure because all dharmas are extremely pure, cannot be apprehended, are unproduced and unceasing, and are without defilement and without purification?" asked Subhūti.

  • "Subhūti, the perfection of wisdom is pure because all dharmas are extremely pure," replied the Lord.

Subhūti said,

  • "Lord, sons of a good family or daughters of a good family
    who take up, bear in mind, read aloud, master, and properly pay attention to this perfection of wisdom
    will not contract diseases of the eyes; will not contract diseases of the ears, nose, tongue, or body;
    and will not contract diseases of the thinking mind,
    will not have stunted minor parts of the body,
    and will not have decrepit bodies.
    Those sons of a good family or daughters of a good family will not die in a distressed state.
    Many thousands of gods who want to listen to the Dharma follow right behind them.
    The Cāturmahā­rājika, up to the Śuddhāvāsa class of gods follow right behind.
    On the eighth, the fourteenth, and the fifteenth 467 many hosts of gods gather wherever sons of a good family or daughters of a good family who are Dharma preachers preach the perfection of wisdom.
    Those sons of a good family or daughters of a good family who are preaching the perfection of wisdom create a lot of merit‍ — create infinite, countless, inconceivable, immeasurable amounts of merit."

"Exactly so, Subhūti, exactly so!" said the Lord.

  • "Those sons of a good family or daughters of a good family who preach the perfection of wisdom in front of an audience of gods on the eighth, the fourteenth, and the fifteenth
    create infinite, countless, inconceivable, immeasurable, inexpressible amounts of merit.

  • "And why? Subhūti, it is
    because this‍ — namely, the perfection of wisdom‍ — is a great jewel.
    Thanks to this, the perfection of wisdom jewel, beings are freed from hell, freed from the animal world, freed from the world of Yama, and freed from being a poor human.

  • "They are born in great sāla tree–like royal families, born in great sāla tree–like brahmin families, born in great sāla tree–like business families, up to born as Naiva­saṃjñā­nāsaṃjñāyatana gods.
    This perfection of wisdom produces the result of stream enterer, and it produces the result of once-returner, the result of non-returner, the state of a worthy one, a pratyekabuddha's awakening, and unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening.

  • "And why?
    Because in this perfection of wisdom the ten wholesome actions are taught in detail.
    Because thanks to it great sāla tree–like royal families exist, great sāla tree–like brahmin families exist, and great sāla tree–like business families exist;
    the Cāturmahā­rājika gods, the Trāyastriṃśa, Yāma, Tuṣita, Nirmāṇarati, and Para­nirmita­vaśa­vartin gods, the Brahmapurohita, Brahmakāyika, Brahmapārṣadya, Parīttābha, Apramāṇābha, Ābhāsvara, Parīttaśubha, Apramāṇaśubha, Śubhakṛtsna, Bṛhatphala, and Asaṃjñisattva, the Sudarśana, Sudṛśa, Avṛha, Atapa, and Akaniṣṭha gods, and the gods in the Ākāśānantyāyatana, Vijñānānantyāyatana, Ākiṃcityāyatana, and Naiva­saṃjñā­nāsaṃjñāyatana exist;
    the result of stream enterer exists, and the result of once-returner, the result of non-returner, the state of a worthy one, a pratyekabuddha's awakening, and unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening exist.
    Because in this perfection of wisdom the four concentrations, the four immeasurables, and four formless absorptions exist; the perfection of giving exists;
    the perfections of morality, patience, perseverance, concentration, and wisdom exist;
    the applications of mindfulness exist;
    the right efforts, legs of miraculous power, faculties, powers, limbs of awakening, and path exist;
    inner emptiness, up to the existence of the emptiness that is the non-existence of an intrinsic nature exists;
    the ten powers, four fearlessnesses, four detailed and thorough knowledges, and eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha exist, up to the knowledge of all aspects exists,
    that is to say, in this perfection of wisdom those dharmas and so on are taught in detail.
    Therefore this‍ — that is, the perfection of wisdom‍ — is a great jewel.

