Tuesday, June 14, 2022

Prajnaparamita-18K - Chapter 11 - Training without training in the inconceivable basis of Reality - 311

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The Transcendent Perfection of Wisdom
in Eighteen Thousand Lines - 311
Daśa­sāhasrikā­prajñā­pāramitā

– Chapter 11 - The Basis of Reality –

Source: https://read.84000.co/translation/toh10.html

More Analysis of Mahayana Sutras : https://www.gilehtblog.com/2022/07/toc-400.html

[Note: The two truths are:
T1: conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means, merely labeled / imputed / imagined / created by the mind in dependence of its conditioning / karma (in cycle), not completely non-existence;
T2: emptiness of inherent existence, not real existence;
U2T: those two truths, like any other pair of apparent opposites, are inseparable, interdependent, co-defined, co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing / co-transcended, in harmony, in 'Union' <==> thus empty of inherent existence.
They are tools to help us to get to the 'inconceivable' by refuting what 'Reality as it is' is not:
all extreme views like: existence / dharma / causality / functionality, non-existence / non-dharma / non-causality / non-functionality, both together, neither; difference / manyness / diversity / duality, identity / oneness / sameness / non-duality, both together, neither; permanence / continuity / eternity, impermanence / discontinuity / annihilation, both together, neither; individuality, collectivity, universality, a combination of those, none of those; subjectivity, relation / action / process, objectivity, a combination of those, none of those; the 1st truth alone / dependent origination [T1], the 2nd truth alone / mere-emptiness [T2], both two truths together as if different and in opposition [2T], neither of the two truths as if identical and one [1T,]; 'this', 'non-this', both together, neither – for whatever 'this' is.
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The three spheres: ex.
i. The subject / actor / goer / perceiver / knower / acquirer / owner,
ii. The relation / action / going / perceiving / knowing / acquiring / having
iii. The object / result / destination / perceived / known / acquired / possessions / karma / 5 aggregates / body & speech & mind.
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Generalisations:
Whenever it is possible the comments of each section are expressed into a more global context. So they always cover more than just what is said in the various translations. The goal is to make the Big Picture more evident.
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Note: All comments within (i.e. …) or [...] are from the commentator (me), not the translators.)


[Back to Résumés of chapters 1-41]

