Tuesday, June 14, 2022

Prajnaparamita-18K - Chapter 06 - Practicing without apprehending anything - 306

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The Transcendent Perfection of Wisdom
in Eighteen Thousand Lines - 306
Daśa­sāhasrikā­prajñā­pāramitā

– Chapter 06 - Practicing without apprehending anything –

Source: https://read.84000.co/translation/toh10.html

More Analysis of Mahayana Sutras : https://www.gilehtblog.com/2022/07/toc-400.html

[Note: The two truths are:
T1: conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means, merely labeled / imputed / imagined / created by the mind in dependence of its conditioning / karma (in cycle), not completely non-existence;
T2: emptiness of inherent existence, not real existence;
U2T: those two truths, like any other pair of apparent opposites, are inseparable, interdependent, co-defined, co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing / co-transcended, in harmony, in 'Union' <==> thus empty of inherent existence.
They are tools to help us to get to the 'inconceivable' by refuting what 'Reality as it is' is not:
all extreme views like: existence / dharma / causality / functionality, non-existence / non-dharma / non-causality / non-functionality, both together, neither; difference / manyness / diversity / duality, identity / oneness / sameness / non-duality, both together, neither; permanence / continuity / eternity, impermanence / discontinuity / annihilation, both together, neither; individuality, collectivity, universality, a combination of those, none of those; subjectivity, relation / action / process, objectivity, a combination of those, none of those; the 1st truth alone / dependent origination [T1], the 2nd truth alone / mere-emptiness [T2], both two truths together as if different and in opposition [2T], neither of the two truths as if identical and one [1T,]; 'this', 'non-this', both together, neither – for whatever 'this' is.
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The three spheres: ex.
i. The subject / actor / goer / perceiver / knower / acquirer / owner,
ii. The relation / action / going / perceiving / knowing / acquiring / having
iii. The object / result / destination / perceived / known / acquired / possessions / karma / 5 aggregates / body & speech & mind.
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Generalisations:
Whenever it is possible the comments of each section are expressed into a more global context. So they always cover more than just what is said in the various translations. The goal is to make the Big Picture more evident.
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Note: All comments within (i.e. …) or [...] are from the commentator (me), not the translators.)


[Back to Résumés of chapters 1-41]

06. SUBHŪTI – Perceiving / acting / practicing / teaching the perfection of wisdom without apprehending anything in absolute terms.

(i.e. Résumé: Perceiving / acting / practicing / teaching the perfection of wisdom without apprehending or perceiving any inherently existing and separate subject / being, relation / action / process, object / phenomena; any characteristics / properties / attributes / marks / signs / names … in absolute terms [T2], just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively [T1]; thus more and more in accord with the inconceivable true nature of Reality as it is here & now [U2T].
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Bodhisattvas should train in the perfection of wisdom,
should train in the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now (everywhere, at any time),
should train in the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths [U2T] free from all extremes & middle,
and should act more and more in accord with it —
because not knowing it, and not acting in accord with it, is a mistake and necessarily brings more suffering for self & others.
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How should Bodhisattvas train in the perfection of wisdom?
How should they train in the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now (everywhere, at any time)?
How should they train in the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths [U2T] free from all extremes & middle?
And how should they act more and more in accord with it? —
Because not knowing it, and not acting in accord with it, is a mistake and necessarily brings more suffering for self & others.
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Bodhisattvas should practice the perfection of wisdom using valid tools / adapted skillful means, but without apprehending any dharmas in absolute terms, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes because all dharmas are empty of inherent existence <==> because dependently co-arisen / interdependent, merely labeled / imputed by the mind. Genuine-emptiness  [U2T] does not contradict valid conventional / relative / inter-subjective concepts / truths / views / methods / practices / goals… On the contrary the two truths (dependent origination / functionality and emptiness of inherent existence) are inseparable / interdependent / in harmony; one implies / proves / enables the other. That is the meaning of the 'Union of the Two Truths.'
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__________________________________________________________________________________________
Bodhisattvas thus practicing without practicing the perfection of wisdom
should train in valid conventional / relative / inter-subjective words / concepts / ideas /
truths / views / methods / practices / levels / goals / characteristics / properties /
attributes / marks / signs / names / labels [T1] —
but without any attachment / fixation / absolutes,
without apprehending anything in absolute terms [T2] [U2T].
__________________________________________________________________________________________
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"Bodhisattva great beings should practice the perfection of wisdom like that [T1], without apprehending any / all dharmas in absolute terms [T2], just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively as possible tools / adapted skillful means [T1] [U2T]; thus acting more and more in accord with the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now, with the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths [U2T] free from all extremes & middle.
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"If bodhisattva great beings practicing [T1] the perfection of wisdom do not apprehend in absolute terms [T2] a perfection of wisdom, that bodhisattva, that word for bodhisattva, or even that bodhicitta, or awakening, then just that is the advice about the perfection of wisdom of bodhisattvas; just that is the instruction."
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Result:
Gaining forbearance in the perfection of wisdom.
Gaining forbearance in the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now (everywhere, at any time).
Gaining forbearance in the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths [U2T] free from all extremes & middle.
Gaining forbearance in acting without acting, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes; thus more and more in accord with it. Because not knowing it, and not acting in accord with it, is a mistake and necessarily brings more suffering for self & others.
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"Whatever the Buddha teaches, none of it contradicts the true nature of dharmas [U2T]."
Because the perfection of wisdom is about directly realising the inconceivable true nature of Reality as it is here & now — which is beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all defining limitations, beyond all conditioning / karma. The perfection of wisdom is about perceiving & acting more and more in accord with the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now. That is called "acting [T1] without acting [T2] [U2T]", with no attachment / fixation / absolutes, without falling for any extreme or middle, without any di-vision between the three spheres, etc.
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Question: If all dharmas are not produced … as mentioned in Chapter 5:
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The true nature & dynamic of those dharmas: All dharmas are like an inconceivable Union of being empty of inherent existence [T2], not really existent / caused / functional <==> because of being conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S] in dependence of its conditioning / karma, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional / useless / meaningless. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T]. They are appearing but empty, empty but still appearing. They are like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, echos, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T].
All dharmas are not really existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth – for whatever 'this' is. Meaning their true nature & dynamic is indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s). It has to be personally spontaneously non-dualistically non-conceptually directly perceived / realised / experienced in the here & now. And that is the liberating factor: directly realising the Union of the Two Truths about all dharmas [U2T].
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Since everything is empty of inherent existence [T2] <==> because interdependent [T1] [U2T],
then there are no real three stages of becoming, or three times [U3T]: i. dependent origination or production / beginning / birth / coming / before / past, ii. duration / middle / life / abiding or changing / during / present, iii. cessation / ending / death / going / after / future, and no complete absence of them either.
They exist conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively [T1], but not in absolute terms [T2] [U2T], not objectively, not independently of the subject / mind.
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____________________________________________
"Because where there is no intrinsic nature there is
no [inherently existing] production, stopping, _____
decrease, increase, defilement, or purification."____
____________________________________________
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Question: then who is teaching what to whom?
And is learning / practicing / teaching something like the perfection of wisdom to/from somebody still useful / meaningful / efficient? Or should we drop everything?
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Answer: The important point is that 'genuine-emptiness' does not mean complete non-causality / non-existence / non-functionality … but the Union of the Two Truths [U2T], the Middle Way free from all extremes & middle.
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There is learning / practicing / teaching [T1] without learning / practicing / teaching [T2] [U2T] the perfection of wisdom,
without any grasping / attachment / apprehension / obsession / fixation / reification / reference points / absolutes;
without falling into any extreme or middle;
without any duality / di-vision between subject & object & action, cause & causality & effect, right & wrong, movement & rest, samsara & nirvana;
more and more in accord with the Middle Way: not accepting / affirming / seeking / adding / improving / doing in absolute terms, not rejecting / negating / abandoning / eliminating / subtracting / not-doing anything in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively;
thus more and more in accord with the transcendent perfection of wisdom;
more and more in accord with the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is;
more and more in accord with the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths about all dharmas [U2T / U2T-3S / U2T-opp / U2T-2T]
beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all defining limitations, beyond all conditioning / karma.
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Engaging [T1] without engaging [T2] [U2T]: Bodhisattvas do not associate, in absolute terms, any dharma (ex. the five aggregates) with any marks / signs / characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / relations / oppositions / activities / names / labels – like their permanence or impermanence… –.
Bodhisattvas engage without engaging with the permanence or impermanence … of any/all dharmas; because they do not even perceive any inherently existing dharma (ex. five aggregates) or any marks / signs / characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / relations / oppositions / activities / names / labels … like their permanence or impermanence… <==> because these are all empty of inherent existence <==> because these are all dependently co-arisen / interdependent, merely labeled / imputed by the mind <==> like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T].
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Bodhisattvas do not view any dharmas as existent or non-existent, permanent or impermanent, tainted or liberated, different or the same, 'this' or 'non-this'… (the same with any other dualistic marks / signs / characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / relations / oppositions / activities);
do not mentally construct and do not conceptualize any of those dharmas in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively;
stand without mentally constructing any dharma in absolute terms;
do not, except for paying attention to the knowledge of all aspects, view the perfection of wisdom, the name perfection of wisdom, a bodhisattva, or the name bodhisattva;
they do not settle down on any dharma in absolute terms;
and they eventually excellently spontaneously non-dualistically non-conceptually directly realize the inconceivable all-pervading timeless unborn unconditioned unchanging unceasing pristine true nature of Reality as it is here & now, the defining marks of the dharmas, the Union of the Two Truths about all dharmas [U2T / U3S / Uopp / U2T-2T].
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All dharmas are like mere names, mere designations, but still possibly conventionally valid useful tools / adapted skillful means.
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Name & form: Like the apparent opposites of any duality / triad / quad / etc., name and form (label and referent) are not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither. They are inseparable, interdependent, co-defined, co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing / co-transcended <==> thus both empty of inherent existence. Like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T]. Not really existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional / useless / meaningless, not both together, not neither.
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Reality as it is is not purely objective, not purely subjective (mind-only), not purely relational / process / action: Dharmas cannot be found inside (they are not purely-subjective / mind-only), not outside (they are not purely-objective / object-only), not between (they are not purely-relational / relation-only / action-only / process-only), not a combination of those, not none of those.
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What is the referent for the word 'bodhisattva'? Not the five aggregates, not something other than the five aggregates.
The same for any dharma, including the 'suchness' of any / all dharmas, the very limit of reality, the dharma-constituent, emptiness or non-emptiness. The true nature of Reality as it is, the Union of the Two Truths, is indescribable / inconceivable.
We may point to it using various concepts, but none of them is 'it'.)