  • "Subhūti,
    in the perfection of wisdom there is no dharma that is produced or ceases,
    is defiled or purified, or is appropriated or rejected at all.
    And why?
    Because those dharmas that could be produced or cease, or could be defiled or purified, or could be appropriated or rejected do not exist.

  • "Subhūti, you cannot apprehend any dharma that is wholesome or unwholesome, with outflows or without outflows, a basic immorality or not a basic immorality, with afflictions or without afflictions, ordinary or extraordinary, compounded or uncompounded in this perfection of wisdom jewel at all.
    Subhūti, because of this one of many explanations, this perfection is a great jewel.

  • "Subhūti, that perfection is a great jewel because that great jewel is not tainted by any dharma.
    And why?
    Because you cannot apprehend that dharma on account of which it might become tainted.
    Therefore, Subhūti, this great jewel perfection is untainted.

  • "Subhūti, if bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom thus
    do not form any notion and thus do not conceive, thus do not apprehend,
    thus do not engage in thought construction [in absolute terms],
    they are practicing the perfection of wisdom,
    they are meditating on the perfection of wisdom,
    and they see the lord buddhas.
    They go from buddhafield to buddhafield to respect, revere, honor, and worship those lord buddhas,
    and when they are going from buddhafield to buddhafield they also bring beings to maturity and purify a buddhafield.

  • "Subhūti, 468 this perfection of wisdom
    does not cause any dharma to be gained,
    does not teach it,
    does not cause it to be borne in mind,
    does not bestow it,
    does not make it arise,
    does not make it stop,
    does not make it defiled,
    does not make it pure,
    does not make it decline, and
    does not make it increase.
    It is not past, or future, or present either.

  • "Subhūti, this perfection of wisdom also
    does not cause the desire realm to be transcended, and it does not make it be there either.
    It does not cause the form realm to be transcended, and it does not make it be there either.
    It does not cause the formless realm to be transcended, and it does not make it be there either.
    It does not bestow the perfection of giving, and it also does not remove it;
    it does not bestow the perfections of morality, patience, perseverance, concentration, or wisdom, and it also does not remove them.
    It does not bestow inner emptiness, and it also does not remove it;
    it does not bestow, up to the existence of the emptiness that is the non-existence of an intrinsic nature, and it also does not remove it.
    It does not bestow the applications of mindfulness, and it also does not remove them.
    Similarly, it does not bestow the right efforts, legs of miraculous power, faculties, powers, limbs of awakening, or path, and it also does not remove them.
    It does not bestow the ten powers, and it also does not remove them;
    it does not bestow the four fearlessnesses, four detailed and thorough knowledges, or eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha, and it also does not remove them.
    It does not bestow the result of stream enterer, and it also does not remove it;
    it does not bestow the result of once-returner, the result of non-returner, the state of a worthy one, a pratyekabuddha's awakening, or the knowledge of all aspects, and it also does not remove them.

  • "This perfection of wisdom
    does not bestow the buddha-dharmas, and it also does not remove them;
    it does not bestow the dharmas of ordinary persons, and it also does not remove them;
    it does not bestow the dharmas of śrāvakas or pratyekabuddhas, and it also does not remove them;
    it does not bestow the buddha dharmas, and it also does not remove them.
    Subhūti, this perfection of wisdom does not remove the compounded element, and it does not bestow the uncompounded element.

  • "And why?
    Because this principle of the dharma-constituent simply remains [does not change] whether the tathāgatas arise or whether the tathāgatas do not arise, and the tathāgatas fully awaken to and are clearly aware of it, and while fully awakened and clearly aware they speak about it and explain, reveal, and teach it."

Then a great many hundred thousands of gods standing in the sky above shouted and let out a cheer, and while strewing down blue lotus, lotus, red lotus, white lotus, and coral tree flowers they also exclaimed,

  • "Ah! We are seeing a second turning of the wheel of the Dharma in the world."

And while this perfection of wisdom was being taught, a great many thousands of gods
gained the forbearance for the non-production of dharmas from it.

Then the Lord said to venerable Subhūti,

  • "Subhūti, given the emptiness that is the non-existence of an intrinsic nature,
    this perfection of wisdom has not been made available because any Dharma has to be engaged in or backed away from, so it is not a second turning of the wheel of Dharma, and it is not a first turning either."

