Tuesday, June 14, 2022

Prajnaparamita-18K - Chapter 16 - Dharmas of the Great Vehicle - II - 316

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The Transcendent Perfection of Wisdom
in Eighteen Thousand Lines - 316
Daśa­sāhasrikā­prajñā­pāramitā

– Chapter 16 - Dharmas of the Great Vehicle - II –

Source: https://read.84000.co/translation/toh10.html

More Analysis of Mahayana Sutras : https://www.gilehtblog.com/2022/07/toc-400.html

[Note: The two truths are:
T1: conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means, merely labeled / imputed / imagined / created by the mind in dependence of its conditioning / karma (in cycle), not completely non-existence;
T2: emptiness of inherent existence, not real existence;
U2T: those two truths, like any other pair of apparent opposites, are inseparable, interdependent, co-defined, co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing / co-transcended, in harmony, in 'Union' <==> thus empty of inherent existence.
They are tools to help us to get to the 'inconceivable' by refuting what 'Reality as it is' is not:
all extreme views like: existence / dharma / causality / functionality, non-existence / non-dharma / non-causality / non-functionality, both together, neither; difference / manyness / diversity / duality, identity / oneness / sameness / non-duality, both together, neither; permanence / continuity / eternity, impermanence / discontinuity / annihilation, both together, neither; individuality, collectivity, universality, a combination of those, none of those; subjectivity, relation / action / process, objectivity, a combination of those, none of those; the 1st truth alone / dependent origination [T1], the 2nd truth alone / mere-emptiness [T2], both two truths together as if different and in opposition [2T], neither of the two truths as if identical and one [1T,]; 'this', 'non-this', both together, neither – for whatever 'this' is.
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The three spheres: ex.
i. The subject / actor / goer / perceiver / knower / acquirer / owner,
ii. The relation / action / going / perceiving / knowing / acquiring / having
iii. The object / result / destination / perceived / known / acquired / possessions / karma / 5 aggregates / body & speech & mind.
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Generalisations:
Whenever it is possible the comments of each section are expressed into a more global context. So they always cover more than just what is said in the various translations. The goal is to make the Big Picture more evident.
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Note: All comments within (i.e. …) or [...] are from the commentator (me), not the translators.)


[Back to Résumés of chapters 1-41]

16. DHĀRAṆĪ GATEWAY – More dharmas composing the Great Vehicle.

(i.e. Résumé: Furthermore, the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings is these:
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The thirty-seven dharmas on the side of awakening:
the four applications of mindfulness (mindfulness of the body, feeling, minds, dharmas);
the four right efforts (generate the desire not to produce wrong unwholesome dharmas not yet produced, the desire to abandon wrong unwholesome dharmas already produced, the desire to produce wholesome dharmas not yet produced, the desire that wholesome dharmas already produced will remain, will increase, will not be forgotten, will not degenerate, and will be completed);
the four legs of miraculous power (isolation, detachment, cessation, transformation, and that without apprehending anything);
the five faculties (faith, perseverance, mindfulness, meditative stabilization, wisdom);
the five powers (faith, perseverance, mindfulness, meditative stabilization, wisdom, and that by way of not apprehending anything);
the seven limbs of awakening (mindfulness, examination, perseverance, joy, pliability, meditative stabilization, equanimity, all based on detachment, based on cessation, and transformed by renunciation, and that without apprehending anything);
the eightfold noble path (right view, idea, speech,m conduct, livelihood, effort, mindfulness, meditative stabilization);
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the three meditative stabilizations that are the three gateways to liberation (emptiness, signless, wishless meditative stabilization);
the eleven knowledges (the knowledges of suffering, origination, cessation, the path, extinction, non-production, dharma, the realization knowledge, the conventional knowledge, the knowledge of mastery, the knowledge in accord with sound);
the three faculties (the faculty of coming to understand what one does not understand, the faculty of understanding, and the faculty of having understood);
the three meditative stabilizations (the meditative stabilization with applied thought and with sustained thought, the meditative stabilization without applied thought with only sustained thought, and the meditative stabilization without either applied or sustained thought);
the ten mindfulnesses (mindfulness of the Buddha, Dharma, Sangha, morality, giving away, the gods, disgust, death, what is included in the body, breathing in and out – by way of not apprehending anything);
the four immeasurables (loving-kindness, compassion, joy, equanimity);
the four concentrations (four jhanas);
the four formless absorptions (four arupa jhanas: endless pace, endless consciousness, nothing-at-all, neither perception nor non-perception);
the eight deliverances (going through the eight mental stabilizations: 4 jhanas & 4 arupa jhanas);
the nine serial absorptions (going through the eight mental stabilizations: 4 jhanas & 4 arupa jhanas);
the ten powers of a tathāgata;
the four fearlessnesses;
the four detailed and thorough knowledges;
the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha;
the dhāraṇī gateways.)

Content:

  •  the thirty-seven dharmas on the side of awakening:

    • the four applications of mindfulness,

    • the four right efforts,

    • the four legs of miraculous power,

    • the five faculties,

    • the five powers,

    • the seven limbs of awakening,

    • the eightfold noble path;

  • the three meditative stabilizations that are the three gateways to liberation;

  • the eleven knowledges;

  • the three faculties;

  • the three meditative stabilizations;

  • the ten mindfulnesses;

  • the four immeasurables;

  • the four concentrations;

  • the four formless absorptions;

  • the eight deliverances;

  • the nine serial absorptions;

  • the ten powers of a tathāgata;

  • the four fearlessnesses;

  • the four detailed and thorough knowledges;

  • the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha;

  • the dhāraṇī gateways.


"Furthermore, Subhūti, the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings is this: the four applications of mindfulness.

What are the four?

  1. They are the application of mindfulness to the body,

  2. the application of mindfulness to feeling,

  3. the application of mindfulness to mind, and

  4. the application of mindfulness to dharmas.

