Tuesday, June 21, 2022

Prajnaparamita-18K - Chapter 00-2 - Part II - Summary of chapters 1-41 - 300-2

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Analysis of "The Transcendent Perfection of Wisdom
in Eighteen Thousand Lines (18k)" - 300.2
Daśa­sāhasrikā­prajñā­pāramitā
(Teaching the signs of irreversibility)

– Chapter 00.2 - Part II - Summary of chapters 1-41 –
[Not complete – Work in Progress - May take many more weeks]

Source: https://read.84000.co/translation/toh10.html

More Analysis of Mahayana Sutras : https://www.gilehtblog.com/2021/03/table-of-content.html


For the Summary and the Introduction 00 – See Part I
For the résumés of chapters 01-42 – See Part II
For the résumés of chapters 41-87 – See Part III
To access all chapters on the Blog – See at the end of this page.

Table of Content of Chapter 00 - Part II - Summary of the chapters

SUMMARY – See PART I

00. INTRODUCTION

  • About the Perfection of Wisdom Manuscripts

  • The Title: Eighteen Thousand

  • The Structure of the Eighteen Thousand

    • I. Introduction

    • II. Brief Exegesis

    • III. Intermediate Exegesis

    • IV. Detailed Exegesis

    • V. Summaries

  • What Does the Eighteen Thousand Say?

  • SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTERS
    (Note: To access all chapters on the Blog (one chapter per page), see at the links at end of this page.
    Work in progress. Blank pages means the chapters are not ready yet. Thanks for your patience.)


  • Chapter 42 – Revealing the World – See PART III

  • Chapter 43 – Inconceivable

  • Chapter 44 – Made Up

  • Chapter 45 – A Boat

  • Chapter 46 – Teaching the Intrinsic Nature of All Dharmas

  • Chapter 47 – Taming Greed

  • Chapter 48 – A Presentation of the Bodhisattvas' Training

  • Chapters 49-50 - Irreversibility; Teaching the Signs of Irreversibility

  • Chapter 51 – Skillful means

  • Chapter 52 – Completion of the Means

  • Chapter 53 – The Prophecy about Gaṅgadevī

  • Chapter 54 – Teaching the Cultivation of Skillful Means

  • Chapter 55 – Teaching the Stopping of Thought Construction [in absolute terms]

  • Chapter 56 – Equal Training

  • Chapter 57 – Practice

  • Chapter 58 – Exposition of the Absence of Thought Construction [in absolute terms]

  • Chapter 59 – Non-attachment

  • Chapter 60 – Entrusting

  • Chapters 61-62 – Inexhaustible; Leaping Above Absorption

  • Chapter 63 – Many Inquiries about the Two Dharmas

  • Chapters 64-72 – Perfectly Displayed; Worshiping, Serving; and Attending on Spiritual Friends as Skillful Means; A Demonstration of Skillful Means; Morality; Growing and Flourishing; An Explanation of Meditation on The Path; An Explanation of Serial Action, Training, and Practice; The True Nature of Dharmas That Cannot Be Apprehended; Teaching the Absence of Marks

  • Chapter 73 – Exposition of the Major Marks and Minor Signs and the Completion of Letters

  • Chapter 74 – Exposition of the Sameness of Dharmas

  • Chapter 75 –Exposition of Non-complication –

  • Chapter 76 – The Armor for Bringing Beings to Maturity

  • Chapter 77 – Teaching the Purification of a Buddhafield

  • Chapter 78 – Teaching the Skillful Means for the Purification of a Buddhafield

  • Chapter 79 – Teaching the Non Existence of an Intrinsic Nature

  • Chapter 80 – Teaching that there is No Defilement or Purification

  • Chapter 81 – Yogic Practice of the Ultimate

  • Chapter 82 – The Unchanging True Nature of Dharmas

  • Chapter 83 – Categorization of a Bodhisattva's Training

  • Chapter 84 – Collection / Summary in verses

  • Chapters 85-86 – Sadāprarudita; Dharmodgata

  • Chapter 87 – Entrusting

01-87. All eighty-seven chapters of this Sutra (one per page)
          (see the links at the bottom of this present page)




SUMMARY OF THE CHAPTERS (work in progress – may take many weeks)

Chapter 1 – Introduction

(i.e. A large gathering of fearless Bodhisattvas Great Beings, and some miracle-like performances to demonstrate the perfection of Wisdom.)

i.­30

The first chapter sets the scene. It is in two parts:

  • an introduction shared with many other sūtras and

  • an introduction unique to the Perfection of Wisdom.


The first part, beginning with "Thus did I hear at one time," describes the qualities of the arhat monks and most important nuns and ends with a description of the bodhisattvas, including many of their names.


i.­31

The second part describes the Buddha, always called "Lord" (bhagavat), or occasionally Tathāgata, setting up and taking his seat and then demonstrating the three miraculous powers.

  1. The miraculous power of meditative stabilization causes light to radiate from the Buddha's major marks and minor signs and from the different parts and pores of his body, causes the radiation of natural light, and causes light to radiate from the tongue faculty in particular.

  2. The miraculous, wonder-working power magically creates a great tower out of flowers and, having done so, suspends it in midair and so on.

  3. And finally, the miraculous dharma-illuminating power illuminates buddhas dwelling in different worlds, prompting their bodhisattva retinues to make the journey to attend the discourse to follow.

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Chapter 2 – Production of the Thought – The Brief Exegesis / the single thought that resumes all. Bodhisattvas should train in the Perfection of Wisdom, combining it to all practices / activities of the body, speech and mind. Everything a Bodhisattva may want comes from practicing the Perfection of Wisdom.

(i.e. The single, all-encompassing statement / the 'single thought': "Bodhisattva great beings who want to fully awaken to all dharmas in all forms should make an effort at the perfection of wisdom [U2T]." ( 2.1, 4.4)
"Even that thought [T1] is no thought [T2], because the basic nature of thought is clear light [U2T]", because the true nature & dynamic of all dharmas is indescribable / inconceivable / unthinkable in absolute terms – not thought can do the job –. (7.21)

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Bodhisattvas should train in the Perfection of Wisdom [U2T]: always combining virtuous methods / practices [T1] – ex. bodhicitta, the four immeasurable attitudes, the six paramitas, etc. – with more and more wisdom [T2] [U2T]. Thus acting more and more in accord with the true nature of Reality as it is, with the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths [U2T] free from all extremes & middle.
This applies to all activities of the body, speech and mind of a Bodhisattva.
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Ex. Although a Bodhisattva knows that all sentient beings are empty of inherent existence [T2], not really existent <==> he will still make the vow to attain Buddhahood for the sake of all sentient beings, will still generate the bodhicitta motivation, practice the six perfections … because they are not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-efficient. He knows that those beings are indescribable / inconceivable: not inherently existent, not completely non-existent, not both together, not neither. The same for his actions. So he works without working for their benefits: knowing that the three spheres involved – ex. subject / bodhisattva, relation / action / guiding, object / sentient beings; or subject / cause / teachings / practices, relation / action / causality / production, object / effect / merit / enlightenment – all all empty of inherent existence [T2], not really existent / caused / functional <==> but still conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S], not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional / useless / meaningless.
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Ex. Giving without giving, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes – about the three spheres of giving – subject / giver, relation / action / giving, objects / gift / recipient; or about cause, causality, effect –. That is, not grasping at any of those three spheres as if existing independently / separately / absolutely / inherently, and as having inherently existing characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / features / relations / oppositions / processes / activities / changes.
The same for all other virtuous practices – ex. the other five perfections, about generating Bodhicitta –;
the same for all activities of the body, speech and mind.
Acting / practicing / giving without acting / practicing / giving,
but without any grasping / attachment / apprehension / obsession / fixation / reification / reference points / absolutes;
without falling into any extreme or middle;
without any duality / di-vision between subject & object & action, cause & causality & effect, right & wrong, movement & rest, samsara & nirvana;
more and more in accord with the Middle Way: not accepting / affirming / seeking / adding / improving / doing in absolute terms, not rejecting / negating / abandoning / eliminating / subtracting / not-doing anything in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively;
thus more and more in accord with the transcendent perfection of wisdom;
more and more in accord with the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is;
more and more in accord with the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths about all dharmas [U2T / U2T-3S / U2T-opp / U2T-2T]
beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all defining limitations, beyond all conditioning / karma.
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The same for all other Buddhist virtuous practices; the same for all activities of the body, speech and mind.
Acting / practicing without acting / practicing, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes.
Always combining all activities of the body, speech and mind with more and more Perfection of Wisdom, with more and more awareness of the Union of the Two Truths [U2T] about all dharmas involved – ex. about the three spheres (subject, relation / action, object) [U2T-3S], about all apparent opposites / dualities [U2T-opp], even about the two truths themselves [U2T-2T] –.
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Benefits: Obtaining the three types of knowledge (all-knowledge, knowledge of all path aspects, knowledge of all aspects); transcending the two types of obscurations (emotional obscurations – caused by grasping at an ego –, and cognitive obscurations to omniscience – caused by grasping at the three spheres –); surpassing the dualistic teachings, practices and goals of the śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas; etc.
Everything a Bodhisattva may want comes from practicing the Perfection of Wisdom [U2T].
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Conclusion: Bodhisattvas use without using ordinary dharmas, perform without performing ordinary activities, practice without practicing ordinary practices, … but without any grasping / attachment / apprehension / obsession / fixation / reification / reference points / absolutes … thus are not contaminated by them. Why? Because Bodhisattvas are fully aware of the true nature & dynamic as it is [U2T] of all dharmas involved, they are not fooled by illusory appearances, not grasping them, not attached to them, not slaves to them, not creating more karma because of them, not suffering because of them. And that is nirvana here & now. That is the benefits of practicing the perfection of Wisdom, or directly realising the Union of the Two Truths about all dharmas.)