11. The Basis of Reality – Training without training in the inconceivable basis of Reality.

(i.e. Résumé: Training without training in the inconceivable basis of Reality [U2T]. Training in all phenomena in a non-dual way, without apprehending anything – not even non-duality, or emptiness, or the Union of the Two Truths, of any Basis.
-
The Ground / Basis / Source of Reality, of all dharmas (physical, conceptual, mental), is the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths [U2T], the Union of the three spheres [U3S / U2T-3S], the Union of apparent opposites [Uopp / U2T-opp]. This 'basis' [U2T] is also empty of inherent existence <==> because dependently co-arisen / interdependent, merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U2T-2T / UGM].
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Question: What is the basis of Reality?
The basis in reality for bodhisattva is an absence of any inherently existing basis in reality.
The basis in reality for a bodhisattva does not inherently exist and cannot be apprehended in absolute terms.
"The basis in reality for any/all dharma does not inherently exist and cannot be apprehended in absolute terms [T2], just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively [T1] [U2T]."
Note: There is no real ground / basis / source / first cause for any/all dharmas, no real relation / causality / production / change / cessation, no real final effect / product; just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively. All causes & conditions have their own causes & conditions – ad infinitum. All effects have their own functionality / effects – ad infinitum. All causal relations are uncertain, co-dependent with an infinity of causes & conditions in nature, space & time. The conditioning cycle is limitless and centerless. There is no cause with/without causal relation with/without effect; not effect with/without causal relation with/without cause. Cause, causality and effect are empty of inherent existence <==> because dependently co-arisen / interdependent, merely labeled / imputed by the mind after the fact. We can use them but never in absolute terms. Ex. The 12 links of dependent origination are all empty of inherent existence, but still dependently co-arisen and relatively functional.
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Why? Because everything – physical, conceptual, mental; subject, relation / action, object; pure, impure; all dharmas with their marks / signs / characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / relations / oppositions / activities, and their names / labels; – is/are empty of inherent existence [T2] <==> because dependently co-arisen / interdependent [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S]. Because everything is like illusions / reflections / mirages / dreams / magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T]: Not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither – for whatever 'this' is. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s). So we can use them without using them, but never in absolute terms, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes, without apprehending anything.
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Logic: In the absence of inherently existing "production / origination / duration / change / functionality / cessation", a dharma does not really exist (emptiness of inherent existence), cannot be apprehended in absolute terms, and there is no need for any inherently existing "basis / primary-cause / ultimate-source" for that dharma. Since all dharmas are like that (unarisen, unconditioned, non-existent, unchanging, unceasing – in absolute terms), then there is no inherently existing Basis / Ground / Source for reality in general – that is the basis. So there is no basis, no need for any inherently existing basis, for any dharma, its marks / signs, and its name / label, its origination or non-origination, existence or non-existence, conditioning or non-conditioning, change or non-change, bonding or freedom, cessation of non-cessation, enlightenment or non-enlightenment.
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A basis that is not a basis: A true Basis / Ground for Reality should be unique, all-pervading, timeless, unborn, unconditioned, unchanging, unceasing; free from all extremes & middle, free from all dualistic conceptual proliferations, free from all defining limitations, free from all conditioning / karma. This true basis is simply the fact that everything is like an inconceivable Union of being empty of inherent existence [T2] <==> because of being conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind in dependence of its conditioning / karma [U3S]. One aspect / truth implies the other (<==>) [U2T]. So in a sense emptiness is the basis for all appearances, and appearance is the basis of emptiness –; but do not grasp at this idea, it is just a finger pointing at the moon, not the moon itself. There is no need for any other basis; that alone explains everything: status & dynamism. So it is the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths / Suchness / Genuine-emptiness / Buddha-nature that is the inconceivable unique unborn unconditioned unchanging unceasing pristine Basis / Ground / Source / Suchness / True nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now. It is our conventional / relative basis [T1], without being a real basis in absolute terms [T2] [U2T]. This Ground / Basis / Source is inseparable from, interdependent with, co-dependent with, its manifestations [UGM] <==> so both the Ground and its manifestations are empty of inherent existence [UGM / U2T-GM]. So we may use it / them without using it / them, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes.
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-
-
Training in a basis that is not a real basis – in the Union of the Two Truths about al dharmas:
All those phenomena‍ — that which is the awakening, that which is the bodhisattva, that which is the basis in reality of a bodhisattva ‍— are not conjoined, are not disjoined, are formless, cannot be pointed out, do not obstruct, and have only one mark‍ — that is, no mark (in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively).
Bodhisattvas should train in the non inherent existence [T2]
and non complete non-existence [T1] of all phenomena [U2T].
Bodhisattvas should know the Union of the Two truths about all dharmas [U2T],
without any attachment / fixation / absolutes, without apprehending anything [U2T-2T].
They should know all phenomena in a non-dual way [U2T / U3S / Uopp / U2T-2T].
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Note: All dharmas appear to exist in relation / opposition to other dharmas – that is the way our ordinary mind works. But in Reality as it is there is no such inherently existing dharma with their supposedly inherently existing characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / features / marks / relations / oppositions / processes / activities / changes, and names / labels. Apparent opposites – like the three spheres of any type of relation / action, apparent opposites in any duality / triad / quad / etc, the two truths themselves, the ground and its manifestations – are always empty of inherent existence [T2] <==> because dependently co-arisen / interdependent [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S]. That is the Ground, the true nature of Reality as it is here & now, suchness, the Union of the Two Truths about all dharmas. It is also empty because of the same reasons [U2T-2T] [UGM]. That is knowing without knowing all dharmas in a non-dual way: not two, not one, not both together, not neither.
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Bodhisattvas should train in becoming familiar with the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of all dharma as it is here & now: All phenomena are empty of inherent existence [T2], not really existent <==> because conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S], not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional / useless / meaningless. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T]. So they are not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither. Meaning their true nature & dynamic is indescribable / inconceivable: we call it the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths [U2T] / Ground / Basis / Source / Suchness / true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now …
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Bodhisattvas practicing the perfection of wisdom should train in non-attachment to all phenomena that are empty of their own marks, and in their non [inherent] existence, by not constructing any phenomena and not entertaining any ideas about them.
They should know all phenomena in a non-dual way [U2T / U3S / Uopp / U2T-2T].
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Note about non-duality: "This is synonymous with reality, voidness, etc. But it must be remembered that non-duality does not necessarily mean unity, that unity is only one of the pair unity-duality; hence non-duality implies non-unity as well. This point is obscured by designating this non-dual philosophy as "monism," as too many modern scholars have done." – What is not dual, not non-dual, not both together, not neither? All dharmas, apparent opposites, the three spheres, the two truths. Synonyms of non-duality: inseparability / interdependence / co-dependence / harmony / Union.
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Bodhisattvas practicing the perfection of wisdom like that become the foremost of all beings [T1],
and they do so, furthermore, by way of not apprehending anything [T2] [U2T].)

Then venerable Subhūti said to the Lord, "Lord, you say 'bodhisattva' again and again.
What is its basis in reality?" 199


The Lord [F.110.b] replied to venerable Subhūti,
"Subhūti,

the basis in reality for bodhisattva is an absence of a basis in reality.

And why?

Subhūti, it is because bodhi and sattva are not produced.

Awakening and a being [T1] do not have an [inherent] arising or an [inherent] existence [T2] [U2T].
they cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms].

Subhūti,

awakening has no basis in reality and a being has no basis in reality,
therefore a bodhisattva's basis in reality is an absence of a basis in reality.

  • "To illustrate, Subhūti,
    the track 200 of a bird in space [T1]
    does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively];
    -
    similarly, the basis in reality for a bodhisattva does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T].
    -
    Subhūti,
    in a dream
    a basis [T1] does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively];
    -
    similarly, the basis in reality for a bodhisattva also does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T].
    -
    In a magical illusion
    a basis [T1] does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively];
    -
    similarly, in a mirage, a reflection of the moon in water, an echo, an apparition, a reflection in a mirror, and a tathāgata's magical creation
    a basis [T1] does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].
    -
    Similarly, Subhūti, a basis in reality for a bodhisattva also does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T].