"What is the application of mindfulness to the body?

  • Here enthusiastic, introspective, mindful bodhisattva great beings, having cleared away ordinary covetousness and depression, dwell while viewing in a body the inner body by way of not apprehending anything, and without indulging in speculations to do with the body.
    They dwell while viewing in a body the outer body, and they dwell while viewing in a body the inner and outer body by way of not apprehending anything, and without indulging in speculations to do with the body.

  • "Enthusiastic, introspective, mindful bodhisattva great beings, having cleared away ordinary covetousness and depression, dwell while viewing in dharmas inner feelings, mind, and inner dharmas, by way of not apprehending anything, and without indulging in speculations to do with dharmas.
    They dwell while viewing in dharmas outer feelings, mind, and outer dharmas, and dwell while viewing in dharmas inner and outer feelings, mind, and inner and outer dharmas by way of not apprehending anything, and without indulging in speculations to do with the body.

  • "And how, Subhūti, do bodhisattva great beings dwell while viewing in a body the inner body? Subhūti, here bodhisattva great beings dwell, while viewing in a body the inner body, aware when practicing, 'I am practicing'; aware when they have stood, 'I am standing'; aware when they have sat down, 'I am sitting'; aware when they have laid down, 'I am lying down.' Whatever the position their body is in, they are aware of what it is. Subhūti, enthusiastic, introspective, mindful bodhisattva great beings, having cleared away ordinary covetousness and depression, dwell while viewing in a body the inner body like that.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings who dwell while viewing in a body the inner body, while going out or coming back, are those who are clearly conscious of what they are doing. When they have looked around or peered, they are clearly conscious of what they are doing. When they have pulled in; stretched out; are wearing an under robe, carrying a begging bowl, or wearing an outer robe; or have eaten, drunk, chewed, savored, warded off being overcome by drowsiness, 280 come, gone, stood, sat down, slept, awoken, spoken, remained silent, or withdrawn for meditation, they are those who are clearly conscious of what they are doing. Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom dwell while viewing in a body the inner body by way of not apprehending anything like that.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings are mindful when breathing in, aware of the fact 'I am breathing in'; are mindful when breathing out, aware of the fact 'I am breathing out'; when breathing in long, are aware of the fact 'I am breathing in long'; when breathing out long, are aware of the fact 'I am breathing out long'; when breathing in short, are aware of the fact 'I am breathing in short'; and when breathing out short, are aware of the fact 'I am breathing out short.'