i.­32

This chapter begins the discourse proper with the single, all-encompassing statement:

"Here, Śāriputra, (i.e. the single, all-encompassing statement – the 'single thought'.)
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bodhisattva great beings who want to fully awaken to all dharmas in all forms
should make an effort at the perfection of wisdom [U2T]."
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(i.e. Pure perception & pure actions: Bodhisattvas should always combined conventional relative virtuous activities (all actions of the body, speech & mind) / perceptions / feelings / concepts / symbols / images / ideas / thoughts / views / methods / practices / goals / tools / adapted skillful means <==> with more and more wisdom / genuine-emptiness [U2T]; thus acting more and more in accord with the inconceivable true & dynamic nature of Reality as it is, with the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths about all dharmas [U2T / U2T-3S / U2T-opp / U2T-2T].
Why?
Because, in Reality as it is, everything is like an inconceivable Union of being empty of inherent existence [T2], not really existent / caused / functional <==> because of being conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind in dependence of its conditioning / karma, not completely non-existent / non-caused / on-functional. And vice versa; one aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T]. Everything is like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.'. Not really existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth – for whatever 'this' is. Meaning that everything is indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s); it has to be personally spontaneously non-dualistically non-conceptually non-conditionally perceived / realised / experience in the here & now. Meaning there is no independent / universal / absolute / inherently existing basis for any discrimination / differentiation / ranking / judgment / acceptation / rejection in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively if it helps someone to get closer to the inconceivable liberating Truth [U2T]. In that sense everything is primordially equal, pure, perfect, divine, complete, free, enlightened, the inseparable three pure kayas, the true Buddha.)

The key term here is "want" (kāma). The bodhisattva great beings "want to fully awaken" [for the benefits of all sentient beings still suffering in samsara].


This is the great central statement of the compassion unique to the Perfection of Wisdom and other Mahāyāna scriptures [Bodhicitta], described as wanting (kāma) everything of use to others both in the interim and ultimately ‍— the daily necessities and the necessities for different levels of liberation for all beings according to their capacities ‍— making "beings who are blind . . . see shapes with their eyes," and so forth, and the miraculous powers to "blow out with one puff of breath the fire in the great billionfold world system when the eon is burning up," and so forth.


i.­33

The chapter ends with a discussion of celibacy. The compassionate sons and daughters of good families want to be born into a bodhisattva's family. This leads the gods to think that a perfect practitioner remains celibate, like the Buddha, until awakening, which prompts Śāriputra to ask if a practitioner has to have a family or has to be celibate.


The Lord replies that there are many types of practitioners, but those who understand the deep Perfection of Wisdom like a magician, who uses magic to make a show of dallying with, enjoying, and acting gratified by the five sorts of sense objects in order to bring beings to maturity, is not contaminated by them.
(i.e. Bodhisattvas are not conditioned by these dharmas, not slave to them, and are not creating new karma because of them - because they know their true nature & dynamic as it is here & now [U2T].)


The chapter ends with the statement,

"Alternatively, bodhisattva great beings speak disparagingly of sense objects:
'Sense objects are ablaze, disgusting, murderous, and against you [if you ignore their true nature & dynamic].'
So, Śāriputra, bodhisattva great beings take to these sorts of sense objects in order to bring beings to maturity."
(i.e. In a sense, everything – wholesome or unwholesome – can be used to progress toward enlightenment because it is about realising the true nature & dynamic of everything, of all dharmas. It is not about accepting this while rejecting that, as if things were really existing with real characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / signs like good or evil. Wholesome and unwholesome are ideas fabricated by the mind; in Reality as it is here & now, everything is beyond dualities like that. So we may as well directly perceive everything as primordially equal, pure, perfect, divine, complete, free, enlightened, the inseparable three kayas, the true Buddha.)

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Chapter 3, chapter 4, chapter 5 – Designation, Equal to the Unequal, Tongue