  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti,
    in suchness
    a basis [T1] does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively];
    -
    similarly, the basis in reality for a bodhisattva also does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T].
    -
    Subhūti,
    in unmistaken suchness
    a basis [T1] does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively],
    -
    and in unaltered suchness, the true nature of dharmas, the dharma-constituent, the establishment of dharmas, the certification of dharmas, and the very limit of reality
    a basis [T1] does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].

  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti,
    in an illusory person
    a basis of form, feeling, perception, volitional factors, and consciousness [T1]
    does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively], and
    -
    similarly, Subhūti, a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T].

  • "To illustrate further, [F.111.a] Subhūti,
    in an illusory person
    a basis of the eyes [T1]
    does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively];
    -
    a basis of the ears, nose, tongue, body, and thinking mind [T1]
    does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively], and
    -
    a basis of a form, a sound, a smell, a taste, a feeling, and a dharma [T1]
    does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].
    -
    Similarly, Subhūti, a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T].

  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti,
    a basis in the eye consciousness of an illusory person
    does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively], and
    -
    a basis in the ear consciousness, nose consciousness, tongue consciousness, body consciousness, and thinking-mind consciousness of an illusory person [T1]
    does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].
    -
    Similarly, Subhūti, a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T].

  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti,
    a basis in reality for an illusory person practicing inner emptiness [T1]
    does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively], and
    -
    similarly, Subhūti, a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T].

  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti,
    a basis in reality for an illusory person practicing up to the emptiness that is the non-existence of an intrinsic nature [T1]
    does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively], and
    -
    similarly, Subhūti, a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T].

  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti,
    a basis in reality for an illusory person practicing the applications of mindfulness [T1]
    does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].
    -
    Subhūti,
    a basis in reality for an illusory person practicing up to the eightfold noble path, and up to the ten powers of a tathāgata, the four fearlessnesses, and the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha [T1]
    does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively], and similarly,
    -
    Subhūti, a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom [F.111.b] does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T].

  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti,
    a basis of the form of a tathāgata, worthy one, perfectly complete buddha [T1]
    does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].
    -
    Similarly, Subhūti, a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T].

  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti,
    in a tathāgata, worthy one, perfectly complete buddha
    a basis of feeling, perception, volitional factors, and consciousness [T1]
    does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].
    -
    Similarly, Subhūti, a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T].

  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti,
    in a tathāgata, worthy one, perfectly complete buddha
    a basis of the eyes [T1]
    does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively];
    -
    a basis of the ears, nose, tongue, body, and thinking mind
    does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively]; and
    -
    similarly, Subhūti, a basis in reality of a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T].

  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti,
    in a tathāgata, worthy one, perfectly complete buddha
    a basis of inner emptiness does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T], up to the emptiness that is the non-existence of an intrinsic nature [T1]
    does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively], and
    -
    similarly, Subhūti, a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T].

  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti,
    in a tathāgata, worthy one, perfectly complete buddha
    a basis of the applications of mindfulness [T1] does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively],
    -
    up to a basis of the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha [T1]
    does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively], and
    -
    similarly, Subhūti, a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T].

  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti,
    in the uncompounded element a basis of the compounded element [T1]
    does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively], and
    -
    similarly in the compounded element [F.112.a] a basis of the uncompounded element [T1]
    also does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].
    -
    Similarly, Subhūti, a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T].

  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti,
    in the absence of production a basis [T1]
    does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively], and
    -
    similarly, Subhūti, a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T].
    -
    -
    Subhūti,
    in the absence of stopping, the absence of occasioning anything, the absence of appearing, the absence of being apprehended, the absence of defilement and the absence of purification a basis [T1]
    does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T]
    – [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively], and
    similarly, Subhūti, a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T]."

"Lord, in the absence of the production of what does a basis not exist, up to in the absence of the defilement, and the absence of the purification of what does a basis not exist?" asked Subhūti.


The Lord replied, "Subhūti,

  • in the absence of production a basis of form does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T];

  • in the absence of production a basis of feeling, perception, volitional factors, and consciousness does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T];

  • up to Subhūti, in the absence of defilement and the absence of purification, a basis of form does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T]; and

  • in the absence of defilement and the absence of purification, a basis of feeling, perception, volitional factors, and consciousness does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T].

  • Similarly, in the absence of production a basis of the constituents and sense fields does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T],
    up to in the absence of defilement and the absence of purification, a basis of the constituents and sense fields does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T].

  • In the absence of production a basis of the thirty-seven dharmas on the side of awakening, up to the powers, fearlessnesses and eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T];

  • up to in the absence of defilement and the absence of purification, [F.112.b] a basis of the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T].

  • Similarly, Subhūti,
    a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T].

  • (i.e. In the absence of inherently existing "production / origination / duration / change / functionality / cessation", a dharma does not really exist (emptiness of inherent existence), cannot be apprehended in absolute terms, and there is no need for any inherently existing "basis / primary-cause / ultimate-source" for that dharma. Since all dharmas are like that (unarisen, unconditioned, non-existent, unchanging, unceasing – in absolute terms), then there is no inherently existing Basis / Ground / Source for reality in general – that is the basis. So there is no basis, no need for any inherently existing basis, for any dharma, its marks / signs, and its name / label, its origination or non-origination, existence or non-existence, conditioning or non-conditioning, change or non-change, bonding or freedom, cessation of non-cessation, enlightenment or non-enlightenment.)