  • "To illustrate, Subhūti, when a skillful potter or potter's apprentice 281 turns the wheel they are aware when they give it a long spin, 'I am giving it a long spin,' and they are aware when they give it a short spin, 'I am giving it a short spin.' Similarly, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings when mindfully breathing in are mindfully aware of the fact 'I am breathing in'; when mindfully breathing out are mindfully aware of the fact 'I am breathing out'; when breathing in longare aware of the fact 'I am breathing in long'; when breathing out long are aware of the fact 'I am breathing out long'; when breathing in short are aware of the fact 'I am breathing in short'; and when breathing out short are aware of the fact 'I am breathing out short.' Subhūti, enthusiastic, introspective, mindful bodhisattva great beings, having cleared away ordinary covetousness and depression, dwell viewing in a body the inner body like that, and that by way of not apprehending anything.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom examine how this very body in fact has constituents, how in this body are the earth element, water element, fire element, and wind element. As an example, Subhūti, when a skillful butcher of cows or apprentice to a butcher of cows has killed a cow with a sharp knife and quartered it, they examine it while standing or sitting. Similarly, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom also examine how this very body in fact has constituents, how in this body are the earth element, water element, fire element, and wind element. Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom dwell viewing in a body the inner body like that while standing or sitting, and that by way of not apprehending anything.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom examine properly how this very body is full of various types of filth from the soles of the feet on up, from the top of the head on down, and out as far as the nails, hairs, and skin. They examine on this body the hair on the head and hairs on the body, the nails, the teeth, the covering of skin, and the flesh, sinew, blood, bone, marrow, heart, kidney, liver, lungs, spleen, gut, intestines, coiled intestines, colon, urine, excrement, tears, sweat, fat, snot, mucus, pus, bile, phlegm, oil, marrow, plasma, dirt, cranium, brain, discharge from the eyes, and ear wax. As an analogy, Subhūti, when those with eyes untie and inspect a farmer's sack full of different types of unhusked rice, unhusked grains, sesame seeds, husked grains, mung beans, 282 kidney beans, lentils, barley, wheat, and mustard seeds, they know 'this is unhusked rice, these are unhusked grains, these are sesame seeds, these are mung beans, these are kidney beans, these are lentils, this is barley, this is wheat, and these are mustard seeds.' Similarly, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom examine how this very body is full of various types of filth from the soles of the feet on up, from the top of the head on down, and out as far as the nails, hairs, and skin. They examine on this body the hair on the head and hairs on the body, the nails, the teeth, the covering of skin, and the flesh, sinew, blood, bone, marrow, heart, kidney, liver, lungs, spleen, gut, intestines, coiled intestines, colon, urine, excrement, tears, sweat, fat, snot, mucus, pus, bile, phlegm, oil, marrow, plasma, dirt, cranium, brain, discharge from the eyes, and ear wax. Subhūti, enthusiastic, introspective, mindful bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom, having cleared away ordinary covetousness and depression, dwell viewing while in a body the inner body like that, by way of not apprehending anything.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, when bodhisattva great beings staying in a charnel ground see various bodies thrown out in the charnel ground that have been dead for one day, dead for two days, dead for three days, dead for four days, or dead for five days, or are bloated, black and blue, rotten, or cleaned out by worms, they connect this very body with that reality: 'This body too has such a quality, is of such a nature, and does not avoid having that as its natural state.' Subhūti, enthusiastic, introspective, mindful bodhisattva great beings, having cleared away ordinary covetousness and depression, dwell while viewing in a body the body 283 like that.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, when bodhisattva great beings see human corpses thrown out in the charnel ground dead for six days or dead for seven days or lying there being eaten by crows, kites, buzzards, vultures, hawks, 284 jackals, foxes, or dogs, or being eaten by any other of the various kinds of creatures, they connect this very body with that reality: 'This body too is of such a quality, is of such a nature, and does not avoid having that as its natural state.' Subhūti, enthusiastic, introspective, mindful bodhisattva great beings, having cleared away ordinary covetousness and depression, dwell while viewing in a body the outer body like that.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, when bodhisattva great beings see human corpses thrown out in the charnel ground that are chewed up, filthy, rotten, and stinking, they connect this very body with that reality: 'This body too is of such a quality, is of such a nature, and does not avoid having that as its natural state.' Subhūti, enthusiastic, introspective, mindful bodhisattva great beings, having cleared away ordinary covetousness and depression, dwell while viewing in a body the body like that.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, when bodhisattva great beings see a complete skeleton thrown out in the charnel ground daubed with flesh and blood and hardly connected by sinews, they connect this very body with that reality: 'This body too is of such a quality, is of such a nature, and does not avoid having that as its natural state.' Subhūti, enthusiastic, introspective, mindful bodhisattva great beings, having cleared away ordinary covetousness and depression, dwell while viewing in a body the body like that.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, when bodhisattva great beings see the bones of a skeleton in the charnel ground without flesh and blood, colored like a conch shell and unconnected by sinews, they connect this very body with that reality: 'This body too is of such a quality, is of such a nature, and does not avoid having that as its natural state.' Subhūti, enthusiastic, introspective, mindful bodhisattva great beings, having cleared away ordinary covetousness and depression, are those who view in a body the body like that.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, when bodhisattva great beings see in the charnel ground the bones no longer held in the frame of a skeleton, detached from each other, scattered about like conch shells, they connect this very body with that reality: 'This body too is of such a quality, is of such a nature, and does not avoid having that as its natural state.' Subhūti, enthusiastic, introspective, mindful bodhisattva great beings, having cleared away ordinary covetousness and depression, dwell while viewing in a body the body like that.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, when bodhisattva great beings see in the charnel ground bones scattered on the ground in the main and intermediate directions ‍— in one the bones of the feet, in another the bones of the lower leg, in another the bones of the upper leg, in another hip bones, in another rib bones, in another vertebrae, in another shoulder bones, in another neck bones, in another the skull and jaw bone ‍— they connect this very body with that reality: 'This body too is of such a quality, is of such a nature, and does not avoid having that as its natural state.' Subhūti, enthusiastic, introspective, mindful bodhisattva great beings, having cleared away ordinary covetousness and depression, dwell while viewing in a body the body like that.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, when bodhisattva great beings see in the charnel ground bones that have been there for years bleached by the wind and the sun, colored like conch shells, they connect this very body with that reality: 'This body too is of such a quality, is of such a nature, and does not avoid having that as its natural state.' Subhūti, enthusiastic, introspective, mindful bodhisattva great beings, having cleared away ordinary covetousness and depression, dwell while viewing in a body the body like that.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, when bodhisattva great beings see in the charnel ground decayed bones the dark color of the wood pigeon, crumbled to bits and become like the soil of the earth, they connect this very body with that reality: 'This body too is of such a quality, is of such a nature, and does not avoid having that as its natural state.' Subhūti, enthusiastic, introspective, mindful bodhisattva great beings, having cleared away ordinary covetousness and depression, are those who view in a body the inner body, are those who view in a body the outer body, and dwell as those who view in a body the inner and outer body like that.

"Similarly, enthusiastic, introspective, mindful bodhisattva great beings, having cleared away ordinary covetousness and depression, are those who view the dharmas of feelings, minds, and dharmas.

"That, Subhūti, is the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings.


"Furthermore, Subhūti, the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings is this: the four right efforts.

What are the four?

  1. Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings generate the desire not to produce wrong unwholesome dharmas not yet produced, making an effort at it, making a vigorous attempt, tightening up the mind and perfectly settling it down .285

  2. They generate the desire to abandon wrong unwholesome dharmas already produced, making an effort at it, making a vigorous attempt, exerting themselves mentally, and setting it out as a perfect goal.

  3. They generate the desire to produce wholesome dharmas not yet produced, making an effort at it, making a vigorous attempt, exerting themselves mentally, and setting it out as a perfect goal.

  4. They generate the desire that wholesome dharmas already produced will remain, will increase, will not be forgotten, will not degenerate, and will be completed, making an effort at it, making a vigorous attempt, tightening up the mind and perfectly settling it down by way of settling it down without apprehending anything.

"That, Subhūti, is the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings.


"Furthermore, Subhūti, the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings is this: the four legs of miraculous power.

What are the four? 286

  • Subhūti, here bodhisattva great beings develop a leg of miraculous power endowed with meditative stabilization and the volitional effort to eliminate caused by yearning based on isolation, based on detachment, based on cessation, and transformed by renunciation;

  • and they develop a leg of miraculous power endowed with meditative stabilization and the volitional effort to eliminate caused by perseverance, concentrated mind, and examination based on isolation, based on detachment, based on cessation, and transformed by renunciation, and that without apprehending anything.

  • (i.e. "These four bases of miraculous powers are related to the four noble truths. 'Remaining in isolation' means isolation from suffering. 'Free from attachment' means freedom from the origin of suffering. Remaining in cessation denotes the cessation of suffering, and the meditation on complete transformation is the path.")

"That, Subhūti, is the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings.


"Furthermore, Subhūti, the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings is this: the five faculties.

What are the five?

  1. They are the faith faculty,

  2. perseverance faculty,

  3. mindfulness faculty,

  4. meditative stabilization faculty, and

  5. wisdom faculty.

"That, Subhūti, is the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings.


"Furthermore, Subhūti, the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings is this: the five powers.