(i.e. From the introduction – The Structure of the Eighteen Thousand:
According to that structure, there are five major divisions [I–V] and eleven sections [(1)–(11)].
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I. Introduction: Chapter 1
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II. Brief Exegesis: Chapter 2
Following the introduction there is the single statement by the Lord at the beginning of chapter 2.:
"Here, Śāriputra, bodhisattva great beings who want to fully awaken to all dharmas in all forms
should make an effort at the perfection of wisdom."
This says it all in brief.
The reader should understand that the Lord remains silent after saying this.
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III. Intermediate Exegesis: Chapters 2-21
Then, beginning the intermediate exegesis there is Śāriputra's question (2.­2),
"How then, Lord, should bodhisattva great beings who want to fully awaken to all dharmas in all forms
make an effort at the Perfection of Wisdom?"
followed by the Lord's response.
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Śāriputra's inquiry raises the following questions:
- What is a bodhisattva and a great being?
- What is it to want fully to awaken to all dharmas in all forms?
- What is "making an effort"?
- And, what is the Perfection of Wisdom?
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Śāriputra's inquiry thus introduces the reader to
(i) bodhisattva great beings,
(ii) all dharmas,
(iii) the Perfection of Wisdom,
(iv) full awakening, and
(v) making an effort ‍— that is, actually putting the Perfection of Wisdom into practice.
These five provide the outline of the intermediate exegesis.”
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Informing both the Lord's statement and Śāriputra's question is the important word want ‍— a word that signals a bodhisattva's compassionate aspiration because it references a bodhisattva's motivation. Hence, what truly informs the statement is bodhicitta ("the thought of awakening"), a technical term for a special altruism.
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This section has two parts:
(1) the explanation for and by Śāriputra that goes from chapter 2 through chapter 5 and
(2) the explanation for and by Subhūti, from chapter 6 through chapter 21.
This two-part section corresponds to the first chapter of the Eight Thousand (8k).”
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IV. The detailed exegesis of the opening statement goes from chapters 22 to 82.”
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It comprises an explanation of the conceptual and non-conceptual Perfection of Wisdom in
a detailed exposition based on relative [T1] and ultimate truth [T2] [U2T]
for the sake of those who understand from a longer explanation.
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The explanation is subdivided into
(3) an explanation for the head god Śatakratu (chapter 22) and
(4) an explanation by Subhūti (chapters 23–32).
(5) Then there is an explanation that includes an exchange with Maitreya (chapter 33) and
(6–9) three more sections associated with Subhūti and one with Śatakratu.
(10) A second explanation for Maitreya is chapter 83, titled "The Categorization of a Bodhisattva's Training."
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V. Summaries
Chapter 84 is the summary in verse for Subhūti that circulates separately as The Verse Summary of the Jewel Qualities. In the Eighteen Thousand it is not divided into chapters.
(11) Chapters 85 and 86 are a summary of the earlier chapters in the form of a story about Sadāprarudita's quest to find his teacher Dharmodgata and learn the Perfection of Wisdom, and the final chapter is a short one in which the Lord entrusts the Perfection of Wisdom to Ānanda and the retinue rejoices.)

The Lord then said to venerable Subhūti,

"Subhūti, starting with the perfection of wisdom, be confident in your readiness to give a Dharma discourse to the bodhisattva great beings about how bodhisattva great beings go forth in the perfection of wisdom."


Then it occurred to those bodhisattva great beings, those great śrāvakas, and those gods to think,

"Will venerable Subhūti instruct the bodhisattva great beings in the perfection of wisdom on account of armor in which reposes the power of his own intellect and confident readiness, or will he instruct them through the power of the Buddha?"


Then through the power of the Buddha venerable Subhūti, understanding in his mind the thought processes occurring to those bodhisattva great beings, those great śrāvakas, and those gods, said to venerable Śāriputra,

  • "Venerable Śāriputra, whatever the Lord's śrāvakas say, teach, and expound, it is all through the Tathāgata's power.
    And whatever the Tathāgata teaches,
    _________________________________________________
    none of it contradicts the true nature of dharmas [U2T].
    _________________________________________________

  • When those children of a good family are training in that Dharma teaching
    ___________________________________________________________
    they are also directly confronting the true nature of dharmas [U2T].
    ___________________________________________________________

  • Śāriputra, it is just the Tathāgata who, by skillful means, will expound the perfection of wisdom to the bodhisattva great beings.

  • Śāriputra, teaching the perfection of wisdom here is not within the scope of any of
    the śrāvakas or pratyekabuddhas or bodhisattva great beings." 114

  • (i.e. Only a Buddha has completely realised the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now, the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths about all dharmas [U2T]. So, only a Buddha can teach the perfection of wisdom.)


Venerable Subhūti then said to the Lord,

"Lord, you say this ‍— namely, 'bodhisattva great being.'

  • What phenomenon is this, the word bodhisattva great being, for?

  • Lord, I do not see [T2] that ‍— namely, the phenomenon with the name bodhisattva [T1] [U2T].

  • Lord, I do not see [T2] those bodhisattva great beings, that perfection of wisdom, nor that word bodhisattva [T1] [U2T],

  • so which bodhisattva great beings will I advise and instruct in what perfection of wisdom?"

  • (i.e. Question: If all dharmas that are not inherently produced (causality), do not inherently occasion anything (functionality), and do not inherently appear (existence) in absolute terms [T2], just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively [T1][U2T] – if all dharmas are empty of inherent existence because dependently co-arisen, merely labeled / imputed by the mind –, then is teaching something like the perfection of wisdom to somebody still possible?
    Answer: Teaching without teaching, but without any grasping / attachment / obsession / fixation / reification / reference points / absolutes & oppositions [T2] [U2T], without falling for any extreme or middle, without any duality / di-vision between subject & object & action, cause & effect & causality, right & wrong, movement & rest, samsara & nirvana; without accepting / affirming / seeking / adding / doing anything in absolute terms, without rejecting / negating / abandoning / eliminating / subtracting / not-doing anything in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively – as possible temporary adapted skillful means [T1]; thus more and more in accord with the Union of the inconceivable Two Truths [U2T].)


"Subhūti," the Lord replied,

  • "those ‍— namely, perfection of wisdom, bodhisattva, and the word bodhisattva — [T1]
    are just words [T1]
    They do not exist [inherently] inside,
    they do not [inherently] exist outside,
    and they cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] where both do not exist [neither inside nor outside] [T2] [U2T]. 115
    -
    (i.e. Union of the Two Truths about those dharmas. Appearing but empty, empty but still appearing, merely labeled / imputed by the mind. Not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither.)
    (i.e. Not inside, not outside, not between, not neither: Like the apparent opposites of any duality / triad / quad / etc., name and form are not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither.)
    (i.e. Not inside, not outside, not between, not neither: Dharmas cannot be found inside (they are not purely-subjective / mind-only), not outside (they are not purely-objective / object-only), not between (they are not purely-relational / relation-only / action-only / process-only), not a combination of those, not none of those.)
    (i.e. These dharmas cannot be apprehended – as existing objectively, separately / independently of the subject / mind merely labeling / imputing them in dependence of its conditioning / karma.)