  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti, in form a basis in reality for the absence of production (origination), the absence of stopping (cessation), the absence of occasioning anything (functionality), the absence of appearing (duration), the absence of being apprehended, the absence of defilement and the absence of purification (change) does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T],
    and similarly, Subhūti,
    a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T].


  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti, in feeling, perception, volitional factors, and consciousness a basis in reality for the absence of production, the absence of stopping, up to the absence of defilement and the absence of purification does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T], and
    similarly, Subhūti,
    a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T].


  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti, in the state of the absolute purity of form a basis for a causal sign does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T], and
    similarly, Subhūti,
    a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T].
    As a further instance, Subhūti, in the state of the absolute purity of feeling, perception, volitional factors, and consciousness a basis for a causal sign does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T], and
    similarly, Subhūti,
    a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T].
    Similarly, in the state of the absolute purity of the constituents, sense fields, and dependent origination a basis for a causal sign does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T], and
    similarly, Subhūti,
    a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T].


  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti, in the state of the absolute purity of the applications of mindfulness a basis for a causal sign does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T],
    and similarly, Subhūti, [F.113.a]
    a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T].


  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti, in the state of the absolute purity of the right efforts, legs of miraculous power, faculties, powers, limbs of awakening, and path, up to the ten powers, fearlessnesses, detailed and thorough knowledges, and eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha a basis for a causal sign does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T], and
    similarly, Subhūti,
    a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T].


  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti, because of the non-existence of self, in the state of the absolute purity of the self a basis does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T],
    up to because of the non-existence of one who knows and one who sees, in the state of the absolute purity of one who knows and one who sees a basis does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T].
    Similarly, Subhūti,
    a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T].


  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti, when the disk of the sun rises, a basis for darkness does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T], and
    similarly, Subhūti,
    a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T].


  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti, in the eon conflagration a basis for compounded phenomena does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T], and
    similarly, Subhūti,
    a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T].


  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti, in the morality of a tathāgata, worthy one, perfectly complete buddha a basis for immorality does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T],
    and similarly, Subhūti,
    a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T].


  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti, in the meditative stabilization of a tathāgata a basis for distraction does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T],
    in the wisdom of a tathāgata [F.113.b] a basis for intellectual confusion does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T],
    in the liberation of a tathāgata a basis for not being liberated does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T],
    and in the knowledge and seeing of liberation of a tathāgata non-knowledge and non-seeing of liberation does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T].
    Similarly, Subhūti,
    a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T].


  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti, in the radiance of the sun and moon a basis for darkness does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T], and
    similarly, Subhūti,
    a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T].


  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti, a basis for the light of the planets, the stars, jewels, and lightning does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T], and
    similarly, Subhūti,
    a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T].


  • "To illustrate further, Subhūti, a basis for the light of the Cāturmahā­rājika and the Trāyastriṃśa gods, Yāma gods, Tuṣita gods, Nirmāṇarati gods, Para­nirmita­vaśa­vartin gods, Brahmakāyika, up to the Akaniṣṭha gods does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T],
    up to a basis for the light of a tathāgata does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T],
    and similarly, Subhūti,
    a basis in reality for a bodhisattva when a bodhisattva great being is practicing the perfection of wisdom does not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T].


  • "And why? Because, Subhūti, all those phenomena‍ — that which is the awakening, that which is the bodhisattva, that which is the basis in reality of a bodhisattva ‍— are not conjoined, are not disjoined, are formless, cannot be pointed out, do not obstruct, and have only one mark‍ — that is, no mark (in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively).
    -
    Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings should train in the non [inherent] existence [T2]
    [and non complete non-existence [T1]] of all phenomena [U2T]. 201
    Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings should know all dharmas." [F.114.a]
    -
    (i.e. Bodhisattvas should train in becoming familiar with the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of all dharma as it is here & now: All phenomena are empty of inherent existence [T2], not really existent <==> because conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S], not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional / useless / meaningless. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T]. So they are not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither. Meaning their true nature & dynamic is indescribable / inconceivable; we call it the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths [U2T].)

Subhūti then asked,
"Lord, what are all phenomena?
How do bodhisattva great beings train in the non [inherent] existence of all phenomena [T2]?
How do bodhisattva great beings know all phenomena [T1] [U2T]?"

  • The Lord replied,
    "Subhūti, all phenomena are said to be wholesome, unwholesome, objects of moral inquiry and not objects of moral inquiry, ordinary and extraordinary, with outflows and without outflows, compounded and uncompounded, basic immorality and not basic immorality, and shared in common and not shared in common.
    Subhūti, these are said to be all phenomena [T1].
    Bodhisattva great beings should train in the non [inherent] existence [T2]
    [and non complete non-existence [T1]] of all phenomena [U2T].
    Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings should know [the Union of the Two Truths about] all dharmas." [B9]
    -
    (i.e. Bodhisattvas should train in becoming familiar with the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of all dharma as it is here & now: All phenomena are empty of inherent existence [T2], not really existent <==> because conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S], not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional / useless / meaningless. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T]. So they are not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither. Meaning their true nature & dynamic is indescribable / inconceivable; we call it the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths [U2T].)