What are the five?

  1. They are the power of faith,

  2. power of perseverance,

  3. power of mindfulness,

  4. power of meditative stabilization, and

  5. power of wisdom, by way of not apprehending anything.

"That, Subhūti, is the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings.


"Furthermore, Subhūti, the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings is this: the seven limbs of awakening.

What are the seven?

  1. They develop the right mindfulness limb of awakening,

  2. the right examination of dharmas limb of awakening,

  3. the right perseverance limb of awakening,

  4. the right joy limb of awakening,

  5. the right pliability limb of awakening,

  6. the right meditative stabilization limb of awakening, and

  7. the right equanimity limb of awakening, all based on detachment, based on cessation, and transformed by renunciation, and that without apprehending anything.

"That, Subhūti, is the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings.


"Furthermore, Subhūti, the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings is this: the eightfold noble path.

What are the eight limbs of the noble path?

  1. They are right view,

  2. right idea,

  3. right speech,

  4. right conduct,

  5. right livelihood,

  6. right effort,

  7. right mindfulness, and

  8. right meditative stabilization, by way of not apprehending anything.

"That, Subhūti, is the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings.


"Furthermore, Subhūti, the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings is this: the three meditative stabilizations that are the three gateways to liberation.

What are the three?

  1. They are the emptiness meditative stabilization,

  2. the signless meditative stabilization, and

  3. the wishless meditative stabilization.

  • "What is the emptiness meditative stabilization? The stability of mind that understands analytically that all dharmas are empty of their own mark is the emptiness gateway to liberation called the emptiness meditative stabilization.

  • "What is the signlessness meditative stabilization? The stability of mind that understands analytically that all dharmas are without a causal sign is the signlessness gateway to liberation called the signlessness meditative stabilization.

  • "What is the meditative stabilization on the wishlessness? The stability of mind that understands analytically that all dharmas do not occasion anything is the wishlessness gateway to liberation called the wishlessness meditative stabilization.

"The meditative stabilizations that are those three gateways to liberation are the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings. They should train in those three gateways to liberation.


"Furthermore, Subhūti, the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings is this: the eleven knowledges.

What are the eleven?

  1. They are knowledge of suffering,

  2. knowledge of origination,

  3. knowledge of cessation,

  4. knowledge of the path,

  5. knowledge of extinction,

  6. knowledge of non-production,

  7. knowledge of dharma,

  8. subsequent realization knowledge,

  9. conventional knowledge,

  10. knowledge of mastery, and

  11. knowledge in accord with sound.

  • "What is knowledge of suffering? The knowledge that suffering is not produced is called knowledge of suffering.

  • "What is knowledge of origination? The knowledge of the abandonment of origination is called knowledge of origination.

  • "What is knowledge of cessation? The knowledge of the cessation of suffering is called knowledge of cessation.

  • "What is knowledge of the path? The knowledge of the eightfold noble path is called knowledge of the path.

  • "What is knowledge of extinction? It is the knowledge that greed, hatred, and confusion have been extinguished.

  • "What is knowledge of non-production? It is the knowledge that a form of life in suffering existence is not produced.

  • "What is knowledge of dharma? It is knowledge that knows decisively that the aggregates are artificial. 287

  • "What is subsequent realization knowledge? It is knowledge that the eyes and the ears, nose, tongue, body, and thinking mind are impermanent. Connect this in the same way with the aggregates, constituents, and sense fields, up to all dharmas.

  • "What is conventional knowledge? It is knowledge of the thoughts of other beings and other persons by the thought to know them.

  • "What is knowledge of mastery? Knowledge of the path and knowledge of extinction is called knowledge of mastery.

  • "What is knowledge in accord with sound? It is a tathāgata's knowledge of all sounds.
    It is knowledge, furthermore, by way of not apprehending anything.

"That, Subhūti, is the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings.


"Furthermore, Subhūti, the Great Vehicle of a bodhisattva great being is this: the three faculties.

  1. They are the faculty of coming to understand what one does not understand,

  2. the faculty of understanding, and

  3. the faculty of having understood.

  • "What is the faculty of coming to understand what one does not understand? The faith faculty, perseverance faculty, mindfulness faculty, meditative stabilization faculty, and wisdom faculty without appearances that tame the arrogance of trainee persons who have not had a clear realization is called the faculty of coming to understand what one does not understand.

  • "What is the faculty of understanding? The faith faculty, perseverance faculty, mindfulness faculty, meditative stabilization faculty, and wisdom faculty of trainees who have understood is called the faculty of understanding.

  • "What is the faculty of having understood? The faith faculty, perseverance faculty, mindfulness faculty, meditative stabilization faculty, and wisdom faculty of non-trainee persons ‍— worthy ones, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, and tathāgatas, worthy ones, perfectly complete buddhas ‍— is called the faculty of having understood.

"That, Subhūti, is the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings.


"Furthermore, Subhūti, the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings is this: the three meditative stabilizations.

  1. They are the meditative stabilization with applied thought and with sustained thought,

  2. the meditative stabilization without applied thought with only sustained thought, and

  3. the meditative stabilization without either applied or sustained thought.

  • "What is the meditative stabilization with applied thought and with sustained thought? Subhūti, here bodhisattva great beings detached from sense objects, detached from wrong unwholesome dharmas, perfectly accomplish and dwell in the first concentration that has applied thought and has sustained thought and joy and happiness born of detachment. That is called the meditative stabilization with applied thought and with sustained thought.

  • "What is the meditative stabilization without applied thought with only sustained thought? It is between the first concentration and the second concentration. That is called the meditative stabilization without applied thought with only sustained thought.

  • "What is the meditative stabilization without either applied or sustained thought? It is from the second concentration, up to the station of the neither perception nor non-perception absorption. That is called the meditative stabilization without either applied or sustained thought.

"That, Subhūti, is the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings.