Subhūti, it is like this:

  • the word being is uttered again and again [T1],
    but you cannot apprehend any being [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T].
    It is a mere name designation, and except for being used conventionally as a mere word and conventional term,
    any phenomenon that is a designation [T1]
    is not [inherently] produced [, does not inherently exist, does not inherently change / become defiled or purified] and does not [inherently] stop [T2] [U2T] [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively]. 116
    -
    (i.e. All dharmas are like mere names, mere designations: They are empty of inherent existence [T2], not really existent / caused / functional <==> because conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind in dependence of its conditioning / karma [U3S]. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T]. All dharmas are co-dependent / co-emergent / co-evolving with the subject / mind, but not from the mind-only. So there are no real three stages of becoming or three times – dependent origination or production / beginning / birth / coming / before / past, duration / middle / life / resting or changing / during / present, cessation / ending / death / going / stopping / after / future – for any dharma –; and no complete absence of the three stages of becoming or three times either. They exist conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively, but not ultimately. All dharmas – including the three stages of becoming (origination, duration, cessation); including the three spheres (subject, relation / action, object); including all apparent opposites; including the perfection of wisdom, bodhisattva, the name bodhisattva, awakening; including the two truths themselves (dependent origination / appearances and emptiness of inherent existence) – are not inherently existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-cause / non-functional, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifty – for whatever 'this' is. Meaning their true nature & dynamic as it is is indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s).)
    (i.e. Union of the three stages of becoming or three times [U3T / Uopp-3T]: Like the apparent opposites of any duality / triad / quad / etc., the three stages of becoming or three times, are not really separate / independent / in opposition, but more like inseparable, interdependent, co-defined, co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing / co-transcended, no-dual in harmony [T1] <==> thus empty of inherent existence [T2] <==> merely labeled / imputed by the mind (mere names / designations) [U3S]. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T]. They are like illusions / reflections / mirages / dreams / magical tricks: There, but not there.' [U2T]. They are not really existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional / useless / meaningless, not both together, not neither; not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither – for whatever 'this' is. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable.)

  • Similarly with self, living being, creature, one who lives, individual, person, one born of Manu, a child of Manu, one who does, one who makes someone else do, motivator, one who motivates, one who feels, one who makes someone else feel, one who knows, and one who sees ‍— [T1]
    they are all phenomena that are designations, and thus, being used conventionally as just names and conventional terms,
    phenomena that are designations [T1]
    are not [inherently] produced [, do not inherently exist, do not inherently change / become defiled or purified] and do not [inherently] stop [T2] [U2T] [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].

  • Those names [T1]
    do not [inherently] exist inside,
    they do not [inherently] exist outside,
    and they cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] where both do not exist [neither inside nor outside] [T2] [U2T].
    -
    (i.e. Union of the Two Truths about those dharmas. Appearing but empty, empty but still appearing, merely labeled / imputed by the mind. Not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither.)
    (i.e. Not inside, not outside, not between, not neither: Like the apparent opposites of any duality / triad / quad / etc., name and form are not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither.)
    (i.e. Not inside, not outside, not between, not neither: Dharmas cannot be found inside (they are not purely-subjective / mind-only), not outside (they are not purely-objective / object-only), not between (they are not purely-relational / relation-only / action-only / process-only), not a combination of those, not none of those.)
    (i.e. These dharmas cannot be apprehended – as existing objectively, separately / independently of the subject / mind merely labeling / imputing them in dependence of its conditioning / karma.)

  • "Similarly, Subhūti, perfection of wisdom, bodhisattva, and the word bodhisattva [T1]
    are all phenomena that are designations,
    and that phenomenon that is a designation, except for being used conventionally as just a name and a conventional term [T1],
    is not [inherently] produced [, does not inherently exist, does not inherently change / become defiled or purified] and does not [inherently] stop [T2] [U2T] [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].

  • "Subhūti it is like this:
    the form this inner body has 117 [T1]
    is just a dharma designation,
    and that dharma designation, except for being used conventionally as just a name and a conventional term [T1],
    is not [inherently] produced [, does not inherently exist, does not inherently change / become defiled or purified] and does not [inherently] stop [T2] [U2T] [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].

  • That name [T1]
    does not exist [inherently] inside, it does not exist [inherently] outside,
    and it cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] where both do not exist [neither inside nor outside] [T2] [U2T].
    -
    (i.e. Union of the Two Truths about those dharmas. Appearing but empty, empty but still appearing, merely labeled / imputed by the mind. Not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither.)
    (i.e. Not inside, not outside, not between, not neither: Like the apparent opposites of any duality / triad / quad / etc., name and form are not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither.)
    (i.e. Not inside, not outside, not between, not neither: Dharmas cannot be found inside (they are not purely-subjective / mind-only), not outside (they are not purely-objective / object-only), not between (they are not purely-relational / relation-only / action-only / process-only), not a combination of those, not none of those.)
    (i.e. These dharmas cannot be apprehended – as existing objectively, separately / independently of the subject / mind merely labeling / imputing them in dependence of its conditioning / karma.)

  • "Similarly, feeling . . . perception . . . volitional factors . . . and consciousness [T1]
    is just a dharma designation,
    and except for being used conventionally as just a name and a conventional term [T1],
    is not [inherently] produced [, does not inherently exist, does not inherently change / become defiled or purified] and does not [inherently] stop [T2] [U2T] [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].

  • That name [T1]
    does not exist [inherently] inside, it does not exist [inherently] outside,
    and it cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] where both do not exist [neither inside nor outside] [T2] [U2T].

  • Similarly, Subhūti, perfection of wisdom, bodhisattva, and the word bodhisattva [T1]
    are all phenomena that are designations;
    that phenomenon that is a designation,
    except for being used conventionally as just a name and a conventional term [T1],
    is not [inherently] produced [, does not inherently exist, does not inherently change / become defiled or purified] and does not [inherently] stop [T2] [U2T] [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].

  • "Subhūti, this ‍— namely, eyes ‍— [T1]
    is just a dharma designation,
    and, except for being used conventionally as just a name and a conventional term, a dharma designation [T1]
    is not [inherently] produced [, does not inherently exist, does not inherently change / become defiled or purified] and does not [inherently] stop [T2] [U2T] [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].

  • That name ‍— eyes ‍— [T1]
    does not exist [inherently] inside, it does not exist [inherently] outside,
    and it cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] where both do not exist [neither inside nor outside] [T2] [U2T].

  • Similarly, Subhūti, ears . . . nose . . . tongue . . . body . . . and thinking mind [T1]
    is just a dharma designation,
    and that dharma designation, except for being used conventionally as just a name and a conventional term [T1],
    is not [inherently] produced [, does not inherently exist, does not inherently change / become defiled or purified] and does not [inherently] stop [T2] [U2T] [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].

  • That name ‍— thinking mind ‍— [T1]
    does not exist [inherently] inside, it does not exist [inherently] outside,
    and it cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] where both do not exist [neither inside nor outside] [T2] [U2T].

  • "Subhūti, a form [T1]
    is just a dharma designation,
    and, except for being used conventionally as just a name and a conventional term, a dharma designation [T1]
    is not [inherently] produced [, does not inherently exist, does not inherently change / become defiled or purified] and does not [inherently] stop [T2] [U2T].

  • That name also [T1]
    does not exist [inherently] inside, it does not exist [inherently] outside,
    and it cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] where both do not exist [neither inside nor outside] [T2] [U2T].

  • Similarly, Subhūti, a sound . . . a smell . . . a taste . . . a feeling . . . and a dharma [T1]
    is just a dharma designation,
    and that dharma designation, except for being used conventionally as just a name and a conventional term [T1],
    is not [inherently] produced [, does not inherently exist, does not inherently change / become defiled or purified] and does not [inherently] stop [T2] [U2T] [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].

  • That name dharma [T1]
    does not exist [inherently] inside, it does not exist [inherently] outside,
    and it cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] where both do not exist [neither inside nor outside] [T2] [U2T].

  • "Subhūti, eye constituent 118 [T1]
    is just a dharma designation,
    and, except for being used conventionally as just a name and a conventional term, a dharma designation [T1]
    is not [inherently] produced [, does not inherently exist, does not inherently change / become defiled or purified] and does not [inherently] stop [T2] [U2T] [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].

  • That name eye constituent [T1]
    does not exist [inherently] inside, it does not exist [inherently] outside,
    and it cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] where both do not exist [neither inside nor outside] [T2] [U2T].

  • "Subhūti, form constituent [T1]
    is just a dharma designation,
    and, except for being used conventionally as just a name and a conventional term, a dharma designation [T1]
    is not [inherently] produced [, does not inherently exist, does not inherently change / become defiled or purified] and does not [inherently] stop [T2] [U2T] [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].