(i.e. Chapter 3: How to practice / engage in the perfection of wisdom? Practicing without practicing the six perfections without any attachment / fixation / absolutes, while realising the true nature & dynamic of all dharmas involved.
Bodhisattvas should practice [T1] without perceiving anything as inherently existent / caused / functional [T2] [U2T] (refuting naïve realism), or as completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional (refuting nihilism / nothingness / mere-emptiness about entities), and having inherently existing marks / signs / characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / relations / oppositions / activities, or not having any in absolute terms (refuting nihilism / nothingness / mere-emptiness about signs / marks). They exist conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively, but not in absolute terms, not objectively, not independently of the subject / mind.
Ex. Perceiving [T1] without perceiving [T2] [U2T], without any attachment / fixation / absolutes (refuting naïve realism)…
Because there are no inherently existing dharmas – ex. three spheres, or apparent opposites, or two truths – to inherently perceive; just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively.
All dharmas – ex. subjects / bodhisattvas, relation / action / practice / perfection of wisdom, object; or cause / teachings / practices, causality / production, effect / awakening – are not inherently existent, not completely non-existent, not both existent and non-existent together, not neither existent nor non-existent, and there is no fifth.
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Realising the Union of the Two Truths about all dharmas [U2T]: All dharmas are empty of inherent existence [T2], not really existent / caused / functional <==> because of being conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent / co-dependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S], not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional / useless / meaningless. And vice versa, one aspect / truth implies the other (<==>) [U2T]. These two aspects / truths – dependent origination and emptiness of inherent existence – are not really separate and in opposition, but more like inseparable, interdependent, co-defined, co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing / co-transcended / in harmony <==> thus themselves both empty of inherent existence [U2T-2T]. They are not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither.
Note: Something could be co-dependent with its parts and wholes (when applicable), with its causes & conditions and effects (when applicable), with its conceptual opposite(s) (always), and especially co-dependent with the subject / mind merely labeling / imputing it in dependence of its conditioning / karma (always).
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All dharmas are like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, magical tricks: 'There, but not there': not really existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s).
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Since everything is empty of inherent existence <==> because interdependent, then there are no real three stages of becoming / times (refuting naïve realism): i. dependent origination or production / beginning / birth / coming / before / past, ii. duration / middle / life / abiding or changing / during / present, iii. cessation / ending / death / going / after / future, and no complete absence of them either (refuting nihilism / nothingness / mere-emptiness about the three stages / times). They exist conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively, but not in absolute terms, not objectively, not independently of the subject / mind.
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Nothing really exists and changes / increasing / decreasing / being defiled or purified in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively.
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These dharmas cannot be seen
These dharmas cannot be settle down on as real <==> because they cannot be seen as real phenomena (inherently existing, objectively, independently of the mind) <==> because they are all empty of inherent existence [T2] <==> because they are co-dependent / interdependent [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind (just a name / designation) in dependence of its conditioning / karma [U3S].
These dharmas cannot be apprehended – as existing objectively, separately / independently of the subject / mind merely labeling / imputing them in dependence of its conditioning / karma.
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The wisdom of the Bodhisattvas greatly surpass the wisdom of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, because it is less absolutist / dualistic;
because they act / practice without acting / practicing (ex. the six perfections),
without any grasping / attachment / apprehension / obsession / fixation / reification / reference points / absolutes;
without falling into any extreme or middle;
without any duality / di-vision between subject & object & action, cause & causality & effect, right & wrong, movement & rest, samsara & nirvana;
more and more in accord with the Middle Way: not accepting / affirming / seeking / adding / improving / doing anything in absolute terms, not rejecting / negating / abandoning / eliminating / subtracting / not-doing anything in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively;
thus more and more in accord with the transcendent perfection of wisdom [U2T];
more and more in accord with the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is;
more and more in accord with the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths about all dharmas [U2T / U2T-3S / U2T-opp / U2T-2T]
beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all defining limitations, beyond all conditioning / karma.
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Bodhisattvas ' offerings are always pure – because they are always offering the Buddha-dharma without any attachment, fixation, absolutes.
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How to be engaged with the perfection of wisdom?
When Bodhisattvas are engaged with Genuine-emptiness free from all extremes & middle about any/all dharma, in other words engaged with the Union of the Two Truths [U2T / U2T-3S / U2T-opp / U2T-2T] free from all extremes & middle about any/all dharma, then they are engaged without being engaged with the perfection of wisdom [U2T] about any/all dharmas, without any attachment / fixation / absolutesbecause all dharmas are empty of inherent existence [T2] <==> because interdependent [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind, like illusions / reflections / mirages / dreams / magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T]. So Bodhisattvas do not see the perfection of wisdom as either engaged or not-engaged with any/all dharmas – meaning they are not obsessed by it, slaves to it.
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Engaging without engaging: Bodhisattvas engage without engaging with any/all dharmas; because they do not even perceive any inherently existing dharma (ex. five aggregates) or any marks / signs / characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / relations / oppositions / activities <==> because these are all empty of inherent existence <==> because these are all dependently co-arisen / interdependent, merely labeled / imputed by the mind <==> like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T].
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Engaging without engaging: Bodhisattvas do not associate, in absolute terms, any dharma (ex. the five aggregates) with any marks / signs / characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / relations / oppositions / activities – like their emptiness, signlessness, wishlessness, or their three stages of becoming / three times –. Bodhisattvas engage without engaging with the emptiness / signlessness / wishlessnesss, or their three stages of becoming / three times of any/all dharmas; because they do not even perceive any inherently existing dharma (ex. five aggregates) or any marks / signs / characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / relations / oppositions / activities like their emptiness / signlessness / wishlessnesss, or their three stages of becoming / three times <==> because these are all empty of inherent existence <==> because these are all dependently co-arisen / interdependent, merely labeled / imputed by the mind <==> like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T].
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About unwholesome actions of the body, speech and mind. That undertaking of a physical, verbal, or mental action, in absolute terms, is a basic immorality of a bodhisattva great being; but it is OK if done with awareness of the true nature & dynamic of the three spheres involved. Because a bodhisattva great being's practice of the perfection of wisdom [U2T] does not apprehend an inherently existing body, does not apprehend an inherently existing body, does not apprehend an inherently existing voice / speech, and does not apprehend an inherently existing thinking mind – just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively. A Bodhisattva has purified his five aggregates – his body, speech and mind – by realising their true nature & dynamic as it is here & now [U2T]; so he is not going to produce unwholesome actions based on the three poisons.
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What is the bodhisattva path? Using virtuous adapted skillful means, like practicing without practicing the six perfection, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes. Combining virtuous methods with more and more wisdom. Not apprehending any dharma in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively. Meaning, the path consists of acting more and more in accord with the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now, acting more and more in accord with the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths free from all extremes & middle. Never falsely projecting any dharma.

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The knowledge of a knower of all aspects: A knower of all aspects is continuously fully aware of the true nature & dynamic of all dharmas while perceiving / using without perceiving / using them, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes; continuously aware of the Union of the Two Truths about all dharmas [U2T / U2T-3S / U2T-opp / U2T-2T]. It is that non-dualistic non-conceptual direct knowledge that purifies all dharmas, that transmutes samsara into nirvana here & now.
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The five eyes: Bodhisattvas practicing without practicing the perfection of wisdom will acquire without acquiring the five eyes: the flesh eye, divine eye, wisdom eye, dharma eye, and buddha eye. Therefore, a bodhisattva great beings who want to cleanse and want to acquire without acquiring the five eyes should make endeavors in the six perfections. Because, the perfection of wisdom [U2T] produces all the perfections and those five eyes, because bodhisattva great beings training in the five eyes will fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening. The Buddha eye is to directly perceive the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of all dharmas [U2T] while using them as adapted skillful means; thus acting in perfect accord with it.
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The six clairvoyances: Knowing without knowing: Bodhisattvas accomplish without accomplishing knowledge of the six clairvoyances that realizes: the performance of miraculous power (1), divine hearing (2), the thought activity of all beings (3), previous states of existence (4), the divine eye (5), the extinction of outflows (6) … without any attachment / fixation / absolutes. And those purified clairvoyances [purified with direct wisdom of U2T] cause them to gain the knowledge of all aspects (i.e. omniscience).
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In conclusion, Bodhisattvas, standing without standing in the six perfections – without any attachment / fixation / absolutes –, gradually cleanse the path to the knowledge of all aspects (omniscience) thanks to their understanding and direct realisation of the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now, the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths [U2T] free from all extremes & middle. Mere-dependent-origination or mere-emptiness would not be sufficient.
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Chapter 4: This perfection of wisdom is the perfection equal to the unequaled. It is practicing without practicing the six perfections for the benefits of all sentient beings [T1] – even if everything is empty of inherent existence –, connecting others with those six paramitas, always acting without acting, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes [T2] [U2T]; more and more in accord with the inconceivable true nature of Reality as it is here & now [U2T]. For more see the Résumé of Chapter 2.
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The single, all-encompassing statement / the 'single thought': "Bodhisattva great beings who want to fully awaken to all dharmas in all forms should make an effort at the perfection of wisdom [U2T]." ( 2.1, 4.4)
"Even that thought [T1] is no thought [T2], because the basic nature of thought is clear light [U2T]", because the true nature & dynamic of all dharmas is indescribable / inconceivable / unthinkable in absolute terms – not thought can do the job –. (7.21)

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Chapter 5: A miracle-like demonstration of the perfection of wisdom for the bodhisattva great beings [T1]; a demonstration without any attachment / fixation / absolutes [T2] [U2T]. 

A teaching about "the forbearance for all dharmas that are not inherently produced (causality), do not inherently occasion anything (functionality), and do not inherently appear (existence) in absolute terms [T2], just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively [T1][U2T].")

i.­34

A practitioner exists conventionally [T1] but not ultimately [T2] [U2T].


All the possible physical or mental marks through which one might "see" or apprehend a practitioner, all the names of those things, even all the ultimate or conventional realities of a practitioner, their deficiencies and perfections [T1],
are ultimately unfindable [T2] [U2T],
and so too with awakening and the practice [with all dharmas pure or impure] [U2T].
(i.e. Union of the Two truths about all dharmas – pure or impure – [U2T-all]: All dharmas are empty of inherent existence [T2], not really existent / caused / functional <==> because conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S], not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional, One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T]. All dharmas are like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T]: not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned mind(s). Bodhisattvas should act accordingly.)