"Furthermore, Subhūti, the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great being is this: the ten mindfulnesses.

What are the ten?

  1. They are mindfulness of the Buddha,

  2. mindfulness of the Dharma,

  3. mindfulness of the Saṅgha,

  4. mindfulness of morality,

  5. mindfulness of giving away,

  6. mindfulness of the gods,

  7. mindfulness of disgust,

  8. mindfulness of death,

  9. mindfulness of what is included in the body, and

  10. mindfulness of breathing in and out.
    That mindfulness, furthermore, is by way of not apprehending anything.

"That, Subhūti, is the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings.


"Furthermore, Subhūti, the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings is this: the four immeasurables. 288

What are the four?

  1. They dwell having pervaded the ten directions of a world that is vast because of the dharma-constituent and that extends as far as the space element with a vast, inclusive, infinite, non-dual mind endowed with love without enmity, unrivaled, not harmful, and well cultivated.

  2. "They dwell having pervaded the ten directions of a world as vast as the dharma-constituent and as far-reaching as the space element with a vast, inclusive, infinite, non-dual mind endowed with compassion,

  3. endowed with joy, and

  4. endowed with equanimity without enmity, unrivaled, not harmful, and well cultivated.

"That, Subhūti, is the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings.


"Furthermore, Subhūti, the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings is this: the four concentrations [jhanas]. 289

What are the four? (four jhanas)

  1. "Detached from sense objects, detached from wrong unwholesome dharmas, they perfectly accomplish and dwell in the first concentration that has applied thought and has sustained thought and joy and happiness born of detachment.

  2. "Relieved of applied thought and sustained thought, with an inner serene confidence and a mind that has become a single continuum, they perfectly accomplish and dwell in the second concentration that has joy and happiness born of a meditative stabilization without applied thought and without sustained thought.

  3. "Because they are free from attachment to joy they abide in equanimity, and with equanimity and recollection and introspection they experience pleasure with their body, and they perfectly accomplish and dwell in the third concentration without enjoyment, about which the noble beings say, 'They have equanimity and recollection and dwell in happiness.'

  4. "Because they have forsaken pleasure, have earlier forsaken suffering, have set to rest mental happiness and mental unhappiness and have equanimity that is neither happiness nor suffering, and have an extremely pure equanimity and recollection, they perfectly accomplish and dwell in the fourth concentration.

"That, Subhūti, is the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings.


"Furthermore, Subhūti, the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings is this: the four formless absorptions [arupa jhanas].

What are the four?

  1. "Totally transcending perceptions of form, setting to rest perceptions of obstruction, not paying attention to perceptions of difference, in endless space they perfectly accomplish and dwell in the station of endless space.

  2. "Totally transcending the station of endless space, in endless consciousness they perfectly accomplish and dwell in the station of endless consciousness.

  3. "Totally transcending the station of endless consciousness, in nothing-at-all they perfectly accomplish and dwell in the station of nothing-at-all.

  4. "Totally transcending the station of nothing-at-all, in neither perception nor non-perception they perfectly accomplish and dwell in the station of neither perception nor non-perception.

"That, Subhūti, is the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings.


"Furthermore, Subhūti, the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings is this: the eight deliverances.

What are the eight?

  1. "With form they see forms. This is the first deliverance.

  2. "With the perception of form inside they see forms outside. This is the second deliverance.

  3. "They have admiration for the pleasant. This is the third deliverance.

  4. "Totally transcending perceptions of form, setting to rest perceptions of obstruction, not paying attention to perceptions of difference, in endless space they perfectly accomplish and dwell in the station of endless space. This is the fourth deliverance.

  5. "Totally transcending the station of endless space, in endless consciousness they perfectly accomplish and dwell in the station of endless consciousness. This is the fifth deliverance.

  6. "Totally transcending the station of endless consciousness, in nothing-at-all they perfectly accomplish and dwell in the station of nothing-at-all. This is the sixth deliverance.

  7. "Totally transcending the station of nothing-at-all, in neither perception nor non-perception they perfectly accomplish and dwell in the station of neither perception nor non-perception. This is the seventh deliverance.

  8. "Totally transcending the station of neither perception nor non-perception they perfectly accomplish and dwell in the cessation of perception and feeling. This is the eighth deliverance.

"That, Subhūti, is the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings.


"Furthermore, Subhūti, the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings is this: the nine serial absorptions.

What are the nine?

  1. "Detached from sense objects, detached from wrong unwholesome dharmas, they perfectly accomplish and dwell in the first concentration that has applied thought and has sustained thought and joy and happiness born of detachment.

  2. "Relieved of applied thought and sustained thought, with an inner serene confidence and a mind that has become a single continuum, they perfectly accomplish and dwell in the second concentration that has joy and happiness born of a meditative stabilization without applied thought and without sustained thought.

  3. "Because they are free from attachment to joy they abide in equanimity, and with equanimity and recollection and introspection they experience happiness with their bodies, and they perfectly accomplish and dwell in the third concentration without joy, about which the noble beings say, 'They have equanimity and recollection and dwell in happiness.'

  4. "Because they have forsaken happiness, have earlier forsaken suffering, have set to rest mental happiness and mental unhappiness and have pure equanimity that is neither happiness nor suffering, and have recollection, they perfectly accomplish and dwell in the fourth concentration.

  5. "Totally transcending perceptions of form, setting to rest perceptions of obstruction, not paying attention to perceptions of difference, thinking 'it is endless space' they perfectly accomplish and dwell in the station of endless space.

  6. "Totally transcending the station of endless space, thinking 'it is endless consciousness' they perfectly accomplish and dwell in the station of endless consciousness.

  7. "Totally transcending the station of endless consciousness, in nothing-at-all they perfectly accomplish and dwell in the station of nothing-at-all.

  8. "Totally transcending the station of nothing-at-all, in neither perception nor non-perception they perfectly accomplish and dwell in the station of neither perception nor non-perception.