  • That name form constituent [T1]
    does not exist [inherently] inside, does not exist [inherently] outside,
    and it cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] where both do not exist [neither inside nor outside] [T2] [U2T].

  • "Subhūti, eye consciousness constituent [T1]
    is just a dharma designation,
    and, except for being used conventionally as just a name and a conventional term, a dharma designation [T1]
    is not [inherently] produced [, does not inherently exist, does not inherently change / become defiled or purified] and does not [inherently] stop [T2] [U2T] [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].

  • That name eye consciousness constituent [T1]
    does not exist [inherently] inside, it does not exist [inherently] outside,
    and it cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] where both do not exist [neither inside nor outside] [T2] [U2T].

  • "Similarly, Subhūti, ear constituent . . . sound constituent . . . and ear consciousness constituent . . . ; nose constituent . . . smell constituent . . . and nose consciousness constituent . . . ; tongue constituent . . . taste constituent . . . and tongue consciousness constituent . . . ; body constituent . . . touch constituent . . . and body consciousness constituent . . . ; and thinking-mind constituent . . . dharma constituent . . . and thinking-mind consciousness constituent [T1]
    is just a dharma designation,
    and except for being used conventionally as just a name and a conventional term, a dharma designation [T1]
    is not [inherently] produced [, does not inherently exist, does not inherently change / become defiled or purified] and does not [inherently] stop [T2] [U2T] [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].

  • That name thinking-mind consciousness constituent [T1]
    does not exist [inherently] inside, it does not exist [inherently] outside,
    and it cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] where both do not exist [neither inside nor outside] [T2] [U2T].

  • "Similarly, Subhūti, perfection of wisdom, bodhisattva, and the word bodhisattva [T1]
    are thus phenomena that are designations;
    those phenomena that are designations,
    except for being used conventionally as just names and conventional terms [T1],
    are not [inherently] produced [, do not inherently exist, do not inherently change / become defiled or purified] and do not [inherently] stop [T2] [U2T].

  • Those terms ‍— perfection of wisdom, bodhisattva, and the word bodhisattva ‍— [T1]
    do not [inherently] exist inside, do not [inherently] exist outside,
    and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] where both do not exist [neither inside nor outside] [T2] [U2T].

  • "Subhūti, it is like this: inner body 119 [T1]
    is being used conventionally as a mere term.
    Skull, neck bone, shoulder blade, arm bone, spine, rib, hip bone, thigh bone, lower leg bone, and foot bone [T1]
    are conventions designated just by names.
    They are just dharma designations, and those dharma designations,
    except for being used conventionally as just names and conventional terms [T1],
    are not [inherently] produced [, do not inherently exist, do not inherently change / become defiled or purified] and do not [inherently] stop [T2] [U2T] [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].

  • Those names [T1]
    do not [inherently] exist inside, do not [inherently] exist outside,
    and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] where both do not exist [neither inside nor outside] [T2] [U2T].

  • "Similarly, Subhūti, perfection of wisdom, bodhisattva, and the word bodhisattva [T1]
    are phenomena that are designations,
    and those phenomena that are designations, except for being used conventionally as just names and conventional terms [T1],
    are not [inherently] produced [, do not inherently exist, do not inherently change / become defiled or purified] and do not [inherently] stop [T2] [U2T] [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].

  • Those terms [T1]
    do not [inherently] exist inside, do not [inherently] exist outside,
    and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] where both do not exist [neither inside nor outside] [T2] [U2T].

  • "Subhūti, it is like outer grass, 120 wood, branch, leaf, and petal. [T1]
    Those are all are just conventions designated by various words,
    and those words, except for being used conventionally as just names and conventional terms,
    are not [inherently] produced [, do not inherently exist, do not inherently change / become defiled or purified] and do not [inherently] stop [T2] [U2T] [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].

  • Those names [T1]
    do not [inherently] exist inside, do not [inherently] exist outside,
    and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] where both do not exist [neither inside nor outside] [T2] [U2T].

  • "Similarly, Subhūti, perfection of wisdom, bodhisattva, and the word bodhisattva [T1]
    are phenomena that are designations, and those phenomena that are designations, except for being used conventionally as just names and conventional terms [T1],
    are not [inherently] produced [, do not inherently exist, do not inherently change / become defiled or purified] and do not [inherently] stop [T2] [U2T] [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].

  • Those terms [T1]
    do not [inherently] exist inside, do not [inherently] exist outside, and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] where both do not exist [neither inside nor outside] [T2] [U2T].

  • "Subhūti, it is like 121 the names of past lord buddhas ‍— [T1]
    except for being used conventionally as just names and conventional terms [T1],
    they are not [inherently] produced [, do not inherently exist, do not inherently change / become defiled or purified] and do not [inherently] stop [T2] [U2T] [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].

  • Those names [T1]
    do not [inherently] exist inside, do not [inherently] exist outside,
    and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] where both do not exist [neither inside nor outside] [T2] [U2T].

  • "Subhūti, it is like a dream, an echo, an apparition, an illusion, a mirage, a reflection of the moon in water, and a tathāgata's magical creation. [T1]
    All those phenomena are just merely designated
    and, except for being used conventionally as just names and conventional terms [T1],
    are not [inherently] produced [, do not inherently exist, do not inherently change / become defiled or purified] and do not [inherently] stop [T2] [U2T] [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].

  • Those terms [T1]
    do not [inherently] exist inside, do not [inherently] exist outside, and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] where both do not exist [neither inside nor outside] [T2] [U2T].
    -
    (i.e. Union of the Two Truths about those dharmas. Appearing but empty, empty but still appearing, merely labeled / imputed by the mind. Not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither.)
    (i.e. Not inside, not outside, not between, not neither: Like the apparent opposites of any duality / triad / quad / etc., name and form are not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither.)
    (i.e. Not inside, not outside, not between, not neither: Dharmas cannot be found inside (they are not purely-subjective / mind-only), not outside (they are not purely-objective / object-only), not between (they are not purely-relational / relation-only / action-only / process-only), not a combination of those, not none of those.)
    (i.e. These dharmas cannot be apprehended – as existing objectively, separately / independently of the subject / mind merely labeling / imputing them in dependence of its conditioning / karma.)

  • "Similarly, Subhūti, all those phenomena ‍— namely, perfection of wisdom, bodhisattva, and the word bodhisattva ‍— [T1]
    are just merely designated,
    and those phenomena that are designations,
    except for being used conventionally as just names and conventional terms [T1],
    are not [inherently] produced [, do not inherently exist, do not inherently change / become defiled or purified] and do not [inherently] stop [T2] [U2T] [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively].
    -
    (i.e. All dharmas are mere names, mere designations: They are empty of inherent existence [T2], not really existent / caused / functional <==> because conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind in dependence of its conditioning / karma [U3S]. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T]. All dharmas are co-dependent / co-emergent / co-evolving with the subject / mind, but not from the mind-only. So there are no real three stages of becoming or three times – dependent origination or production / beginning / birth / coming / before / past, duration / middle / life / resting or changing / during / present, cessation / ending / death / going / stopping / after / future – for any dharma –; and no complete absence of the three stages of becoming or three times either.They exist conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively, but not ultimately. All dharmas – including the three stages of becoming; including the three spheres; including all apparent opposites; including the perfection of wisdom, bodhisattva, the name bodhisattva, awakening; including the two truths themselves – are not inherently existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-cause / non-functional, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable.)
    -
    (i.e. Union of the three stages of becoming or three times [U3T / Uopp-3T]: Like the apparent opposites of any duality / triad / quad / etc., the three stages of becoming or three times, are not really separate / independent / in opposition, but more like inseparable, interdependent, co-defined, co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing / co-transcended, no-dual in harmony [T1] <==> thus empty of inherent existence [T2] <==> merely labeled / imputed by the mind (mere names / designations) [U3S]. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T]. They are like illusions / reflections / mirages / dreams / magical tricks: There, but not there.' [U2T]. They are not really existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional / useless / meaningless, not both together, not neither; not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither – for whatever 'this' is. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable.)

  • Those terms [T1]
    do not [inherently] exist inside, do not [inherently] exist outside,
    and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] where both do not exist [neither inside nor outside] [T2] [U2T].
    -
    (i.e. Union of the Two Truths about those dharmas. Appearing but empty, empty but still appearing, merely labeled / imputed by the mind. Not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither.)
    (i.e. Not inside, not outside, not between, not neither: Like the apparent opposites of any duality / triad / quad / etc., name and form are not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither.)
    (i.e. Not inside, not outside, not between, not neither: Dharmas cannot be found inside (they are not purely-subjective / mind-only), not outside (they are not purely-objective / object-only), not between (they are not purely-relational / relation-only / action-only / process-only), not a combination of those, not none of those.)
    (i.e. These dharmas cannot be apprehended – as existing objectively, separately / independently of the subject / mind merely labeling / imputing them in dependence of its conditioning / karma.)