Thus, one pursues the practice of the Perfection of Wisdom
by avoiding the extremes of naïve realism (inherent existence) and nihilism (complete non-existence)
(i.e. Bodhisattvas should adopt the Middle Way free from all extremes & middle in everything. Extremes like existence / realism, non-existence / nihilism, both together / dualism, neither / monism / oneness. Nothing to accept, nothing to reject in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively – as possible temporary adapted skillful means [T1]; thus more and more in accord with the Union of the inconceivable Two Truths [U2T].)
through understanding the imaginary, other-powered, and thoroughly established natures of all dharmas.
(i.e. The three natures = Union of the Two Truths.)
Such an insight surpasses that of the practitioners of fundamental Buddhism exemplified by Śāriputra and Maudgalyāyana.


i.­35

One practices the Perfection of Wisdom when
"engaged with the emptiness [T2] of form [T1] [U2T]," and so on.
This teaches the thoroughly established nature.


[T2] There is no connection [true relation] between the practice and the defilement dharmas that define the suffering state, no engagement with a practice that disconnects the practitioner from those defilement dharmas, and no connection between the purification dharmas and the Perfection of Wisdom.
(i.e. Union of the three spheres or Union of the Two Truths about the three spheres [U3S / U2T-3S]: There are no universal / absolute / inherently existing three spheres – i. subjects / beings, ii. relation/opposition / action / causality / production / purification, iii. objects – physical, conceptual, mental; individual, collective, cosmic; pure, impure –, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively. These three spheres – subject / relation / action, object – are not inherently existent, not completely non-existent, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth. They are empty of inherent existence [T2] <==> because inseparable, interdependent, co-defined, co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving [T1], co-ceasing / co-transcended, merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S]. The co-evolution of the three spheres is a key concept for the understanding of the true nature & dynamic of the karmic cycle. Bodhisattvas should act accordingly.)


[T1] Still, practitioners conventionally exist [conventionally / relatively] [T1], so the members of the community of irreversible bodhisattvas practicing the Perfection of Wisdom [U2T] are enumerated based on where they were before coming to this world, and so on, and where they will be born and what they will demonstrate prior to their complete awakening [T1].


i.­36

[U2T] The retinue praises the Lord's discourse on the Perfection of Wisdom as "the calm and gentle perfection . . . the space-like perfection, it is the perfection of the emptiness of particular defining marks [T2], it is the perfection endowed with all good qualities [T1] [U2T]."


The Lord extends his tongue, illuminating the Perfection of Wisdom in all worlds for all beings. They all come and worship the Lord and generate the altruistic aspiration to become buddhas to teach this same doctrine for the benefit of beings. The Lord then smiles because he sees with clairvoyance that the compassion generated by monks in the retinue as they listened to the discourse will cause them all to become fully awakened buddhas in the future.

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Chapter 6 – Subhūti – Practicing without practicing the perfection of wisdom, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes about any / all dharmas – ex. about the perfection of wisdom, bodhisattva, and the word bodhisattva – because they are all empty of inherent existence <==> because dependently co-arisen, merely labeled / imputed by the mind.

(i.e. Résumé: "Whatever the Buddha teaches, none of it contradicts the true nature of dharmas" [U2T].
-
Question: If all dharmas that are not inherently produced (causality), do not inherently occasion anything (functionality), and do not inherently appear (existence) in absolute terms [T2], just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively [T1][U2T], – if all dharmas are empty of inherent existence [T2] <==> because dependently co-arisen [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind (mere names, mere designations) –,
then is learning / practicing / teaching something like the perfection of wisdom to/from somebody still possible?
-
Answer: There is learning / practicing / teaching without learning / practicing / teaching the perfection of wisdom, but without any grasping / attachment / obsession / fixation / reification / reference points / absolutes & oppositions [T2] [U2T], without falling for any extreme or middle, without any duality / di-vision between subject & object & action, cause & effect & causality, right & wrong, movement & rest, samsara & nirvana; without accepting / affirming / seeking / adding / doing anything in absolute terms, without rejecting / negating / abandoning / eliminating / subtracting / not-doing anything in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively – as possible temporary adapted skillful means [T1]; thus more and more in accord with the Union of the inconceivable Two Truths [U2T].
-
All dharmas are like mere names, mere designations, but still possibly useful as adapted skillful means: They are empty of inherent existence [T2], not really existent / caused / functional <==> because conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind in dependence of its conditioning / karma [U3S]. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T]. All dharmas are co-dependent / co-emergent / co-evolving with the subject / mind, but not from the mind-only. So there are no real three stages of becoming or three times – dependent origination or production / beginning / birth / coming / before / past, duration / middle / life / resting or changing / during / present, cessation / ending / death / going / stopping / after / future – for any dharma –; and no complete absence of the three stages of becoming or three times either. They exist conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively, but not ultimately. All dharmas – including the three stages of becoming (origination, duration, cessation); including the three spheres (subject, relation / action, object); including all apparent opposites; including the perfection of wisdom, bodhisattva, the name bodhisattva, awakening; including the two truths themselves (dependent origination / appearances and emptiness of inherent existence) – are not inherently existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-cause / non-functional, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifty – for whatever 'this' is. Meaning their true nature & dynamic as it is is indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s).
-
Name & form: Like the apparent opposites of any duality / triad / quad / etc., name and form (label and referent) are not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither. They are inseparable, interdependent, co-defined, co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing / co-transcended <==> thus both empty of inherent existence. Like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T]. Not really existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional / useless / meaningless, not both together, not neither.
-
Reality as it is is not purely objective, not purely subjective (mind-ony), not purely relational / process / action: Dharmas cannot be found inside (they are not purely-subjective / mind-only), not outside (they are not purely-objective / object-only), not between (they are not purely-relational / relation-only / action-only / process-only), not a combination of those, not none of those.
-
Engaging without engaging: Bodhisattvas do not associate, in absolute terms, any dharma (ex. the five aggregates) with any marks / signs / characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / relations / oppositions / activities – like their permanence or impermanence… –. Bodhisattvas engage without engaging with the permanence or impermanence … of any/all dharmas; because they do not even perceive any inherently existing dharma (ex. five aggregates) or any marks / signs / characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / relations / oppositions / activities like their permanence or impermanence… <==> because these are all empty of inherent existence <==> because these are all dependently co-arisen / interdependent, merely labeled / imputed by the mind <==> like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T].
-
Bodhisattvas do not view any dharmas as existent or non-existent, permanent or impermanent, different or the same… (the same with any other dualistic marks / signs / characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / relations / oppositions / activities); do not mentally construct and do not conceptualize any of those dharmas in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively; stand without mentally constructing any dharma in absolute terms; do not, except for paying attention to the knowledge of all aspects, view the perfection of wisdom, the name perfection of wisdom, a bodhisattva, or the name bodhisattva; they do not settle down on any dharma in absolute terms; eventually excellently spontaneously non-dualistically non-conceptually directly realize the inconceivable all-pervading timeless unborn unconditioned unchanging unceasing pristine true nature of Reality as it is here & now, the defining marks of the dharmas, the Union of the Two Truths about all dharmas [U2T / U3S / Uopp / U2T-2T] –  that is just a finger pointing at the moon, not the moon itself which is 'inconceivable'.
-
"Bodhisattva great beings should practice the perfection of wisdom like that [T1], without apprehending any / all dharmas in absolute terms [T2], just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively as possible tools / adapted skillful means [T1] [U2T]; thus acting more and more in accord with the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now, with the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths [U2T] free from all extremes & middle.