  9. "Totally transcending the station of neither perception nor non-perception they perfectly accomplish and dwell in the cessation of perception and feeling.

"That, Subhūti, is the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings.


"Furthermore, Subhūti, the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings is this: the ten powers of a tathāgata.

What are the ten?

  1. "Accurately knowing the possible as possible, and accurately knowing the impossible as impossible.

  2. "Accurately knowing past, present, and future actions, and the place of the undertaking of the actions, and the results. 290

  3. "Accurately knowing the world with its various constituents and multiplicity of constituents. 291

  4. "Accurately knowing the various beliefs and many beliefs of other beings and other persons.

  5. "Accurately knowing the stages of faculties and perseverance of other beings and other persons.

  6. "Accurately knowing the path wherever it goes.

  7. "Accurately knowing the defilement and purification of all concentrations, deliverances, meditative stabilizations, and absorptions, and the emergence from them.

  8. "Accurately recollecting and knowing many various previous lives and knowing deaths and rebirths with the divine eye.

  9. "Perfectly accomplishing and dwelling in a freedom in their minds that they have realized themselves in this very life with clairvoyance, a freedom and wisdom without outflows because of having put an end to outflows. They know, 'Birth has come to an end for me. I have lived the pure life. My work is done. From now on there will be nothing like this.' And that, furthermore, is by way of not apprehending anything.

"That, Subhūti, is the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings.


"Furthermore, Subhūti, the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings is this: the four fearlessnesses.

What are the four?

  1. "When I claim, 'I am perfectly completely awakened,' ah! I see no cause that would make me think that anyone in this world of beings, together with the gods, Māra, Brahmā, those leading a secluded religious life, and brahmins, could in truth argue there that these dharmas have not become perfectly, completely awakened. Because I do not see here that cause, I, who have found happiness, found fearlessness, and found a ground for self-confidence, claim the exalted status of the dominant bull. I roar the lion's perfect roar in the assembly. I, Brahmā-like, turn the wheel that no one in this world ‍— not a god or Māra or Brahmā or one leading a secluded religious life or a brahmin ‍— can in truth turn.

  2. "When I claim, 'I have put an end to outflows,' ah! I see there no cause that would make me think that anyone in this world of beings, together with the gods, Māra, Brahmā, those leading a secluded religious life, and brahmins, could in truth argue, 'You have not put an end to those outflows.' Because I do not see that cause here I have found happiness, found fearlessness, and found a ground for self-confidence, and I claim the exalted status of the dominant bull. I roar the lion's perfect roar in the assembly. I, Brahmā-like, turn the wheel that no one in this world ‍— not a god or Māra or Brahmā or one leading a secluded religious life or a brahmin ‍— can in truth turn.

  3. "There are no grounds for those phenomena that I have explained to be hindrances not to become phenomena that hinder those who resort to them, so I see no cause that would make me think that anyone in this world of beings, together with the gods, Māra, Brahmā, those leading a secluded religious life, and brahmins, could in truth argue that even if they resort to them they do not become hindrances. Because I do not see any cause here, I have found happiness, found fearlessness, found a ground for self-confidence, and claim as my state the exalted state of the dominant bull. I roar the lion's perfect roar in the assembly. I, Brahmā-like, turn the wheel that no one in this world ‍— not a god or Māra or Brahmā or one leading a secluded religious life or a brahmin ‍— can in truth turn.

  4. "There are no grounds for saying that the noble paths that I have said cause escape do not perfectly put an end to suffering when those escapes that perfectly put an end to the suffering of those who effect them have been accomplished. I see no cause that would make me think that anyone in this world of beings, together with the gods, Māra, Brahmā, those leading a secluded religious life, and brahmins, could in truth argue, 'Even if they have been accomplished they do not put an end to outflows.' Because I do not see any cause here, I have found happiness, found fearlessness, found a ground for self-confidence, and claim as my state the exalted state of the dominant bull. I roar the lion's perfect roar in the assembly. I, Brahmā-like, turn the wheel that no one in this world ‍— not a god or Māra or Brahmā or one leading a secluded religious life or a brahmin ‍— can in truth turn. And that, furthermore, is by way of not apprehending anything.

"That, Subhūti, is the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings.


"Furthermore, Subhūti, the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings is this: the four detailed and thorough knowledges.

What are the four?

  1. They are detailed and thorough knowledge of meanings,

  2. detailed and thorough knowledge of dharmas,

  3. detailed and thorough knowledge of creative explanations, and

  4. detailed and thorough knowledge of confidence giving a readiness to speak.
    It is knowledge, furthermore, by way of not apprehending anything.

"That, Subhūti, is the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings.


"Furthermore, Subhūti, the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings is this: the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha.

What are the eighteen?

  1. Between the night when tathāgatas awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening and the night when they pass into complete nirvāṇa in the element of nirvāṇa without any aggregates left behind, while tathāgatas teach the world of beings together with the gods, Māra, Brahmā, those leading a secluded religious life, and brahmins, together with gods, humans, and asuras the path that puts an end to suffering, they do not go wrong,

  2. do not shout out, are not robbed of mindfulness,

  3. do not discriminate differences,

  4. do not have uncollected thoughts,

  5. are not inconsiderately dispassionate,

  6. are not deficient in yearning,

  7. are not deficient in perseverance,

  8. are not deficient in recollection,

  9. are not deficient in meditative stabilization,

  10. are not deficient in wisdom,

  11. are not deficient in liberation,

  12. and are not deficient in seeing into knowledge of liberation. 292

  13. All physical actions are preceded by knowledge and informed by knowledge,

  14. all verbal actions are preceded by knowledge and informed by knowledge,

  15. all mental actions are preceded by knowledge and informed by knowledge;

  16. they see past time with knowledge free from attachment and free from obstruction,

  17. they see future time with knowledge free from attachment and free from obstruction, and

  18. they see the present time with knowledge free from attachment and free from obstruction,
    and that, furthermore, by way of not apprehending anything.