"Lord, what are ordinary wholesome phenomena?" asked Subhūti.

  • The Lord replied,
    "Subhūti, ordinary wholesome phenomena are said to be honoring mothers, honoring fathers, honoring those following a secluded religious life, and honoring brahmins; attending to the needs of family elders; the basis of meritorious action arisen from giving; the basis of meritorious action arisen from morality and arisen from meditation, that which accompanies service, and skillful means; 202 the ten wholesome actions; the ordinary perception of a bloated corpse, cleaned-out-by-worms perception, the perception of it as putrid, the bloodied perception, the black-and-blue perception, the savaged perception, the torn-asunder perception, the bones perception, [F.114.b] and burnt-bones perception; the four ordinary concentrations, four immeasurables, and four formless absorptions; and the ordinary mindfulness of the Buddha, mindfulness of the Dharma, mindfulness of the Saṅgha, mindfulness of morality, mindfulness of giving away, mindfulness of the gods, mindfulness of breathing in and out, mindfulness of death, mindfulness of what is included in the body, and mindfulness of disgust. Those, Subhūti, are said to be ordinary wholesome phenomena."

"Lord, what are ordinary unwholesome phenomena?" asked Subhūti.

  • The Lord replied, "Subhūti, ordinary unwholesome phenomena are killing, stealing, illicit sex because of lust, lying, backbiting, 203 insulting, babbling non-sense, coveting, malice, wrong view, anger, bearing a grudge, dissembling, nursing pent-up anger, violence, jealousy, envy, and pride. Those, Subhūti, are said to be ordinary unwholesome phenomena.

"Lord, what are ordinary neutral phenomena?" asked Subhūti.

  • The Lord replied, "Subhūti, physical karma is neutral, verbal karma is neutral, and thinking-mind karma is neutral. 204 The four great elements are neutral, the five faculties are neutral, the six sense fields are neutral, the four formless absorptions are neutral, the aggregates, constituents, and sense fields are neutral, and maturation is neutral. Those, Subhūti, are said to be ordinary neutral phenomena."

"Lord, what are ordinary phenomena?" asked Subhūti.

  • The Lord replied, [F.115.a] "Subhūti, ordinary phenomena are said to be the five aggregates, twelve sense fields, eighteen constituents, ten wholesome actions, four concentrations, four immeasurables, four formless absorptions, five clairvoyances, and as many ordinary dharmas not included with extraordinary dharmas as there are. Those are said to be ordinary phenomena."

"Lord, what are said to be extraordinary phenomena?" asked Subhūti.

  • The Lord replied, "Subhūti, extraordinary phenomena are said to be the four applications of mindfulness, the four right efforts, the four legs of miraculous power, the five faculties, the five powers, the seven limbs of awakening, and the eightfold noble path; the emptiness gateway to liberation, the signless gateway to liberation, and the wishless gateway to liberation; the faculty of coming to understand what has not yet been understood, the faculty of understanding, and the faculty of having understood; meditative stabilization with applied and sustained thought, meditative stabilization without applied thought but with sustained thought, and meditative stabilization without either applied or sustained thought; and knowledge, freedom, mindfulness, introspection, correct attention, and the eight deliverances.

"What are the eight deliverances?

  • With form one sees form. This is the first deliverance. With the perception of no form inside one sees form outside. This is the second deliverance. One believes it is pleasant. This is the third deliverance. 205 Totally transcending perceptions of form, setting to rest perceptions of obstruction, not paying attention to perceptions of difference, in endless space one perfectly accomplishes and dwells in the station of endless space. This is [F.115.b] the fourth deliverance. Totally transcending the station of endless space, in endless consciousness one perfectly accomplishes and dwells in the station of endless consciousness. This is the fifth deliverance. Totally transcending the station of endless consciousness, in nothing-at-all one perfectly accomplishes and dwells in the station of nothing-at-all. This is the sixth deliverance. Totally transcending the station of nothing-at-all, in neither perception nor non-perception one perfectly accomplishes and dwells in the station of neither perception nor non-perception. This is the seventh deliverance. Totally transcending the station of neither perception nor non-perception one perfectly accomplishes and dwells in the cessation of perception and feeling. This is the eighth deliverance.

"Then there are the nine serial absorptions.
"What are the nine?

  • Detached from sense objects, and detached from wrong unwholesome dharmas, one perfectly accomplishes and dwells in the first concentration that has applied thought and sustained thought, and enjoyment and pleasure born of detachment. Relieved of applied thought and sustained thought, with an inner serene confidence and a mind that has become a single continuum one perfectly accomplishes and dwells in the second concentration that has enjoyment and pleasure born of a meditative stabilization without applied thought and without sustained thought. Because one is free from attachment to enjoyment one abides in equanimity, and with equanimity and recollection and introspection one experiences pleasure with the body, and one perfectly accomplishes and dwells in the third concentration without enjoyment, about which the noble beings say, 'They have equanimity and recollection and dwell in pleasure.' Because one has forsaken pleasure, has earlier forsaken suffering, has set to rest mental happiness and mental unhappiness and has equanimity that is neither pleasure nor suffering, and has recollection, one perfectly accomplishes and dwells in the fourth concentration. Totally transcending of form, [F.116.a] setting to rest perceptions of obstruction, not paying attention to perceptions of difference, in endless space one perfectly accomplishes and dwells in the station of endless space. Totally transcending the station of endless space, in endless consciousness one perfectly accomplishes and dwells in the station of endless consciousness. Totally transcending the station of endless consciousness, in nothing-at-all one perfectly accomplishes and dwells in the station of nothing-at-all. Totally transcending the station of nothing-at-all, in neither perception nor non-perception one perfectly accomplishes and dwells in the station of neither perception nor non-perception. Totally transcending the station of neither perception nor non-perception one perfectly accomplishes and dwells in the cessation of perception and feeling. Those are the nine serial absorptions.