"Lord, what is the emptiness that is the non-existence of an intrinsic nature when 469 this perfection of wisdom has not been made available in order to turn forward or turn backward any Dharma?" asked Subhūti.

"Subhūti," replied the Lord,

  • "the perfection of wisdom
    is empty of the perfection of wisdom [T2] [but still appearing and relatively functional [T1] [U2T],

  • and similarly, the perfection of concentration . . . , perseverance . . . , patience . . . , morality . . . , and giving
    is empty of the perfection of giving [T2] [but still appearing and relatively functional [T1] [U2T].

  • Inner emptiness is empty of inner emptiness, up to the emptiness that is the non-existence of an intrinsic nature
    is empty of the emptiness that is the non-existence of an intrinsic nature [T2] [but still appearing and relatively functional [T1] [U2T].

  • The applications of mindfulness are empty of the applications of mindfulness, and similarly, the right efforts . . . , the legs of miraculous power . . . , the faculties . . . , the powers . . . , the limbs of awakening . . . , and path
    is empty of the path [T2] [but still appearing and relatively functional [T1] [U2T].

  • The ten powers are empty of the ten powers, and the four fearlessnesses . . . , the four detailed and thorough knowledges . . . , and the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha
    are empty of the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha [T2] [but still appearing and relatively functional [T1] [U2T].

  • The result of stream enterer is empty of the result of stream enterer, and similarly, the result of once-returner . . . , the result of non-returner . . . , the state of a worthy one . . . , a pratyekabuddha's awakening . . . , and the knowledge of all aspects
    is empty of the knowledge of all aspects [T2] [but still appearing and relatively functional [T1] [U2T]."

Subhūti said,

  • "This‍ — that is, the emptiness that is the non-existence of an intrinsic nature, the perfection of wisdom‍ — is a great perfection.
    All dharmas are empty of the intrinsic nature of all dharmas, but still bodhisattva great beings, thanks to this perfection of wisdom, will fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening without fully awakening to any dharma at all, will turn the wheel of the Dharma even though any Dharma that has to be engaged in or backed away from does not exist, will not see any Dharma at all, and will not not see any Dharma at all either.
    And why?
    Because a dharma that engages or backs away cannot be apprehended,
    because all dharmas absolutely do not come into being,
    so emptiness does not engage, nor does it back away;
    the signless and the wishless also do not engage, nor do they back away.

  • "Therefore, this teaching of the perfection of wisdom, this illumination, discourse, exposition, advancement, explanation, revelation, description, making clear, and explication is the teaching of the perfection of wisdom that is perfectly pure.
    Nobody teaches that teaching of the perfection of wisdom, and nobody receives it,
    and what nobody has taught and nobody has received, that nobody has directly realized.
    And what nobody has taught, nobody has received, and nobody has directly realized,
    there nobody has entered into nirvāṇa either.
    And in this Dharma teaching there is also nobody who becomes worthy of offerings."

This was the thirty-seventh chapter, "Nobody," of "The Perfection of Wisdom in Eighteen Thousand Lines." 470




Access to other chapters on the Blog:
(Work in progress. Empty files means they are not done yet.)