If bodhisattva great beings practicing [T1] the perfection of wisdom do not apprehend in absolute terms [T2] a perfection of wisdom, that bodhisattva, that word for bodhisattva, or even that bodhicitta, or awakening, then just that is the advice about the perfection of wisdom of bodhisattvas; just that is the instruction."
-
What is the referent for the word 'bodhisattva'? Not the five aggregates, not something other than the five aggregates, The same for any dharma, including the 'suchness' of any / all dharmas, the very limit of reality, the dharma-constituent, emptiness or non-emptiness. The true nature of Reality as it is, the Union of the Two Truths, is indescribable / inconceivable. We may point to it using various concepts, but none of them is 'it'.)

i.­37

All teaching by śrāvaka trainees or the gods is through the Tathāgata's power and does not contradict the true nature of phenomena [U2T]. This statement comes at the beginning of the Eight Thousand (8k) and begins the summary verses in chapter 84 of the Eighteen Thousand (18k).


i.­38

The word bodhisattva is used again and again [T1] but ultimately is not a word for anything [T2] [U2T].


The form aggregate and so on are just designations, just labels used conventionally to aid comprehension, and similarly with the sense fields and so on, all the parts of the body ‍— the skull and neck bones down to the bones in the feet ‍— and all external things such as grass and leaves; even all the buddhas are just names and conventional terms.


Since this is so, the bodhisattva practitioners understand that the fundamental doctrines of the four noble truths ‍— that the aggregates, sense fields, and constituents and the like are impermanent rather than permanent, suffering rather than pleasurable, and so on ‍— are just names to make things known for the benefit of beings, and practice accordingly.


Similarly, "standing without mentally constructing any phenomenon [T2],"
the bodhisattvas cultivate the basic, shared practices set out in the fundamental Buddhist scriptures [T1] [U2T].


These are systematized as the thirty-seven dharmas on the side of awakening. And beyond those the bodhisattvas cultivate the unique bodhisattva practices of the six perfections and the powers and fearlessnesses, up to the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha.


i.­39

Bodhisattvas should not settle down even on an ultimate, undivided true reality as the final referent of the name bodhisattva. Those who do not tremble in the face of such a reality, or perhaps lack of reality, are practicing the Perfection of Wisdom.

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Chapter 7 – Entry into flawlessness (Using without any attachment / fixation to anything on the path. Realising the Union of the Two Truths about all elements of the path, including Bodhicitta, the two truths [U2T-2T], the Union of the Two Truths.)

(i.e. The single, all-encompassing statement / the 'single thought': "Bodhisattva great beings who want to fully awaken to all dharmas in all forms should make an effort at the perfection of wisdom [U2T]." ( 2.1, 4.4)
"Even that thought [T1] is no thought [T2], because the basic nature of thought is clear light [U2T]", because the true nature & dynamic of all dharmas is indescribable / inconceivable / unthinkable in absolute terms – not thought can do the job –. (7.21)
-
Bodhisattvas who want to comprehend any / all dharmas should train in the perfection of wisdom [U2T].
Bodhisattva who want to eliminate greed, hatred, and confusion… should train in the perfection of wisdom [U2T].
Bodhisattva who want to complete the six perfections… should train in the perfection of wisdom [U2T].
Bodhisattva who want to become absorbed in the various mental stabilisations… should train in the perfection of wisdom [U2T].
Bodhisattva who want to fulfill all the intentions of beings should train in the perfection of wisdom [U2T].
Bodhisattva who want to train in the śrāvaka level should concentrate and listen to, take up, bear in mind, read aloud, study, and properly pay attention to this perfection of wisdom.
Bodhisattva who want to train in the pratyekabuddha level, the bodhisattva level, and the buddha level should also concentrate and listen to, take up, bear in mind, read aloud, master, and properly pay attention to this perfection of wisdom.
-

How, Venerable Subhūti, do they fall into a bodhisattva's hardheadedness?
'Hardheadedness' is a love for dharmas. It is forming the notion that some dharmas are inherently existing and have inherently existing marks / signs / characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / relations / oppositions / activities, or not having any in absolute terms – ex. good or bad, to be accepted or rejected, being permanent or impermanent, happiness or suffering, self or no-self, calm or not-calm, empty or non-empty, having sigh or signless, having a which or wishless, being produced or stopped, being past or present or future, strong or weak, existent or non-existent, different or identical, separate or united, multiple or one, dual or non-dual, caused or not-caused, functional or non-functional, born or unborn, changing or unchanging, ceasing or unceasing, pure or impure, perfect or imperfect, bounded or free, enlightened or not-enlightened, etc.
It is forming the notion that some dharmas have to be accepted while other dharmas have to be rejected, or changed / purified / completed / etc.
-
What is a bodhisattva great being's flawlessness? It is when they practice without practicing the perfection of wisdom without any attachment / fixation / absolutes – not grasping at one truth or another – dependent origination [T1-] or emptiness (any of the 18 emptinesses) [T2] –, not grasping at both truths together as if different and in opposition [2T], not at neither of the two truths as if identical and one [1T]. It is staying free from all extremes & middle about everything involved. It is when they act / perceive / learn / understand / know without acting / perceiving / learning / understanding / knowing, without any attachment / fixation / absolute.)

i.­40

From the practice of the Perfection of Wisdom that sees all phenomena as dharma designations [T1], not absolute truths [T2] [U2T], all the benefits of fundamental and bodhisattva practice arise, included among which are all the meditative stabilizations starting from the bodhyaṅgavatin and siṃha­vijṛmbhita meditative stabilizations and ending with the ākāśāsaṃga­vimukti­nirupalepa meditative stabilization.


i.­41

The practice enables bodhisattvas to avoid "hardheadedness," the "love for dharmas." This is when a practitioner loses track of the purpose of practice ‍— the welfare of others ‍— and sees the realization of reality, the attainment of peace, or even altruism as an end in itself. Hardheaded bodhisattvas fall to the śrāvaka level, bereft of the guiding compassionate principle of the bodhisattva. The absence of hardheadedness is flawlessness, or the secure state of a bodhisattva. Here the bodhisattvas do not falsely project anything even while knowing all and practicing all for the sake of others.


i.­42

Even the sublime thought of awakening (bodhicitta) is just a label, so how does it operate in bodhisattvas in the flawless state? That "thought is no thought because the basic nature of thought is clear light [U2T]." It is clear light because it is not together with or free from any shortcoming, any accompanying afflictive emotion, or any intention to enter into a śrāvaka or pratyekabuddha nirvāṇa. Such a thought, the clear light, neither knows nor does not know, neither exists nor does not exist. It is the state in which all phenomena "are just so."


i.­43

In conclusion, Śāriputra praises Subhūti's explanation as authentic and in accord with the Lord's intention and says, "in this Perfection of Wisdom is detailed instruction for the three vehicles in which bodhisattva great beings should train on the level of śrāvakas and pratyekabuddhas, bodhisattvas, and buddhas."

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Chapter 8 – The Religious [faithful] Mendicant Śreṇika

(i.e. What is the nature of the 'name / label / defining mark' and its relation with a 'referent'?
There is no 'name' with / without 'referent'.
Bodhisattvas do not see, or apprehend any independent / objective / universal / absolute / inherently existing name, referent, relation between the two; nor do they see or apprehend their origination, duration / change, cessation – just as conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively entities. Why? Because all of those dharmas are empty of inherent existence [T2] <==> because conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S] in dependence of its conditioning / karma. And vice versa; one aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T]. They – the three spheres: name, relation / action / labeling, referent; the three stages of becoming: origination, duration / change, cessation – are interdependent with each other, and co-dependent with the mind merely labeling / imputing them. They are all like illusions, reflections, mirages, echos, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T]. Not really existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither; not 'this', not non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth. Meaning their true nature & dynamic as it is is indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s). The examples given are about trying to find any real referent for the name bodhisattva. And trying to see if Subhuti can find the bodhisattvas he is supposed to teach, or any perfection of wisdom to teach – in spite of the fact that he is facing an unbounded, infinite number of bodhisattva great beings.
-
The perfection of wisdom should be taken up by way of no causal sign and no absence of causal sign, without taking it up.)

i.­44

Subhūti rhetorically poses a hypothetical
question. If all phenomena are just names, just dharma designations, then practice is futile (nihilism).
So, "which bodhisattva (object) will I advise and instruct (relation / action) in what Perfection of Wisdom (object)?"