  • "And from inner emptiness, up to the emptiness that is the non-existence of an intrinsic nature, the ten tathāgata powers, the four fearlessnesses, the four detailed and thorough knowledges, and the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha ‍— these are said to be extraordinary phenomena.

"What are phenomena with outflows?

  • They are the five aggregates, twelve sense fields, eighteen constituents, four concentrations, four immeasurables, and four formless absorptions. Those are said to be phenomena with outflows.
    (i.e. Bodhisattvas may use without using all dharmas – physical, conceptual, mental –, but without any attachment / fixation / absolutes. So what was a dharma with outflow (binding), is purified / transmuted into a dharma without outflow (non-binding) by directly realising its true nature & dynamic as it is here & now. Bodhisattvas are unattached to both the dharmas / thoughts with outflow, and the dharmas / thoughts without outflow. Not accepting, not rejecting anything in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively.
    From Chapter 2: Bodhisattvas use without using ordinary dharmas, perform without performing ordinary activities, practice without practicing ordinary practices, … but without any grasping / attachment / apprehending / obsession / fixation / reification / reference points / absolutes … thus are not contaminated by them. Why? Because Bodhisattvas are fully aware of the true nature & dynamic as it is [U2T] of all dharmas involved, they are not fooled by illusory appearances, not grasping them, not attached to them, not slaves to them, not creating more karma because of them, not suffering because of them. And that is nirvana here & now. That is the benefits of practicing the perfection of Wisdom, or directly realising the Union of the Two Truths about all dharmas.)
    (Notes about outflow:
    "Mental afflictions can be called outflows since they "flow out," i.e., they are caused by certain dharmas (said to be "with outflows")."
    "Mental defilements or contaminations that "flow out" toward the objects of cyclic existence, binding us to them."
    "A term of Jain origin. It refers to uncontrolled thoughts, being distracted by objects, and hence its meaning of "leaks."")

"What are phenomena without outflows?

  • They are the four applications of mindfulness, four right efforts, four legs of miraculous power, five faculties, five powers, seven limbs of awakening, and eightfold noble path; the ten powers, four fearlessnesses, four detailed and thorough knowledges; [F.116.b] up to the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha. Those are said to be phenomena without outflows.

"What are compounded phenomena?

  • The desire realm, form realm, and formless realm, and whatever other phenomena included with the compounded that are not those: the thirty-seven dharmas on the side of awakening, up to the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha. Those are said to be compounded phenomena.

"What are uncompounded phenomena?

  • Phenomena that do not arise, that do not pass away, and where otherness does not appear; 206 the extinction of greed, extinction of hatred, and extinction of confusion; suchness, unmistaken suchness, and unaltered suchness; the true nature of dharmas, the dharma-constituent, the establishment of dharmas, the certification of dharmas, and the very limit of reality‍ — those are said to be uncompounded phenomena.

"What are phenomena shared in common?

  • They are the four concentrations, four immeasurables, four formless absorptions, and five clairvoyances. Those are said to be phenomena shared in common.

"What are phenomena not shared in common?

  • They are the thirty-seven dharmas on the side of awakening, ten powers, four fearlessnesses, four detailed and thorough knowledges, three gateways to liberation, up to the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha. Those are said to be phenomena not shared in common.

"Bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom should train in non-attachment to all phenomena that are empty of their own marks, and in their non [inherent] existence, by not constructing any phenomena and not entertaining any ideas about them. 207
They should know all phenomena in a non-dual way."
(i.e. Note about non-duality: "This is synonymous with reality, voidness, etc. But it must be remembered that non-duality does not necessarily mean unity, that unity is only one of the pair unity-duality; hence non-duality implies non-unity as well. This point is obscured by designating this non-dual philosophy as "monism," as too many modern scholars have done." – What is not dual, not non-dual, not both together, not neither? All dharmas, apparent opposites, the three spheres, the two truths. Synonyms of non-duality: inseparability / interdependence / co-dependence / harmony / Union.)

Then venerable Subhūti said to the Lord, [F.117.a] "Lord, you say 'bodhisattva great beings.'
Why do you say 'bodhisattva great beings'?"

  • The Lord replied, "Subhūti, they will become the foremost 208 of a great mass of beings, a great collection 209 of groups of beings; therefore, they are said to be 'bodhisattva great beings.' "

"Lord, who are the great mass of beings, the collection of groups of beings of whom bodhisattva great beings will become foremost?" asked Subhūti.