"Therefore, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings thus practicing the perfection of wisdom
should train

  • in names that are conventional terms making things known,

  • in advice that makes things known, and

  • in dharmas that make things known. 122
    (i.e. All useful adapted skillful means <==> empty of inherent existence.)

"Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings thus practicing the perfection of wisdom

  • do not view 'form is permanent.'
    They do not view 'form is impermanent.'
    They do not view 'form is happiness' or 'is suffering,'
    'has a self' or 'is selfless,'
    'is calm' or 'is not calm,'
    'is empty' or 'is not empty,'
    'has a sign,' or 'is signless,'
    'is wished for' or 'is wishless,'
    'is compounded' or 'is uncompounded,'
    'is arising' or 'is stopping,'
    'is isolated' or 'is not isolated,'
    'is wholesome' or 'is unwholesome,'
    'is with basic immorality' or 'is without basic immorality,'
    'is with outflows' or 'is without outflows,'
    'is afflicted' or 'is unafflicted,'
    'is ordinary' or 'is extraordinary,'
    'is defilement' or 'is purification,' or
    'form is saṃsāra.' Neither do they view 'form is nirvāṇa.'

  • (i.e. Engaging without engaging: Bodhisattvas do not associate, in absolute terms, any dharma (ex. the five aggregates) with any marks / signs / characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / relations / oppositions / activities – like their permanence or impermanence… –. Bodhisattvas engage without engaging with the permanence or impermanence … of any/all dharmas; because they do not even perceive any inherently existing dharma (ex. five aggregates) or any marks / signs / characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / relations / oppositions / activities like their permanence or impermanence… <==> because these are all empty of inherent existence <==> because these are all dependently co-arisen / interdependent, merely labeled / imputed by the mind <==> like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T].)

  • (i.e. All dharmas are like mere names, mere designations: They are empty of inherent existence [T2], not really existent / caused / functional <==> because conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind in dependence of its conditioning / karma [U3S]. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T]. All dharmas are co-dependent / co-emergent / co-evolving with the subject / mind, but not from the mind-only. So there are no real three stages of becoming or three times – dependent origination or production / beginning / birth / coming / before / past, duration / middle / life / resting or changing / during / present, cessation / ending / death / going / stopping / after / future – for any dharma –; and no complete absence of the three stages of becoming or three times either. They exist conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively, but not ultimately. All dharmas – including the three stages of becoming (origination, duration, cessation); including the three spheres (subject, relation / action, object); including all apparent opposites; including the perfection of wisdom, bodhisattva, the name bodhisattva, awakening; including the two truths themselves (dependent origination / appearances and emptiness of inherent existence) – are not inherently existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-cause / non-functional, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifty – for whatever 'this' is. Meaning their true nature & dynamic as it is is indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s).)


  • "Similarly, they do not view 'feeling . . . ,' 'perception . . . ,' 'volitional factors . . . ,'or 'consciousness is permanent.'
    They do not view 'it is impermanent.'
    Similarly they do not view it
    'is happiness' or 'is suffering,'
    'has a self' or 'is selfless,'
    'is calm' or 'is not calm,'
    'is empty' or 'is not empty,'
    'has a sign,' or 'is signless,'
    'is a wish for' or 'is wishless,'
    'is compounded' or 'is uncompounded,'
    'is arising' or 'is stopping,'
    'is isolated' or 'is not isolated,'
    'is wholesome' or 'is unwholesome,'
    'is with basic immorality' or 'is without basic immorality,'
    'is with outflows' or 'is without outflows,'
    'is afflicted' or 'is unafflicted,'
    'is ordinary' or 'is extraordinary,'
    'is defilement' or 'is purification,' or
    'is saṃsāra' or 'is nirvāṇa.'


  • "Similarly, they do not view 'the eye constituent is permanent' or 'is impermanent,'
    'the form constituent is permanent' or 'is impermanent,' or
    'the eye consciousness constituent is permanent' or 'is impermanent,'
    up to they do not view it 'is saṃsāra' or 'is nirvāṇa.'


  • "Similarly, they do not view 'the ear constituent . . . ,' the sound constituent . . . ,' or 'the ear consciousness constituent . . .'; 'the nose constituent . . . ,' 'the smell constituent . . . ,' or 'the nose consciousness constituent . . .'; 'the tongue constituent . . . ,' 'the taste constituent . . . ,' or 'the tongue consciousness constituent . . .'; 'the body constituent . . . ,' 'the touch constituent . . . ,' or 'the body consciousness constituent . . .'; or the thinking-mind constituent . . . ,' 'the dharma constituent . . . ,' or 'the thinking-mind consciousness constituent is permanent' or 'is impermanent,'
    up to they do not view it 'is saṃsāra' or 'is nirvāṇa.'


  • "They do not view that any 'pleasurable feeling' or 'suffering feeling' or 'neither pleasurable nor suffering feeling' that arises from the condition of contact between the eyes, form, and eye consciousness 'is permanent' or 'is impermanent,'
    up to they do not view that it 'is saṃsāra' or 'is nirvāṇa.'

  • Similarly, they do not view that any 'pleasurable feeling' or 'suffering feeling' or 'neither pleasurable nor suffering feeling' that arises from the condition of contact between the ear constituent, sound constituent, and ear consciousness constituent; the nose constituent, smell constituent, and nose consciousness constituent; the tongue constituent, taste constituent, and tongue consciousness constituent; the body constituent, touch constituent, and body consciousness constituent; or the thinking-mind constituent, dharma-constituent, and thinking-mind consciousness constituent 'is permanent' or 'is impermanent,'
    up to they do not view that it 'is saṃsāra' or 'is nirvāṇa.'

"And why?

  • Because bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom
    do not view [any dharmas; ex.] the perfection of wisdom, a bodhisattva, or the word bodhisattva
    in the compounded element or uncompounded element (in samsara or nirvana).

And why?

  • Because, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom
    do not mentally construct and do not conceptualize [T2] any of those dharmas [T1] [U2T].

  • Standing without mentally constructing [T2] any dharma [T1] [U2T], 123
    they cultivate the applications of mindfulness.

  • Practicing the perfection of wisdom,
    they do not view [T2] the perfection of wisdom or even the name perfection of wisdom [T1] [U2T];
    they do not view [T2] a bodhisattva or even the name bodhisattva [T1] [U2T].

  • Similarly, when they cultivate the right efforts, legs of miraculous power, faculties, powers, limbs of awakening, and path;
    the perfection of giving, perfection of morality, perfection of patience, perfection of perseverance, perfection of concentration, and perfection of wisdom; the powers and fearlessnesses, up to the distinct attributes of a buddha, and are practicing the perfection of wisdom,
    they do not, except for paying attention to the knowledge of all aspects, view [T2]
    the perfection of wisdom, the name perfection of wisdom, a bodhisattva, or the name bodhisattva [T1] [U2T].

  • Those bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom
    excellently realize the defining marks of the dharmas.
    And that defining mark of a dharma, of the dharmas, is not defiled and is not purified.

  • (i.e. Bodhisattvas do not view any dharmas as permanent or impermanent (the same with any other dualistic marks / signs / characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / relations / oppositions / activities); do not mentally construct and do not conceptualize any of those dharmas; stand without mentally constructing any dharma; do not, except for paying attention to the knowledge of all aspects, view the perfection of wisdom, the name perfection of wisdom, a bodhisattva, or the name bodhisattva; they do not settle on any dharma; eventually excellently spontaneously non-dualistically non-conceptually directly realize the inconceivable all-pervading timeless unborn unconditioned unchanging unceasing pristine true nature of Reality as it is here & now, the defining marks of the dharmas, the Union of the Two Truths about all dharmas [U2T / U3S / Uopp / U2T-2T].)

  • (i.e. Engaging without engaging: Bodhisattvas do not associate, in absolute terms, any dharma (ex. the five aggregates) with any marks / signs / characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / relations / oppositions / activities – like their permanence or impermanence… –. Bodhisattvas engage without engaging with the permanence or impermanence … of any/all dharmas; because they do not even perceive any inherently existing dharma (ex. five aggregates) or any marks / signs / characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / relations / oppositions / activities like their permanence or impermanence… <==> because these are all empty of inherent existence <==> because these are all dependently co-arisen / interdependent, merely labeled / imputed by the mind <==> like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T].)

  • (i.e. All dharmas are like mere names, mere designations: They are empty of inherent existence [T2], not really existent / caused / functional <==> because conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind in dependence of its conditioning / karma [U3S]. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T]. All dharmas are co-dependent / co-emergent / co-evolving with the subject / mind, but not from the mind-only. So there are no real three stages of becoming or three times – dependent origination or production / beginning / birth / coming / before / past, duration / middle / life / resting or changing / during / present, cessation / ending / death / going / stopping / after / future – for any dharma –; and no complete absence of the three stages of becoming or three times either. They exist conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively, but not ultimately. All dharmas – including the three stages of becoming (origination, duration, cessation); including the three spheres (subject, relation / action, object); including all apparent opposites; including the perfection of wisdom, bodhisattva, the name bodhisattva, awakening; including the two truths themselves (dependent origination / appearances and emptiness of inherent existence) – are not inherently existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-cause / non-functional, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifty – for whatever 'this' is. Meaning their true nature & dynamic as it is is indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s).)


"Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings thus practicing the perfection of wisdom
should understand that they are just names and conventional terms that are dharma designations.
Having understood that they are just names and conventional terms that are dharma designations,

  • they do not settle down on [T2] form [T1] [U2T].

  • They do not settle down on feeling, perception, volitional factors, or consciousness.

  • They do not settle down on the eyes.
    They do not settle down on a form, eye consciousness, and eye contact.

  • They do not settle down on any pleasurable feeling or suffering feeling or neither pleasurable nor suffering feeling that arises from the condition of eye contact.


  • "Similarly, they do not settle down on the ears . . . , the nose . . . , the tongue . . . , or the body . . . , or on the thinking-mind, dharma, thinking-mind consciousness, and thinking-mind contact.

  • They do not settle down on any pleasurable feeling or suffering feeling or neither pleasurable nor suffering feeling that arises from the condition of thinking-mind contact.

  • They do not settle down on the compounded element or the uncompounded element.

  • They do not settle down on the perfection of giving.

  • They do not settle down on the perfection of morality, patience, perseverance, concentration, or wisdom.

  • They do not settle down on any of their names or marks.


  • "They do not settle down on a bodhisattva's body.

  • They do not settle down on the flesh eye, divine eye, wisdom eye, dharma eye, or buddha eye.

  • Similarly, they do not settle down on the perfection of clairvoyance, inner emptiness, outer emptiness, or inner and outer emptiness,

  • up to they do not settle down on emptiness that is the non-existence of an intrinsic nature.

  • They do not settle down on suchness.

  • They do not settle down on the very limit of reality.

  • They do not settle down on the dharma-constituent.

  • They do not settle down on bringing beings to maturity, purifying a buddhafield, or skillful means.

And why?

  • Because something that might settle down, something on account of which it might settle down, and something on which it might settle down [T1] ––none of those dharmas exist [inherently] [T2] [U2T].

"Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings thus practicing the perfection of wisdom
who do not settle down on [T2] all dharmas grow in the perfection of giving [T1] [U2T].

  • They grow in the perfection of morality, patience, perseverance, concentration, and wisdom.

  • They enter into the secure state of a bodhisattva,
    step onto the irreversible level,
    complete the clairvoyances, and,
    having completed the clairvoyances,
    bring beings to maturity,
    and they respect, revere, honor, and worship the lord buddhas.

  • They roam from buddhafield to buddhafield in order to purify a buddhafield and behold the lord buddhas.
    Having beheld those lord buddhas, the wholesome roots on account of which they would respect, revere, honor, and worship those lord buddhas will come about in them.
    And because of those wholesome roots they will come to be right in the presence of the lord buddhas. 124

  • They will hear the Dharma from those lord buddhas,
    and the continuum of the Dharma they have heard will not be cut until reaching the site of awakening.

  • They will obtain the dhāraṇī gateways.

  • They will obtain the meditative stabilization gateways.


"Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings thus practicing the perfection of wisdom

should understand that it is a designation that is a name and conventional term for something.

"This 'bodhisattva' 125 ‍— what do you think, Subhūti,

  • is the bodhisattva form, (i.e. the same / identical?)

  • or is the bodhisattva other than form, (i.e. the different?)

  • or is the bodhisattva in form, or is form in the bodhisattva, (i.e. united / one?)

  • or is the bodhisattva without form?" (i.e. separate / two?)

"None of those, Lord," he replied.
(i.e. Union of the Two Truths about the three spheres of ownership: The subject / owner, relation / action / ownership, objects / possessions / 5-aggregates are empty of inherent existence [T2] <==> because co-dependent / interdependent [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S]. The subject / owner / person / bodhisattva / Buddha and the object / possession / five-aggregates are : not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth. Meaning their true nature & dynamic / relation is indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s).)


The Lord then asked, "What do you think, Subhūti,

  • is the bodhisattva feeling . . . perception . . . volitional factors . . . or consciousness,

  • or is the bodhisattva other than consciousness,

  • or is the bodhisattva in consciousness,

  • or is consciousness in the bodhisattva,

  • or is the bodhisattva without consciousness?"

"None of those, Lord," he replied.


The Lord then asked, "What do you think, Subhūti,

  • is the bodhisattva eyes,

  • or is the bodhisattva other than eyes,

  • or is the bodhisattva in eyes,

  • or are eyes in the bodhisattva,

  • or is the bodhisattva without eyes?"

"None of those, Lord," he replied.


The Lord then asked, "What do you think, Subhūti,

  • is the bodhisattva ears . . . a nose . . . a tongue . . . a body . . . or a thinking mind,

  • or is the bodhisattva other than a thinking mind,

  • or is the bodhisattva in a thinking mind,

  • or is a thinking mind in the bodhisattva,

  • or is the bodhisattva without a thinking mind?"

"None of those, Lord," he replied.


The Lord then asked, "What do you think, Subhūti,

  • is the bodhisattva a form,

  • or is the bodhisattva other than a form,

  • or is the bodhisattva in a form,

  • or is a form in the bodhisattva,

  • or is the bodhisattva without a form?"

"None of those, Lord," he replied.


The Lord then asked, "What do you think, Subhūti,

  • is the bodhisattva a sound . . . a smell . . . a taste . . . a feeling . . . or dharmas,

  • or is the bodhisattva other than dharmas,

  • or is the bodhisattva in dharmas,

  • or are dharmas in the bodhisattva,

  • or is the bodhisattva without dharmas?"

"None of those, Lord," he replied.


The Lord then asked, "What do you think, Subhūti,

  • is the bodhisattva eyes, form, and eye consciousness;

  • or is the bodhisattva other than eyes, form, and eye consciousness;

  • or is the bodhisattva in eyes, form, and eye consciousness;

  • or are eyes, form, and eye consciousness in the bodhisattva;

  • or is the bodhisattva without eyes, form, and eye consciousness?"

"None of those, Lord," he replied.


The Lord then asked, "What do you think, Subhūti,

  • is the bodhisattva ears, sound, and ear consciousness . . . nose, smell, and nose consciousness . . . tongue, taste, and tongue consciousness . . . body, touch, and body consciousness . . . or thinking mind, dharma, and thinking-mind consciousness?

  • Or is the bodhisattva other than them,

  • or is the bodhisattva in them,

  • or are they in the bodhisattva,

  • or is the bodhisattva without thinking mind, dharma, and thinking-mind consciousness?"

"None of those, Lord," he replied.


The Lord then asked, "What do you think, Subhūti,

  • is the bodhisattva the earth element,

  • or is the bodhisattva other than the earth element,

  • or is the bodhisattva in the earth element,

  • or is the earth element in the bodhisattva,

  • or is the bodhisattva without the earth element?"

"None of those, Lord," he replied.


The Lord then asked, "What do you think, Subhūti,

  • is the bodhisattva the water element . . . the fire element . . . the wind element . . . the space element . . . or the consciousness element,

  •  or is the bodhisattva other than the consciousness element,

  • or is the bodhisattva in the consciousness element,

  • or is the consciousness element in the bodhisattva,

  • or is the bodhisattva without the consciousness element?"

"None of those, Lord," he replied.


The Lord then asked, "What do you think, Subhūti,

  • is the bodhisattva ignorance,

  • or is the bodhisattva other than ignorance,

  • or is the bodhisattva in ignorance,

  • or is ignorance in the bodhisattva,

  • or is the bodhisattva without ignorance?"

"None of those, Lord," he replied.


The Lord then asked, "What do you think, Subhūti,

  • is the bodhisattva volitional factors . . . consciousness . . . name and form . . . the six sense fields . . . contact . . . feeling . . . craving . . . appropriation . . . existence . . . birth . . . or old age and death,

  • or is the bodhisattva other than old age and death,

  • or is the bodhisattva in old age and death,

  • or is old age and death in the bodhisattva,

  • or is the bodhisattva without old age and death?"

"None of those, Lord," he replied.


The Lord then asked, "What do you think, Subhūti,

  • is the bodhisattva the suchness of form,

  • or is the bodhisattva other than the suchness of form,

  • or is the bodhisattva in the suchness of form,

  • or is the suchness of form in the bodhisattva,

  • or is the bodhisattva without the suchness of form?"

"None of those, Lord," Subhūti replied.