In response Subhūti says that
phenomena are conventional terms [T1] for the inexpressible true nature of things [U2T]
that cannot be expressed as anything at all [inconceivable].
It is just because of that that all starting places for practice, all practices, and all attainments are tenable [T1]. Bodhisattvas who are not terrified by this reality are irreversible from full awakening.


i.­45

All phenomena are empty.
Form is empty of form.
The twelve links of dependent origination are empty.
Ignorance is empty of ignorance, up to old age and death are empty of old age and death.
All phenomena are empty,
so bodhisattvas practicing the Perfection of Wisdom are standing by way of taking no stand on anything.
(i.e. The Middle Way free from all extremes & middle: nothing to accept / affirm / seek / add / do in absolute terms, nothing to reject / negate / abandon / eliminate / subtract / not do in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively, as adapted skillful means. Nothing to accept as absolute, not even emptiness.)


Hence, bodhisattva do not march under the banner of any letters, words,
or statements, under the banner of the four noble truths,
under the banner of emptiness [i.e. grasping at mere-emptiness],
or under the banner of anything else.

To do so is to have descended into grasping at "I" and "mine" and to practice without skillful means.


Bodhisattvas do not grasp at anything [T2] because grasping requires a differentiation through language based on causal signs (nimitta), and bodhisattvas see causal signs just as śrāvakas see afflictive emotions.
An afflictive emotion is based on settling down on a causal sign for things as real. That causes attachment and hatred.
These same causal signs cause bodhisattvas without skillful means to settle down on a basis, path, and set of results as real [T1] [U2T].


This is the case because the religious mendicant Śreṇika, a śrāvaka, gained nirvāṇa by listening to this teaching because it led him to avoid a belief in causal signs. Śreṇika achieved nirvāṇa by realizing that even nirvāṇa could not be grasped through a causal sign. Similarly, bodhisattvas master such a nirvāṇa but do not actually enter into it until their prayers that are vows are fully carried out and they have brought beings to maturity, purified a buddhafield, and fully awakened to perfect, complete awakening.


i.­46

Śāriputra asks Subhūti
what does not exist [inherently] and cannot be apprehended [in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively]?
Subhūti says
all [appearing] phenomena [T1] do not [inherently] exist [T2] [U2T]
because all phenomena [T1] are empty of an intrinsic nature [T2] [U2T].
A bodhisattva's mind is never separated from a buddha's mind [Uopp / U2T-opp] because
all [appearing] phenomena [T1] are separated from an intrinsic nature [T2] [U2T].
An intrinsic nature is not something real.
All phenomena are without defining marks.
Training in that way, bodhisattvas go forth to the knowledge of all aspects
(i.e. Knowledge of all aspects (omniscience): Knowledge of all valid useful conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent concepts / ideas / truths / views / methods / practices / goals / adapted skillful means / antidotes [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind <==> together with their emptiness of inherent existence [T2], as a Union of the Two Truths [U2T / U2T-3S / U2T-opp / U2T-2T]. Thus being able to use conventionally / relatively, but without any attachment / fixation / absolutes; thus not slaves to them. Bodhisattvas wants to know all of those aspects because they awant to be able to help all sentient beings without discrimination. It is not omniscience about objects and relations in an objective world (like with sciences), but omniscience about the way beings think and about how to help them, about the functioning of the karmic cycle and how to disarm it.)
because nothing has been produced and nothing has gone forth.
(i.e. Union of the Two Truths about the three stages of becoming or three times – i. origination / birth / coming / before / past, ii. duration / resting / changing / during / present, iii. cessation / death / going / after / future – [U2T / U2T-3T]. The three stages or three times are empty of inherent existence [T2], not really existent / caused / functional <==> because conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S], not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional, One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T]. The three stages or three times are like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T]: not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned mind(s). Bodhisattvas should act accordingly.)

Everything [appearing in dependence] [T1] is empty [of inherent existence] [T2] [U2T].
Even the ultimate is empty of an intrinsic nature [UGM].

Training in the Perfection of Wisdom like this, bodhisattvas get close to awakening.

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Chapter 9 – Causal Signs

(i.e. Training without training by way of not apprehending anything neither appearances nor emptiness:
Practicing a causal sign is not "practicing without practicing the perfection of wisdom, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes".
It is grasping at illusory entities, their marks / signs …, and their names / labels. It is lacking in skillful means.
Why?
Because in Reality as it is, all dharmas, their marks / signs …, and names / labels are empty of inherent existence [T2] <==> because conventionally dependenly co-arisen relatively functional appearances [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U2T / U3S / Uopp / U2T-2T].
Bodhisattvas should train like that in all six perfections …, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes …
Bodhisattva great beings training like that do train in the six perfections [T1], by way of not apprehending anything [T2] [U2T].
-
The purity of all dharmas:
Because of the state of absolute purity bodhisattvas do not apprehend (reify, objectify) any dharma [T2] [U2T].
Not being produced, not stopping, not being defilement, not being purification, not appearing, not being apprehended, and not occasioning anything [in absolute terms] is called the purity of all dharmas.
-
Bodhisattvas training like that [T1] do not train in any dharma [T2] [U2T],
because those dharmas [T1] do not exist in the way foolish, ordinary people take them to be [T2] [U2T].
-
"When bodhisattvas practicing the perfection of wisdom do not apprehend and do not see the perfection of wisdom,
then, Śāriputra, bodhisattvas training in the perfection of wisdom like that
go forth to the knowledge of all aspects by way of not apprehending anything.
They go forth to the knowledge of all aspects by way of not apprehending the emptiness of the knowledge of all aspects.)

i.­47

Thinking "I am practicing the Perfection of Wisdom" is a lack of skillful means, a practice that occasions something, or a practice of an enactment (abhisaṃskāra). Not only does it not even lead to śrāvaka nirvāṇa, it leads to the suffering of saṃsāra.


Bodhisattvas who do not have such beliefs and mistaken notions have skillful means because,
in reality, there are no dharmas [T1] apart from emptiness [T2] [U2T].
(i.e. There are no appearing dharma [T1] that are not empty of inherent existence [T2] [U2T].
The two truths are inseparable, interdependent, co-dependent, in harmony, in Union [U2T].)


Bodhisattvas do not assert any dharma or practice but know all dharmas are the same insofar as they have never been produced, and bodhisattvas remain in the sarva­dharmānutpāda meditative stabilization up to the ākāśāsaṃga­vimukti­nirupa­lepa meditative stabilization.
The awakening of such bodhisattvas is prophesied, but only conventionally, not ultimately [T1], because none of the meditative stabilizations ultimately exist [inherently] [T2] [U2T].


The Lord compliments Subhūti, "the foremost of śrāvakas at the conflict-free stage," for his explanation.


i.­48

Everything is in the state of absolute natural purity
where there is no production or defilement, where nothing appears or is enacted.
Employing the two meanings of the Sanskrit word vid ("to exist" and "to know"), the Lord says
form, and so on, do not exist [T2] in the way foolish, ordinary people take them to be,
and because they do not exist [independently / inherently / absolutely], they are ignorance.
Nothing goes forth, nothing rests. [Uopp]
Those who mentally construct a starting point [cause / before], progress [causality / during], and a goal [effect / future] do not train in the Perfection of Wisdom.
Those who do not apprehend any phenomenon [T2] go forth to the knowledge of all aspects [T1] [U2T].
(i.e. Knowledge of all aspects (omniscience): Knowledge of all valid useful conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent concepts / ideas / truths / views / methods / practices / goals / adapted skillful means / antidotes [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind <==> together with their emptiness of inherent existence [T2], as a Union of the Two Truths [U2T / U2T-3S / U2T-opp / U2T-2T]. Thus being able to use conventionally / relatively, but without any attachment / fixation / absolutes; thus not slaves to them. Bodhisattvas wants to know all of those aspects because they awant to be able to help all sentient beings without discrimination. It is not omniscience about objects and relations in an objective world (like with sciences), but omniscience about the way beings think and about how to help them, about the functioning of the karmic cycle and how to disarm it.)

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Chapter 10 – Illusion-like – Acting with skillful means - by  way of not apprehending anything.