"That, Subhūti, is the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings.


"Furthermore, Subhūti, the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings is this: the dhāraṇī gateways.

What are the dhāraṇī gateways?

It is like this:

  1. there is the sameness of the way the letters work,

  2. the letters as gateways, and entrances through letters.

"What are the letters as gateways and entrance through letters?

  • The letter a 293 is the gateway to all dharmas because they are unproduced from the very beginning (ādy-anutpannatvād);

  • ra is a gateway to all dharmas because they are without dirt (rajas);

  • pa is a gateway to all dharmas because they are ultimately (paramārtha) without distinctions; 294

  • tsa is a gateway to all dharmas because of the way death (cyavana) and rebirth are unfindable;

  • na is a gateway to all dharmas because names (nāman) have gone, because of the way names are unfindable;

  • la is a gateway to all dharmas because they transcend the ordinary world (loka), because the vine (latā) of craving and the causes and conditions have been destroyed;

  • da is a gateway to all dharmas because tamed (dānta) and staying tamed (damatha) have a certain limit;

  • ba is a gateway to all dharmas because they are free from bonds (bandhana);

  • ḍa is a gateway to all dharmas because disorder (ḍamara) has gone;

  • sa is a gateway to all dharmas because attachment (saṅga) 295 is unfindable;

  • wa is a gateway to all dharmas because the sound of speech paths (vākpatha) has been cut;

  • ta is a gateway to all dharmas because they do not wander from suchness (tathatā);

  • ya is a gateway to all dharmas because in fact (yathāvat) they are not produced;

  • sta is a gateway to all dharmas because they have nothing to be pretentious about (stambha); 296

  •  ka is a gateway to all dharmas because an agent (kāraka) is unfindable;

  • sa is a gateway to all dharmas because they do not pass beyond sameness (samatā), and sameness is unfindable;

  • ma is a gateway to all dharmas because taking something as 'mine' (mamakāra) is unfindable;

  • ga is a gateway to all dharmas because going (gamana) is unfindable;

  • tha is a gateway to all dharmas because a standing place ([s]thāna) is unfindable;

  • dza is a gateway to all dharmas because birth (jāti) is unfindable;

  • shwa is a gateway to all dharmas because breath (śvāsa) is unfindable;

  • dha is a gateway to all dharmas because a dharma (dharma) is unfindable;

  • śa is a gateway to all dharmas because calm abiding (śamatha) is unfindable;

  • kha is a gateway to all dharmas because a state the same as the sky (kha) is unfindable;

  • kṣa is a gateway to all dharmas because extinction (kṣaya) is unfindable;

  • dzjnā is a gateway to all dharmas because knowledge (jhana) is unfindable;

  • ha is a gateway to all dharmas because a cause (hetu) is unfindable;

  • bha is a gateway to all dharmas because destruction (bhaṅga) is unfindable;

  • tsha is a gateway to all dharmas because a beautiful skin color (chavi) is unfindable;

  • sma is a gateway to all dharmas because mindfulness (smaraṇa) is unfindable;

  • hva is a gateway to all dharmas because calling out (āhvāna) is unfindable;

  • tsa is a gateway to all dharmas because eagerness (utsāha) for dharmas is unfindable;

  • gha is a gateway to all dharmas because density (ghana) in dharmas is unfindable;

  • ṭha is a gateway to all dharmas because establishment (viṭhapana) is unfindable;

  • ṇa is a gateway to all dharmas because conflict (raṇa) is unfindable;

  • pha is a gateway to all dharmas because a result (phala) is unfindable;

  • ska is a gateway to all dharmas because aggregates (skandha) are unfindable;

  • dza is a gateway to all dharmas because old age (jarā) is unfindable;

  • tsa is a gateway to all dharmas because conduct (caraṇa) is unfindable;

  • ṭa is a gateway to all dharmas because harm (ṭākara) is unfindable; 297 and

  • ḍha is a gateway to all dharmas because grasping at something as 'I' ([ḍ]haṃkāra) is unfindable.

"There is no expression as a letter above and beyond these.

And why?

  • Because there is no name at all by which anything might be conventionally designated, or by which anything might be expressed, expounded, realized, or seen.
    Like this, Subhūti, you should understand that all dharmas are like space.

  • "Subhūti, this letter a, and so on, the entrance into the teaching, is the entrance through a dhāraṇī gateway.

  • "Subhūti, any bodhisattva great beings who come to know this skill in the letter a, and so on, will not become perplexed 298 whatever the sound, will succeed though the sameness of dharmas, and will gain skill in understanding sounds.

  • "Subhūti, you should know that there are twenty benefits for any bodhisattva great beings who hear these spoken words stamped with the letter a, and so on, the letter a, and so on, that are the entry stamp, 299 and who, having heard them, with a continuum of mental certainty take them up, bear them in mind, read them out loud, and master and expound them in detail to others by way of not apprehending anything.

"What are the twenty?

  1. They will have mindfulness,
    will have intelligence,
    will have understanding,
    will have awareness,
    will have steadfastness,
    will have a sense of shame,
    will have wisdom, and
    will have a confidence giving a readiness to speak.

  2. They will also gain this dhāraṇī gateway with little difficulty,

  3. will not become tongue-tied and

  4. will not be of two minds, and

  5. will not become attracted even when they hear smooth words from somebody else,

  6. will not get offended when they hear harsh words,

  7. will not be uplifted and

  8. will not be put down, and

  9. will remain in an ordinary state.