  • The Lord replied, "Subhūti, those said to be the great assembly of beings are those at the Gotra level, those at the Aṣṭamaka level, stream enterers, once-returners, non-returners, worthy ones, pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas with the first production of the thought, up to bodhisattva great beings standing on the irreversible level. Subhūti, those are said to be the great mass of beings, the great collection of groups of beings. Bodhisattva great beings will become the foremost of them.

  • "There bodhisattva great beings, having produced the vajra-like thought, should become the foremost of a great mass of beings, of a great collection of groups of beings."

"Lord, what is the production of the vajra-like thought?" asked Subhūti.

  • The Lord replied, "Subhūti, here bodhisattva great beings produce such thoughts as these: 'I must buckle on armor for the sake of all beings in infinite saṃsāra'; 'I must give away all my personal possessions'; 'I must adopt the same attitude of mind toward all beings'; 'I must lead all beings to nirvāṇa by means of the three vehicles'; 'I must understand that [F.117.b] even having led all beings to nirvāṇa, still there are no beings at all in nirvāṇa, 210 and all phenomena are not produced and do not stop'; 'I must practice the six perfections with the unmixed 211 thought of the knowledge of all aspects'; 'I must train in the all-pervasive, thoroughly established realization of dharmas'; and 'I must train in order to awaken to finding and producing within myself all dharmas in accord with one principle, up to in order to awaken to finding and producing within myself infinite dharmas.' They produce such thoughts, and that, Subhūti, is the bodhisattva great beings' production of the vajra-like thought, abiding in which they become the foremost of a great mass of beings, of a great collection of groups of beings, and they do so, furthermore, by way of not apprehending anything.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings produce such a thought as this: 'Whatever feelings of suffering beings in hell, in the animal world, and in the world of Yama experience, I must experience those feelings of suffering for them.' They produce that thought.

  • "There bodhisattva great beings should produce a higher thought like this: 'Until those beings are in complete nirvāṇa, in the element of nirvāṇa without any aggregates left behind, I must, even for the sake of one being, 212 experience the suffering of beings in hells for many hundreds of thousands of one hundred million billion eons, and through such means, until those beings are in complete nirvāṇa, in the element of nirvāṇa without any aggregates left behind, I must, for the sake of all beings, experience the suffering of beings in hells. Afterward, having set down wholesome roots, [F.118.a] having accumulated equipment for hundreds of thousands of one hundred million billion eons, I must fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening for my own sake.' They should produce that thought. That, Subhūti, is the bodhisattva great beings' production of the vajra-like thought, abiding in which they become the foremost of a great mass of beings, of a great collection of groups of beings.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings should constantly and always cultivate a prodigious thought, the thought on account of which they become the foremost of all beings. There the bodhisattva great beings' prodigious thought is that from their first production of that thought onward they will not have a greedy thought, will not have a hateful thought, will not have a confused thought, will not have a violent thought, and will not have a śrāvaka or pratyekabuddha thought. That, Subhūti, is the bodhisattva great beings' prodigious thought on account of which they become the foremost of all beings, but without falsely projecting anything.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings should have an unshakable thought. There the bodhisattva great beings' unshakable thought is that their attention connected with the knowledge of all aspects does not falsely project anything. That, Subhūti, is the bodhisattva great beings' unshakable thought.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings should think to be of benefit and bring happiness to all beings. There, the bodhisattva great beings' thought to be of benefit and bring happiness is that they protect all beings and do not give up on all beings, but without falsely projecting anything. That, Subhūti, is the bodhisattva great beings' thought to be of benefit [F.118.b] and bring happiness.

"Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom like that become the foremost of all beings [T1], and they do so, furthermore, by way of not apprehending anything [T2] [U2T].

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings must constantly and always want Dharma, enjoy Dharma, delight in Dharma, and be preoccupied with being delighted by Dharma.

  • In regard to that, what is Dharma? It is this: the unbroken unity of all dharmas.

  • "What is it to want Dharma? It is to hope for and want Dharma. That is called to want Dharma.

  • "What is it to enjoy Dharma? It is to enjoy and take pleasure in Dharma. That is called to enjoy Dharma.

  • "What is it to delight in Dharma? It is to behold good qualities and benefits in Dharma. That is called to delight in Dharma.

  • "What is it to be preoccupied with being delighted 213 by Dharma? It is to meditate on and greatly increase just that Dharma. That is called to be preoccupied with being delighted by Dharma.

"Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom like that become the foremost of a great mass of beings, of a great collection of groups of beings and they do so, furthermore, by way of not apprehending anything.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom should stand in inner emptiness, up to the emptiness that is the non-existence of an intrinsic nature, and become the foremost of a great mass of beings, of a great collection of groups of beings, and do so, furthermore, by way of not apprehending anything.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom should stand in the thirty-seven dharmas on the side of awakening, and in the ten powers, the four fearlessnesses, the four detailed and thorough knowledges, up to [F.119.a] the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha, and become the foremost of a great mass of beings, of a great collection of groups of beings, and do so, furthermore, by way of not apprehending anything.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom should abide in the vajropama meditative stabilization, up to 214 abide in the ākāśāsaṃga­vimukti­nirupalepa meditative stabilization and become the foremost of a great mass of beings, of a great collection of groups of beings, and do so, furthermore, by way of not apprehending anything.

  • "Furthermore, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom, having stood in those dharmas, become the foremost of a great mass of beings, of a great collection of groups of beings. Hence, bodhisattvas are said to be great beings.