(i.e. Acting with skillful means - by way of not apprehending anything.
Apparent dharmas [T1] and their illusory nature / emptiness [T2], the two truths, are not really in opposition, but more like inseparable / interdependent / in harmony / in 'Union': they are not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither [U2T] (ie. not one thing and another). So, Bodhisattvas act / practice without acting / practicing in the six paramitas …, with skillful means / by way of not apprehending anything, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes – without perceiving / apprehending / practicing anything in absolute terms. They act in accord with valid conventional / relative / inter-subjective concepts / ideas / views / truths / methods / practices / goals [T1], but also more and more in accord with their emptiness of inherent existence [T2], their illusory nature [U2T]; thus more and more in accord with the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is, with the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths free from all extremes & middle [U2T].
-
Question: 'Does this illusory being, having trained in the perfection of wisdom, go forth to the knowledge of all aspects or reach the knowledge of all aspects?'
"When bodhisattva great beings train in the perfection of wisdom like that [T1], by way of not apprehending anything [T2] [U2T], they go forth to the knowledge of all aspects and reach the knowledge of all aspects [U2T]."
Because, all dharmas [T1] are empty of an intrinsic nature.
-
What skillful means?
Here bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom with attention connected with the knowledge of all aspects analytically understand about any dharma with its marks (ex. the impermanent five aggregates) … but do not apprehend it/them.
This is the skillful means of bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom.
Or a Bodhisattva may think
'I will teach all beings the doctrine that "all dharmas are impermanent"; and moreover, I will do it by way of not apprehending anything.
Bodhisattvas pay attention to a dharma being 'this or that,' and moreover do it by way of not apprehending anything.
Bodhisattvas analytically understand that dharma is 'this or that,' and moreover do it by way of not apprehending anything.
Bodhisattvas teach friends the doctrine the Buddha-dharma, and moreover, teach by way of not apprehending anything
practice / teach the six perfections,
Those are the skillful means of bodhisattvas who are practicing the perfection of wisdom,
and when they are fully endowed with those means they will not tremble, feel frightened, or become terrified when they hear this exposition.)

Everything is like an illusion [U2T].
Everything is just a name and conventional term [T1] that in reality is not produced [T2] [U2T].

Bodhisattvas who understand that go forth to the knowledge of all aspects.
(i.e. Knowledge of all aspects (omniscience): Knowledge of all valid useful conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent concepts / ideas / truths / views / methods / practices / goals / adapted skillful means / antidotes [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind <==> together with their emptiness of inherent existence [T2], as a Union of the Two Truths [U2T / U2T-3S / U2T-opp / U2T-2T]. Thus being able to use conventionally / relatively, but without any attachment / fixation / absolutes; thus not slaves to them. Bodhisattvas wants to know all of those aspects because they awant to be able to help all sentient beings without discrimination. It is not omniscience about objects and relations in an objective world (like with sciences), but omniscience about the way beings think and about how to help them, about the functioning of the karmic cycle and how to disarm it.)


This frightens new bodhisattvas without spiritual friends. To accept and teach the four noble truths in an absolutist way, apprehending the words as ultimately true, is to fall under the sway of Māra and bad friends. These bad friends dissuade bodhisattvas from this Perfection of Wisdom, saying that it is not the true doctrine of the Tathāgata. The bad friend may be Māra disguised as a buddha, setting forth an absolutist doctrine that takes the four noble truths as an absolute, and the doctrine of awakening for the sake of others through training in the Perfection of Wisdom as absurd. The bad friend says that if everything is empty there is no point, dissuading the bodhisattvas from the bodhisattva's career. Sometimes Māra the bad friend approaches in the form of a mother or father saying rather than stay in the world with all its tortures, make hard work meaningful by working for nirvāṇa; sometimes Māra the bad friend approaches in the form of a monk teaching the doctrine of the four noble truths in an absolutist way.

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Chapter 11, chapter 12, chapter 13 – The Basis of Reality, Transcending Thoughts & Views, The Six Perfections.

(i.e. Chapter 11: The Basis of Reality
The Ground / Basis / Source of Reality, of all dharmas (physical, conceptual, mental), is the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths [U2T], the Union of the three spheres [U3S / U2T-3S], the Union of apparent opposites [Uopp / U2T-opp]. This 'basis' [U2T] is also empty of inherent existence <==> because dependently co-arisen / interdependent, merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U2T-2T / UGM].
-
Question: What is the basis of Reality?
The basis in reality for bodhisattva is an absence of any inherently existing basis in reality.
The basis in reality for a bodhisattva does not inherently exist and cannot be apprehended in absolute terms.
-
Why? Because everything – physical, conceptual, mental; subject, relation / action, object; pure, impure; all dharmas with their marks / signs / characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / relations / oppositions / activities, all names / labels;  – is/are empty of inherent existence [T2] <==> because dependently co-arisen / interdependent [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S]. Because everything is like illusions / reflections / mirages / dreams / magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T]: Not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither – for whatever 'this' is. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s).
-
Logic: In the absence of inherently existing "production / origination / duration / change / functionality / cessation", a dharma does not really exist (emptiness of inherent existence), cannot be apprehended in absolute terms, and there is no need for any inherently existing "basis / primary-cause / ultimate-source" for that dharma. Since all dharmas are like that (unarisen, unconditioned, non-existent, unchanging, unceasing – in absolute terms), then there is no inherently existing Basis / Ground / Source for reality in general – that is the basis. So there is no basis, no need for any inherently existing basis, for any dharma, its marks / signs, and its name / label, its origination or non-origination, existence or non-existence, conditioning or non-conditioning, change or non-change, bonding or freedom, cessation of non-cessation, enlightenment or non-enlightenment.
-
A basis that is not a basis: A true Basis / Ground should be unique, all-pervading, timeless, unborn, unconditioned, unchanging, unceasing; free from all extremes & middle, free from all dualistic conceptual proliferations, free from all defining limitations, free from all conditioning / karma. This true basis is simply the fact that everything is like an inconceivable Union of being empty of inherent existence [T2] <==> because of being conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind in dependence of its conditioning / karma [U3S]. One aspect / truth implies the other (<==>) [U2T]. So in a sense emptiness is the basis for all appearances, and appearance is the basis of emptiness –; but so not grasp at this idea, it is just a finger pointing at the moon, not the moon itself. There is no need for any other basis; that alone explains everything: status & dynamism. So it is the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths / Suchness / Genuine-emptiness / Buddha-nature that is the inconceivable unique unborn unconditioned unchanging unceasing pristine Basis / Ground / Source / Suchness / True nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now.  It is our conventional / relative basis [T1], without being a real basis in absolute terms [T2] [U2T]. This Ground / Basis / Source is inseparable from, interdependent with, co-dependent with, its manifestations [UGM] <==> so both the Ground and its manifestations are empty of inherent existence [UGM / U2T-GM]. So we may use without using it / them, but without any attachment / fixation / absolutes.
-
All those phenomena‍ — that which is the awakening, that which is the bodhisattva, that which is the basis in reality of a bodhisattva ‍— are not conjoined, are not disjoined, are formless, cannot be pointed out, do not obstruct, and have only one mark‍ — that is, no mark (in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively).
Bodhisattvas should train in the non [inherent] existence [T2] [and non complete non-existence [T1]] of all phenomena [U2T].
Bodhisattvas should know all dharmas [T1].
-
Bodhisattvas should train in becoming familiar with the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of all dharma as it is here & now: All phenomena are empty of inherent existence [T2], not really existent <==> because conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S], not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional / useless / meaningless. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T]. So they are not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither. Meaning their true nature & dynamic is indescribable / inconceivable; we call it the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths [U2T].
-
Bodhisattvas practicing the perfection of wisdom should train in non-attachment to all phenomena that are empty of their own marks, and in their non [inherent] existence, by not constructing any phenomena and not entertaining any ideas about them. They should know all phenomena in a non-dual way.
Note about non-duality: "This is synonymous with reality, voidness, etc. But it must be remembered that non-duality does not necessarily mean unity, that unity is only one of the pair unity-duality; hence non-duality implies non-unity as well. This point is obscured by designating this nondual philosophy as "monism," as too many modern scholars have done." – What is not dual, not non-dual, not both together, not neither? All dharmas, apparent opposites, the three spheres, the two tuths. Synonyms of non-duality: inseparability / interdependence / co-dependence / harmony / Union.
-
Bodhisattvas practicing the perfection of wisdom like that become the foremost of all beings [T1],
and they do so, furthermore, by way of not apprehending anything [T2] [U2T].)
—-------------------
Chapter 12: Transcending Thoughts & Views
(i.e. Transcending Thoughts & Views – Using thoughts, concepts, ideas, views, theories about dharmas, but without any attachment / fixation / absolutes, without gasping at the three stages of becoming — thus not contaminated by them.
-
Bodhisattvas can transcend / purify all words / concepts / ideas / thoughts / views / actions / practices / goals … by directly realising the true nature & dynamic of the mind and its fabrications [U2T / U3S / Uopp / U2T-2T], the true nature & dynamic of the conditioning / karmic cycle. Thus not accepting / affirming / seeking any view in absolute terms, not rejecting / negating / abandoning / eliminating any valid view in absolute terms.
-
Bodhisattvas are unattached even to that unequaled thought of awakening without outflows, a thought equal to the unequaled, a thought not shared in common with any śrāvakas or pratyekabuddhas.
Why? Because thoughts [T1] are no thoughts [T2] [U2T].
What is that though? "Here after the production of the first thought of awakening [T1]
they do not see either the production or stopping of any dharma at all [T2] [U2T] ‍—
they do not see its decrease, increase, coming, going, defilement, or purification."
"that thought in which there is no production, no stopping,
no decrease, no increase, no coming, no going, no defilement, and no purification"
-
Bodhisattvas may use without using any/all dharmas – physical, conceptual, mental –, but without any attachment / fixation / absolutes. So what was a dharma with outflow (binding), is purified / transmuted into a dharma without outflow (non-binding) by directly realising its true nature & dynamic as it is here & now. Bodhisattvas are unattached to both the dharmas / thoughts with outflow, and the dharmas / thoughts without outflow. Not accepting, not rejecting anything in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively.
-
From Chapter 2: Bodhisattvas use without using ordinary dharmas, perform without performing ordinary activities, practice without practicing ordinary practices, … but without any grasping / attachment / apprehension / obsession / fixation / reification / reference points / absolutes … thus are not contaminated by them. Why? Because Bodhisattvas are fully aware of the true nature & dynamic as it is [U2T] of all dharmas involved, they are not fooled by illusory appearances, not grasping them, not attached to them, not slaves to them, not creating more karma because of them, not suffering because of them. And that is nirvana here & now. That is the benefits of practicing the perfection of Wisdom, or directly realising the Union of the Two Truths about all dharmas.
-
From Chapter 9: The purity of all dharmas:
Because of the state of absolute purity bodhisattvas do not apprehend (reify, objectify) any dharma [T2] [U2T].
Not being produced, not stopping, not being defilement, not being purification, not appearing, not being apprehended, and not occasioning anything [in absolute terms] is called the purity of all dharmas.
-
All dharmas – with or without outflow; wholesome, unwholesome, neutral – are primordially equal, pure, perfect, divine, complete, free, enlightened, the inseparable three kayas, the true Buddha.
-
Bodhisattva great beings practicing the perfection of wisdom like that [T1] do not apprehend all dharmas, whereby they do not falsely project and do not settle down on reality [T2] [U2T], even with that thought of awakening equal to the unequaled, a thought not shared in common with any śrāvakas or pratyekabuddhas. Therefore, bodhisattvas are said to be great beings.)