  10. They will also become skilled in sounds,

  11. will become skilled in aggregates,

  12. will become skilled in constituents,

  13. will become skilled in sense fields,

  14. will become skilled in dependent origination,

  15.  will become skilled in causes,

  16. will become skilled in conditions,

  17. will become skilled in the true nature of dharmas,

  18. will become skilled in knowing higher and lower faculties,

  19. will become skilled in knowing the thoughts of others,

  20. will become skilled in knowledge of the performance of miraculous power,

  21. will become skilled in knowing the divine eye,

  22. will become skilled in knowledge that recollects past lives,

  23. will become skilled in knowledge of death and rebirth,

  24. will become skilled in knowledge that outflows are extinguished,

  25. will become skilled in knowing what is possible and impossible, and

  26. will become skilled in going, skilled in returning, and skilled in the ways of carrying themselves.

"That dhāraṇī gateway, Subhūti, the letter a, and so on, that are the entrance, is the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings."

This was the sixteenth chapter, "Dhāraṇī Gateway," of "The Perfection of Wisdom in Eighteen Thousand Lines." [B13]




Access to other chapters on the Blog:
(Work in progress. Empty files means they are not done yet.)

  1. Chapter 0 – Introduction to the Sutra

  2. Chapter 1 – Introduction / the Assembly

  3. Chapter 2 – Production of the Thought

  4. Chapter 3 – Designation

  5. Chapter 4 – Equal to the Unequal

  6. Chapter 5 – Tongue

  7. Chapter 6 – Subhūti

  8. Chapter 7 – Entry into flawlessness

  9. Chapter 8 – The Religious Mendicant Śreṇika

  10. Chapter 9 – Causal Signs

  11. Chapter 10 – Illusion-like

  12. Chapter 11 – Embarrassment

  13. Chapter 12 – Elimination of Views

  14. Chapter 13 – The Six Perfections

  15. Chapter 14 – Neither Bound nor Freed

  16. Chapter 15 – Meditative Stabilization

  17. Chapter 16 – Dhāraṇī Gateway

  18. Chapter 17 – Level Purification

  19. Chapter 18 – The Exposition of Going Forth in the Great Vehicle

  20. Chapter 19 – Surpassing

  21. Chapter 20 – Not Two

  22. Chapter 21 – Subhūti

  23. Chapter 22 – Śatakratu

  24. Chapter 23 – Hard to Understand

  25. Chapter 24 – Unlimited

  26. Chapter 25 – Second Śatakratu

  27. Chapter 26 – Getting Old

  28. Chapter 27 – Reliquary

  29. Chapter 28 – Declaration of the Good Qualities of the Thought of Awakening

  30. Chapter 29 – Different Tīrthika Religious Mendicants

  31. Chapter 30 – The Benefits of Taking Up and Adoration

  32. Chapter 31 – Physical Remains

  33. Chapter 32 – The Superiority of Merit

  34. Chapter 33 – Dedication

  35. Chapter 34 – Perfect Praise of the Quality of Accomplishment

  36. Chapter 35 – Hells

  37. Chapter 36 – Teaching The Purity of all Dharmas

  38. Chapter 37 – Nobody

  39. Chapter 38 – Cannot Be Apprehended

  40. Chapter 39 – The Northern Region

  41. Chapter 40 – The Work of Māra

  42. Chapter 41 – Not Complete Because of Māra

  43. Chapter 42 – Revealing the World

  44. Chapter 43 – Inconceivable

  45. Chapter 44 – Made Up

  46. Chapter 45 – A Boat

  47. Chapter 46 – Teaching the Intrinsic Nature of All Dharmas

  48. Chapter 47 – Taming Greed

  49. Chapter 48 – A Presentation of the Bodhisattvas' Training

  50. Chapter 49 – Irreversibility

  51. Chapter 50 – Teaching the Signs of Irreversibility

  52. Chapter 51 – Skillful means

  53. Chapter 52 – Completion of the Means

  54. Chapter 53 – The Prophecy about Gaṅgadevī

  55. Chapter 54 – Teaching the Cultivation of Skillful Means

  56. Chapter 55 – Teaching the Stopping of Thought Construction [in absolute terms]

  57. Chapter 56 – Equal Training

  58. Chapter 57 – Practice

  59. Chapter 58 – Exposition of the Absence of Thought Construction [in absolute terms]

  60. Chapter 59 – Non-attachment

  61. Chapter 60 – Entrusting

  62. Chapter 61 – Inexhaustible

  63. Chapter 62 – Leaping Above Absorption

  64. Chapter 63 – Many Inquiries about the Two Dharmas

  65. Chapter 64 – Perfectly Displayed

  66. Chapter 65 – Worshiping, Serving, and Attending on Spiritual Friends as Skillful Means

  67. Chapter 66 – A Demonstration of Skillful Means

  68. Chapter 67 – Morality

  69. Chapter 68 – Growing and Flourishing

  70. Chapter 69 – An Explanation of Meditation on The Path

  71. Chapter 70 – An Explanation of Serial Action, Training, and Practice

  72. Chapter 71 – The True Nature of Dharmas That Cannot Be Apprehended

  73. Chapter 72 – Teaching the Absence of Marks

  74. Chapter 73 – Exposition of the Major Marks and Minor Signs and the Completion of Letters

  75. Chapter 74 – Exposition of the Sameness of Dharmas

  76. Chapter 75 – Exposition of Non-complication –

  77. Chapter 76 – The Armor for Bringing Beings to Maturity

  78. Chapter 77 – Teaching the Purification of a Buddhafield

  79. Chapter 78 – Teaching the Skillful Means for the Purification of a Buddhafield

  80. Chapter 79 – Teaching the Non Existence of an Intrinsic Nature

  81. Chapter 80 – Teaching that there is No Defilement or Purification

  82. Chapter 81 – Yogic Practice of the Ultimate

  83. Chapter 82 – The Unchanging True Nature of Dharmas

  84. Chapter 83 – Categorization of a Bodhisattva's Training

  85. Chapter 84 – Collection

  86. Chapter 85 – Sadāprarudita

  87. Chapter 86 – Dharmodgata

  88. Chapter 87 – Entrusting

  89. Résumés in bullet points of all chapters.




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