This was the eleventh chapter, "Embarrassment," 215 of "The Perfection of Wisdom in Eighteen Thousand Lines."




Access to other chapters on the Blog:
(Work in progress. Empty files means they are not done yet.)

  1. Chapter 0 – Introduction to the Sutra

  2. Chapter 1 – Introduction / the Assembly

  3. Chapter 2 – Production of the Thought

  4. Chapter 3 – Designation

  5. Chapter 4 – Equal to the Unequal

  6. Chapter 5 – Tongue

  7. Chapter 6 – Subhūti

  8. Chapter 7 – Entry into flawlessness

  9. Chapter 8 – The Religious Mendicant Śreṇika

  10. Chapter 9 – Causal Signs

  11. Chapter 10 – Illusion-like

  12. Chapter 11 – Embarrassment

  13. Chapter 12 – Elimination of Views

  14. Chapter 13 – The Six Perfections

  15. Chapter 14 – Neither Bound nor Freed

  16. Chapter 15 – Meditative Stabilization

  17. Chapter 16 – Dhāraṇī Gateway

  18. Chapter 17 – Level Purification

  19. Chapter 18 – The Exposition of Going Forth in the Great Vehicle

  20. Chapter 19 – Surpassing

  21. Chapter 20 – Not Two

  22. Chapter 21 – Subhūti

  23. Chapter 22 – Śatakratu

  24. Chapter 23 – Hard to Understand

  25. Chapter 24 – Unlimited

  26. Chapter 25 – Second Śatakratu

  27. Chapter 26 – Getting Old

  28. Chapter 27 – Reliquary

  29. Chapter 28 – Declaration of the Good Qualities of the Thought of Awakening

  30. Chapter 29 – Different Tīrthika Religious Mendicants

  31. Chapter 30 – The Benefits of Taking Up and Adoration

  32. Chapter 31 – Physical Remains

  33. Chapter 32 – The Superiority of Merit

  34. Chapter 33 – Dedication

  35. Chapter 34 – Perfect Praise of the Quality of Accomplishment

  36. Chapter 35 – Hells

  37. Chapter 36 – Teaching The Purity of all Dharmas

  38. Chapter 37 – Nobody

  39. Chapter 38 – Cannot Be Apprehended

  40. Chapter 39 – The Northern Region

  41. Chapter 40 – The Work of Māra

  42. Chapter 41 – Not Complete Because of Māra

  43. Chapter 42 – Revealing the World

  44. Chapter 43 – Inconceivable

  45. Chapter 44 – Made Up

  46. Chapter 45 – A Boat

  47. Chapter 46 – Teaching the Intrinsic Nature of All Dharmas

  48. Chapter 47 – Taming Greed

  49. Chapter 48 – A Presentation of the Bodhisattvas' Training

  50. Chapter 49 – Irreversibility

  51. Chapter 50 – Teaching the Signs of Irreversibility

  52. Chapter 51 – Skillful means

  53. Chapter 52 – Completion of the Means

  54. Chapter 53 – The Prophecy about Gaṅgadevī

  55. Chapter 54 – Teaching the Cultivation of Skillful Means

  56. Chapter 55 – Teaching the Stopping of Thought Construction [in absolute terms]

  57. Chapter 56 – Equal Training

  58. Chapter 57 – Practice

  59. Chapter 58 – Exposition of the Absence of Thought Construction [in absolute terms]

  60. Chapter 59 – Non-attachment

  61. Chapter 60 – Entrusting

  62. Chapter 61 – Inexhaustible

  63. Chapter 62 – Leaping Above Absorption

  64. Chapter 63 – Many Inquiries about the Two Dharmas

  65. Chapter 64 – Perfectly Displayed

  66. Chapter 65 – Worshiping, Serving, and Attending on Spiritual Friends as Skillful Means

  67. Chapter 66 – A Demonstration of Skillful Means

  68. Chapter 67 – Morality

  69. Chapter 68 – Growing and Flourishing

  70. Chapter 69 – An Explanation of Meditation on The Path

  71. Chapter 70 – An Explanation of Serial Action, Training, and Practice

  72. Chapter 71 – The True Nature of Dharmas That Cannot Be Apprehended

  73. Chapter 72 – Teaching the Absence of Marks

  74. Chapter 73 – Exposition of the Major Marks and Minor Signs and the Completion of Letters

  75. Chapter 74 – Exposition of the Sameness of Dharmas

  76. Chapter 75 – Exposition of Non-complication –

  77. Chapter 76 – The Armor for Bringing Beings to Maturity

  78. Chapter 77 – Teaching the Purification of a Buddhafield

  79. Chapter 78 – Teaching the Skillful Means for the Purification of a Buddhafield

  80. Chapter 79 – Teaching the Non Existence of an Intrinsic Nature

  81. Chapter 80 – Teaching that there is No Defilement or Purification

  82. Chapter 81 – Yogic Practice of the Ultimate

  83. Chapter 82 – The Unchanging True Nature of Dharmas

  84. Chapter 83 – Categorization of a Bodhisattva's Training

  85. Chapter 84 – Collection

  86. Chapter 85 – Sadāprarudita

  87. Chapter 86 – Dharmodgata

  88. Chapter 87 – Entrusting

  89. Résumés in bullet points of all chapters.




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