The Lord then asked, "Similarly,

  • is the bodhisattva the suchness of feeling . . . the suchness of perception . . . the suchness of volitional factors . . . or the suchness of consciousness,

  • or is the bodhisattva other than the suchness of consciousness,

  • or is the bodhisattva in the suchness of consciousness,

  •  or is the suchness of consciousness in the bodhisattva,

  • or is the bodhisattva without the suchness of consciousness?"

"None of those, Lord," Subhūti replied.


The Lord then asked,

  • "Similarly, is the bodhisattva the suchness of the constituents, sense fields, or dependent origination, up to old age and death?

  • Or is the bodhisattva other than the suchness of old age and death,

  • or is the bodhisattva in the suchness of old age and death,

  • or is the suchness of old age and death in the bodhisattva,

  • or is the bodhisattva without the suchness of old age and death?"

"None of those, Lord," Subhūti replied.

The Lord then asked,
"Subhūti, for what reason do you say,

  • 'The bodhisattva is not form,

  • and the bodhisattva is not the aggregates, constituents, sense fields, or dependent origination, up to the suchness of old age and death?' "


"Lord," Subhūti replied,
"when a being [T1] absolutely does not exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T],
(i.e. These dharmas cannot be apprehended – as existing objectively, separately / independently of the subject / mind merely labeling / imputing them in dependence of its conditioning / karma.)

  • how could that form be a bodhisattva?

  • How could something other than form be a bodhisattva?

  • How could a bodhisattva be in form?

  • How could form be in a bodhisattva?

  • How could something without form be a bodhisattva?

  • How could feeling . . . perception . . . volitional factors . . . or consciousness be a bodhisattva?

  • How could something other than consciousness be a bodhisattva?

  • How could a bodhisattva be in consciousness?

  • How could consciousness be in a bodhisattva?

  • How could something without consciousness be a bodhisattva?"


Connect this in the same way with constituents, sense fields, and dependent origination.


"Lord, when a being [T1] absolutely does not exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T],

  • how could old age and death be a bodhisattva?

  • How could something other than old age and death be a bodhisattva?

  • How could a bodhisattva be in old age and death?

  • How could old age and death be in a bodhisattva?

  • How could something without old age and death be a bodhisattva?


"Lord, when a being [T1] absolutely does not exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T],

  • how could the suchness of form be apprehended in it?"


Connect this in the same way with the aggregates, constituents, sense fields, and dependent origination.


"Lord, when a being [T1] absolutely does not exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T],

  • how could the suchness of old age and death be apprehended in it? It is impossible."


"Excellent, excellent, Subhūti!" said the Lord.
"Bodhisattvas, Subhūti, should train in the perfection of wisdom like that,

without apprehending [T2] a being [in absolute terms] [T1] [U2T].
(i.e. These dharmas cannot be apprehended – as existing objectively, separately / independently of the subject / mind merely labeling / imputing them in dependence of its conditioning / karma.)


"And again, Subhūti, where you said,
'Lord, you say this, that is, "bodhisattva great being." 127

What phenomenon is this, the word bodhisattva great being, for?'

-
What do you think?

  • Is bodhisattva the word for form?

  • Or do you think bodhisattva is the word for feeling, perception, or volitional factors, or consciousness?"

"None of those, Lord," Subhūti replied.


The Lord then asked, "What do you think, Subhūti,

  • is bodhisattva the word for the permanence of form,

  • or is bodhisattva the word for the impermanence of form?

  • Similarly, is bodhisattva the word for the pleasurable state of form, the suffering state of form, the selfness of form, the selflessness of form, the calmness of form, or the non-calmness of form?


"Similarly,

  • is bodhisattva the word for the permanence of feeling . . . perception . . . volitional factors . . . or consciousness?

  • Or for the impermanence of consciousness, the pleasurable state of consciousness, the suffering state of consciousness, the selfness of consciousness, the selflessness of consciousness, the calmness of consciousness, or the non-calmness of consciousness?


"What do you think, Subhūti,

  • is bodhisattva the word for the emptiness of form, the non-emptiness of form, the sign of a form, the signlessness of form, the form that is wished for, or the wishlessness of form?

  • Is bodhisattva the word for the emptiness of feeling . . . perception . . . volitional factors . . . or consciousness, the non-emptiness of consciousness, the sign of consciousness, the signlessness of consciousness, the consciousness that is wished for, or the wishlessness of consciousness?"

"None of those, Lord." Subhūti replied.

The Lord said, "Subhūti, for what reason do you say

  • that bodhisattva is not the word for the permanence of form and is not the word for the impermanence of form?

  • Similarly, that bodhisattva is not the word for the pleasurable state or the suffering state of form, it is not the word for the self, it is not the word for selflessness, it is not the word for calmness, and it is not the word for non-calmness?

  • That it is not the word for emptiness, it is not the word for non-emptiness, it is not the word for the state of having a sign, it is not the word for signlessness, it is not the word for the state of being a wish for, and it is not the word for wishlessness?

  • Similarly, that bodhisattva 128 is not the word for the permanence and is not the word for the impermanence of feeling, perception, volitional factors, or consciousness?

  • And that neither is it the word for the pleasurable state, the suffering state, the self, selflessness, calmness, non-calmness, emptiness, non-emptiness, the state of having a sign, signlessness, the state of being a wish for, or wishlessness?"


"Lord," Subhūti replied,

  • "when a form [T1] absolutely does not exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T],
    how could bodhisattva be the word for form?
    (i.e. These dharmas cannot be apprehended – as existing objectively, separately / independently of the subject / mind merely labeling / imputing them in dependence of its conditioning / karma.)

  • Lord, when feeling . . . perception . . . volitional factors . . . and consciousness absolutely do not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T],
    how could bodhisattva be the word for consciousness?

  • "Lord, when permanence and impermanence absolutely do not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T],
    how could bodhisattva be the word for the permanence and the word for the impermanence of form?

  • "Similarly, when the pleasurable state . . . the suffering state . . . self . . . selflessness . . . calmness . . . non-calmness . . . emptiness . . . non-emptiness . . . the state of having a sign . . . signlessness . . . the state of being a wish for . . . and wishlessness absolutely does not exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T],
    how could bodhisattva be the word for the wishlessness of form?

  • "Similarly, Lord, when permanence and impermanence absolutely do not [inherently] exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T],
    how could bodhisattva be the word for the permanence and for the impermanence of consciousness?

  • "Similarly, when the pleasurable state . . . the suffering state . . . self . . . selflessness . . . calmness . . . non-calmness . . . emptiness . . . non-emptiness . . . the state of having a sign . . . signlessness . . . the state of being a wish for . . . and wishlessness absolutely does not exist and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T],
    how could bodhisattva be the word for the wishlessness of consciousness?"


"Excellent, excellent, Subhūti!" said the Lord.

"Bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom like that
should train in the perfection of wisdom

  • without apprehending [in absolute terms] [T2] a word for form [T1¸[U2T];
    (i.e. These dharmas cannot be apprehended – as existing objectively, separately / independently of the subject / mind merely labeling / imputing them in dependence of its conditioning / karma.)

  • without apprehending [in absolute terms] a word for feeling, perception, volitional factors, or consciousness;

  • without apprehending [in absolute terms] the words for form as permanent, impermanent, a pleasurable state, a suffering state, self, selflessness, calmness, non-calmness, emptiness, non-emptiness, the state of having a sign, signlessness, the state of being a wish for, or wishlessness; and

  • without apprehending [in absolute terms] the words for feeling, perception, volitional factors, or consciousness as permanent, impermanent, a pleasurable state, a suffering state, selfness, selflessness, calmness, non-calmness, emptiness, non-emptiness, the state of having a sign, signlessness, the state of having a wish, or wishlessness.


"Again, Subhūti, you say,

  • 'I do not see [T2] that ‍— namely, the phenomenon with the name bodhisattva [T1] [U2T].'
    (i.e. Bodhisattvas just perceive it/them conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively, as conventional / relative dharma(s), but not in absolute terms.)

  • The dharma does not see the dharma-constituent;

  • the dharma-constituent does not see the dharma.

  • Subhūti, the form constituent does not see the dharma-constituent,

  • and the dharma-constituent does not see the form constituent.

  • Similarly, Subhūti, the feeling constituent . . . the perception constituent . . . the volitional factors constituent . . . and the consciousness constituent do not see the dharma-constituent,

  • and the dharma-constituent does see the consciousness constituent.

  • The eye constituent does not see the dharma-constituent.

  • Similarly, the ear constituent . . . the nose constituent . . . the tongue constituent . . . the body constituent . . . and the thinking-mind constituent does not see the dharma constituent,

  • and the dharma-constituent does not see the thinking-mind constituent.

  • Subhūti, the compounded element does not see the uncompounded element,

  • and the uncompounded element does not see the compounded element.

And why?