  1. Chapter 0 – Introduction to the Sutra

  2. Chapter 1 – Introduction / the Assembly

  3. Chapter 2 – Production of the Thought

  4. Chapter 3 – designation [U2T]

  5. Chapter 4 – Equal to the Unequal

  6. Chapter 5 – Tongue

  7. Chapter 6 – Subhūti

  8. Chapter 7 – Entry into flawlessness

  9. Chapter 8 – The Religious Mendicant Śreṇika

  10. Chapter 9 – Causal Signs

  11. Chapter 10 – Illusion-like

  12. Chapter 11 – Embarrassment

  13. Chapter 12 – Elimination of Views

  14. Chapter 13 – The Six Perfections

  15. Chapter 14 – Neither Bound nor Freed

  16. Chapter 15 – Meditative Stabilization

  17. Chapter 16 – Dhāraṇī Gateway

  18. Chapter 17 – Level Purification

  19. Chapter 18 – The Exposition of Going Forth in the Great Vehicle [cause / path]

  20. Chapter 19 – Surpassing

  21. Chapter 20 – Not Two

  22. Chapter 21 – Subhūti

  23. Chapter 22 – Śatakratu

  24. Chapter 23 – Hard to Understand

  25. Chapter 24 – Unlimited

  26. Chapter 25 – Second Śatakratu

  27. Chapter 26 – Getting Old

  28. Chapter 27 – Reliquary

  29. Chapter 28 – Declaration of the Good Qualities of the Thought of Awakening

  30. Chapter 29 – Different Tīrthika Religious Mendicants

  31. Chapter 30 – The Benefits of Taking Up and Adoration

  32. Chapter 31 – Physical Remains

  33. Chapter 32 – The Superiority of Merit

  34. Chapter 33 – Dedication

  35. Chapter 34 – Perfect Praise of the Quality of Accomplishment

  36. Chapter 35 – Hells

  37. Chapter 36 – Teaching The Purity of all Dharmas

  38. Chapter 37 – Nobody

  39. Chapter 38 – Cannot Be Apprehended

  40. Chapter 39 – The Northern Region

  41. Chapter 40 – The Work of Māra

  42. Chapter 41 – Not Complete Because of Māra

  43. Chapter 42 – Revealing the World

  44. Chapter 43 – Inconceivable

  45. Chapter 44 – Made Up

  46. Chapter 45 – A Boat

  47. Chapter 46 – Teaching the Intrinsic Nature of All Dharmas

  48. Chapter 47 – Taming Greed

  49. Chapter 48 – A Presentation of the Bodhisattvas' Training

  50. Chapter 49 – Irreversibility

  51. Chapter 50 – Teaching the Signs of Irreversibility

  52. Chapter 51 – Skillful means

  53. Chapter 52 – Completion of the Means

  54. Chapter 53 – The Prophecy about Gaṅgadevī

  55. Chapter 54 – Teaching the Cultivation of Skillful Means

  56. Chapter 55 – Teaching the Stopping of Thought Construction [in absolute terms]

  57. Chapter 56 – Equal Training

  58. Chapter 57 – Practice

  59. Chapter 58 – Exposition of the Absence of Thought Construction [in absolute terms]

  60. Chapter 59 – non-attachment

  61. Chapter 60 – Entrusting

  62. Chapter 61 – Inexhaustible

  63. Chapter 62 – Leaping Above Absorption

  64. Chapter 63 – Many Inquiries about the Two Dharmas

  65. Chapter 64 – Perfectly Displayed

  66. Chapter 65 – Worshiping, Serving, and Attending on Spiritual Friends as Skillful Means

  67. Chapter 66 – A Demonstration of Skillful Means

  68. Chapter 67 – Morality

  69. Chapter 68 – Growing and Flourishing

  70. Chapter 69 – An Explanation of Meditation on The Path

  71. Chapter 70 – An Explanation of Serial Action, Training, and Practice

  72. Chapter 71 – The True Nature of Dharmas That Cannot Be Apprehended

  73. Chapter 72 – Teaching the Absence of Marks

  74. Chapter 73 – Exposition of the Major Marks and Minor Signs and the Completion of Letters

  75. Chapter 74 – Exposition of the Sameness of Dharmas

  76. Chapter 75 – Exposition of non-complication –

  77. Chapter 76 – The Armor for Bringing Beings to Maturity

  78. Chapter 77 – Teaching the Purification of a Buddhafield

  79. Chapter 78 – Teaching the Skillful Means for the Purification of a Buddhafield

  80. Chapter 79 – Teaching the non- Existence of an Intrinsic Nature

  81. Chapter 80 – Teaching that there is No Defilement or Purification

  82. Chapter 81 – Yogic Practice of the Ultimate

  83. Chapter 82 – The Unchanging True Nature of Dharmas

  84. Chapter 83 – Categorization of a Bodhisattva's Training

  85. Chapter 84 – Collection

  86. Chapter 85 – Sadāprarudita

  87. Chapter 86 – Dharmodgata

  88. Chapter 87 – Entrusting

  89. Résumés in bullet points of all chapters.




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