  • You cannot make the uncompounded known without the compounded,
    and you cannot make the compounded known without the uncompounded.
    (i.e. U2T-2T: Like any other apparent opposites, the two truths are not really different / separate / dual / in opposition, but are more like inseparable, interdependent, co-defined, co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing / co-transcended, in harmony <==> thus both empty of inherent existence. One truth implies / proves / enables the other. They are not really existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth – for whatever 'this' is. Meaning the true nature & dynamic of the two truths is indescribable / inconceivable for our dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s); it has to be spontaneously non-dualistically non-conceptually directly perceived / realised / experienced in the here & now.)

  • Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom like that
    do not see [T2] any dharma at all [T1] [U2T],
    (i.e. Bodhisattvas just perceive it/them conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively, as conventional / relative dharma(s), but not in absolute terms.)

  • but they do not tremble, feel frightened, or become terrified at not seeing;

  • their minds are not cowed by any dharma, do not tense up, and do not experience regret.

"And why?

Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom

  • do not see [T2] form [T1] [U2T];
    (i.e. Bodhisattvas just perceive it/them conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively, as conventional / relative dharma(s), but not in absolute terms.)

  • do not see feeling, perception, volitional factors, or consciousness;

  • do not see eyes;

  • do not see ears, nose, tongue, body, or thinking mind;

  • do not see a form, a sound, a smell, a taste, a feeling, or a dharma;

  • do not see ignorance;

  • do not see volitional factors, consciousness, name and form, the six sense fields, contact, feeling, craving, appropriation, existence, birth, or old age and death;

  • do not see greed;

  • do not see hatred or confusion;

  • do not see a self;

  • do not see a being, a living being, one who lives, an individual, a person, one born of Manu, a child of Manu, one who does, one who feels, one who knows, or one who sees;

  • do not see the desire realm;

  • do not see the form realm or formless realm;

  • do not see śrāvakas and the śrāvaka dharmas;

  • do not see pratyekabuddhas and the pratyekabuddha dharmas;

  • do not see bodhisattvas and

  • do not see bodhisattva dharmas;

  • do not see buddhas and

  • do not see buddha dharmas;

  • do not see awakening,

  • up to do not see all dharmas.

And while not seeing [T2] all dharmas [T1] [U2T] they do not tremble, feel frightened, or become terrified."
(i.e. Bodhisattvas just perceive it/them conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively, as conventional / relative dharma(s), but not in absolute terms.)

"Lord, why do the minds of a bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom
not become cowed by all dharmas and not tense up?" asked Subhūti.


The Lord replied,
"It is because, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings

do not apprehend and do not view [T2] mind and mental factor dharmas [T1] [U2T].

Therefore, Subhūti, the minds of bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom
do not become cowed by all dharmas and do not tense up."
(i.e. These dharmas cannot be apprehended – as existing objectively, separately / independently of the subject / mind merely labeling / imputing them in dependence of its conditioning / karma.)


"Lord, how is it that the thinking minds of bodhisattva great beings do not tremble?" asked Subhūti.


The Lord replied,

"Because, Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings

do not apprehend and do not view mind and mental factor dharmas or thinking mind and thinking-mind dharmas.

Therefore the thinking minds of bodhisattva great beings do not tremble at all dharmas.

"Subhūti, bodhisattva great beings
should practice the perfection of wisdom like that [T1],
without apprehending [in absolute terms] all dharmas [T2] [U2T].

Subhūti, if bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom [T1]
do not apprehend [in absolute terms] a perfection of wisdom, that bodhisattva,
that word for bodhisattva, or even that bodhicitta [T2] [U2T],
-
then just that is the advice about the perfection of wisdom of bodhisattvas;
just that is the instruction."
-
(i.e. Acting / perceiving / practicing without acting / perceiving / practicing, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes.)
(i.e. These dharmas cannot be apprehended – as existing objectively, separately / independently of the subject / mind merely labeling / imputing them in dependence of its conditioning / karma.)

This was the sixth chapter, "Subhūti," of "The Perfection of Wisdom in Eighteen Thousand Lines."




Access to other chapters on the Blog:
(Work in progress. Empty files means they are not done yet.)

  1. Chapter 0 – Introduction to the Sutra

  2. Chapter 1 – Introduction / the Assembly

  3. Chapter 2 – Production of the Thought

  4. Chapter 3 – Designation

  5. Chapter 4 – Equal to the Unequal

  6. Chapter 5 – Tongue

  7. Chapter 6 – Subhūti

  8. Chapter 7 – Entry into flawlessness

  9. Chapter 8 – The Religious Mendicant Śreṇika

  10. Chapter 9 – Causal Signs

  11. Chapter 10 – Illusion-like

  12. Chapter 11 – Embarrassment

  13. Chapter 12 – Elimination of Views

  14. Chapter 13 – The Six Perfections

  15. Chapter 14 – Neither Bound nor Freed

  16. Chapter 15 – Meditative Stabilization

  17. Chapter 16 – Dhāraṇī Gateway

  18. Chapter 17 – Level Purification

  19. Chapter 18 – The Exposition of Going Forth in the Great Vehicle

  20. Chapter 19 – Surpassing

  21. Chapter 20 – Not Two

  22. Chapter 21 – Subhūti

  23. Chapter 22 – Śatakratu

  24. Chapter 23 – Hard to Understand

  25. Chapter 24 – Unlimited

  26. Chapter 25 – Second Śatakratu

  27. Chapter 26 – Getting Old

  28. Chapter 27 – Reliquary

  29. Chapter 28 – Declaration of the Good Qualities of the Thought of Awakening

  30. Chapter 29 – Different Tīrthika Religious Mendicants

  31. Chapter 30 – The Benefits of Taking Up and Adoration

  32. Chapter 31 – Physical Remains

  33. Chapter 32 – The Superiority of Merit

  34. Chapter 33 – Dedication

  35. Chapter 34 – Perfect Praise of the Quality of Accomplishment

  36. Chapter 35 – Hells

  37. Chapter 36 – Teaching The Purity of all Dharmas

  38. Chapter 37 – Nobody

  39. Chapter 38 – Cannot Be Apprehended

  40. Chapter 39 – The Northern Region

  41. Chapter 40 – The Work of Māra

  42. Chapter 41 – Not Complete Because of Māra

  43. Chapter 42 – Revealing the World

  44. Chapter 43 – Inconceivable

  45. Chapter 44 – Made Up

  46. Chapter 45 – A Boat

  47. Chapter 46 – Teaching the Intrinsic Nature of All Dharmas

  48. Chapter 47 – Taming Greed

  49. Chapter 48 – A Presentation of the Bodhisattvas' Training

  50. Chapter 49 – Irreversibility

  51. Chapter 50 – Teaching the Signs of Irreversibility

  52. Chapter 51 – Skillful means

  53. Chapter 52 – Completion of the Means

  54. Chapter 53 – The Prophecy about Gaṅgadevī

  55. Chapter 54 – Teaching the Cultivation of Skillful Means

  56. Chapter 55 – Teaching the Stopping of Thought Construction [in absolute terms]

  57. Chapter 56 – Equal Training

  58. Chapter 57 – Practice

  59. Chapter 58 – Exposition of the Absence of Thought Construction [in absolute terms]

  60. Chapter 59 – Non-attachment

  61. Chapter 60 – Entrusting

  62. Chapter 61 – Inexhaustible

  63. Chapter 62 – Leaping Above Absorption

  64. Chapter 63 – Many Inquiries about the Two Dharmas

  65. Chapter 64 – Perfectly Displayed

  66. Chapter 65 – Worshiping, Serving, and Attending on Spiritual Friends as Skillful Means

  67. Chapter 66 – A Demonstration of Skillful Means

  68. Chapter 67 – Morality

  69. Chapter 68 – Growing and Flourishing

  70. Chapter 69 – An Explanation of Meditation on The Path

  71. Chapter 70 – An Explanation of Serial Action, Training, and Practice

  72. Chapter 71 – The True Nature of Dharmas That Cannot Be Apprehended

  73. Chapter 72 – Teaching the Absence of Marks

  74. Chapter 73 – Exposition of the Major Marks and Minor Signs and the Completion of Letters

  75. Chapter 74 – Exposition of the Sameness of Dharmas

  76. Chapter 75 – Exposition of Non-complication –

  77. Chapter 76 – The Armor for Bringing Beings to Maturity

  78. Chapter 77 – Teaching the Purification of a Buddhafield

  79. Chapter 78 – Teaching the Skillful Means for the Purification of a Buddhafield

  80. Chapter 79 – Teaching the Non Existence of an Intrinsic Nature

  81. Chapter 80 – Teaching that there is No Defilement or Purification

  82. Chapter 81 – Yogic Practice of the Ultimate

  83. Chapter 82 – The Unchanging True Nature of Dharmas

  84. Chapter 83 – Categorization of a Bodhisattva's Training

  85. Chapter 84 – Collection

  86. Chapter 85 – Sadāprarudita

  87. Chapter 86 – Dharmodgata

  88. Chapter 87 – Entrusting

  89. Résumés in bullet points of all chapters.




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