—-------------------
Chapter 13: Why they are called Bodhisattva Great Beings
Question: In what sense are bodhisattvas called 'great beings'?
Answer:
[1] "those beings are armed with great armor,
[2] those beings have set out in a Great Vehicle,
[3] and those beings have mounted on a Great Vehicle.
-
[1] Armed with great armor?
That is the armor of the six paramitas.
They practice the six paramitas for the sake of all sentient beings.
With attention connected with the knowledge of all aspects, they do not dedicate it to the level of śrāvakas or pratyekabuddhas.
They perceive all dharmas as like illusions, reflection, mirages, dream, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.'
Bodhisattvas standing in each of the six perfections perfect all six perfections.
They do not dwell on their experiences, are not captured by them, and are not reborn under their power.
-
[2] Have set out in a Great Vehicle?
Concentrations: They dwell in the four jhanas.
Immeasurables: They dwell having pervaded the ten directions of a world that is vast because of the dharma-constituent and that extends as far as the space element
with a vast, inclusive, infinite, non-dual mind endowed with love, compassion, joy & equanimity, without enmity, unrivaled, not harmful, and well cultivated.
Formless absorptions: They attain and dwell in the station of endless space, the station of endless consciousness, the station of nothing-at-all, and the station of neither perception nor non-perception.
When bodhisattvas who practice the six perfections set out into and arise from those concentrations, immeasurables, and formless absorptions, they make those wholesome roots into something shared in common by all beings as well, and they grow them into unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening.
They attain great stabilization in those.
Preceded by great compassion, they explain and demonstrate, illuminate, reveal, and make clear the concentrations, immeasurables, and formless absorptions to others in order to destroy the afflictions of all beings, properly demonstrating the experience of and faults in them, and the release from them.
They do not provide an opportunity for the production of other thoughts connected with śrāvaka thoughts or with pratyekabuddha thoughts.
Then fully meditating on the thirty-seven dharmas on the side of awakening, fully meditating on the meditative stabilizations on emptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness that are gateways to liberation, and fully meditating on the powers, the fearlessnesses, up to and the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha.
Bodhisattva great beings stand in those concentrations, immeasurables, and formless absorptions without mixing them up and do not hanker after the śrāvaka level or the pratyekabuddha level, or both of them, but tolerate and accept the knowledge of all aspects.
They practice the six paramitas by way of not apprehending anything.
-
[3] Have mounted on a Great Vehicle?
They have 'mounted up on the six perfections' by way of not apprehending anything in that way.
They do not apprehend the six perfections, they do not apprehend a bodhisattva, and they do not apprehend attention.
They meditate on their subject with thoughts connected with the knowledge of all aspects without any admixture because of the investigation of the meditation, and that meditation, again, by way of not apprehending anything.
They know that all dharmas are just a convention because beings cannot be found.
Etc.)

i.­50
[Chapter 11]
[A.] Explaining the word bodhisattva from many different angles, the text says
the basis in reality of the word bodhisattva is no basis at all.
The track left by a bodhisattva is like the track left by a bird in space.
There is no basis in reality for light, even the light of a tathāgata.


i.­51

[B.] There follows a list of all phenomena, starting with ordinary wholesome phenomena like honoring parents, and so on, and the nine perceptions of the repulsive state of a body after death, as well as all the other levels of ordinary mindfulness and meditation. It also lists the ordinary unwholesome phenomena like the ten unwholesome actions, and so on; extraordinary phenomena (those same phenomena informed by an understanding of their illusory and ultimate nature); and phenomena without outflows ‍— the purification dharmas in the mindstreams of buddhas, shared in common with other practitioners, and unique to the practice of those following the buddhas.


i.­52

[C.] The Lord, Śāriputra, and Subhūti explain the term great being from many different angles. A great being is foremost among all the stream enterers, and so on; sees the ultimate nature of beings and treats them all the same and works for them all equally; never entertains a negative thought toward them; cares about the doctrine; perfects the meditative stabilizations and all the other purification dharmas; and is not attached even to the greatest thought, bodhicitta.


i.­53

Śāriputra asks why all ordinary foolish beings are not free of attachments and the sense of possession, and Subhūti says that in reality they are, just as the mind of a buddha in its intrinsic nature is without attachment and any sense of possession. All phenomena are equally empty and pure.


i.­54

Pūrṇa says a great being is armored with the great armor of the interwoven six perfections based on a concern for all beings. Each of the six perfections of giving, morality, patience, perseverance, concentration, and wisdom incorporates all the other five perfections, and all thirty-six subdivisions of the perfections are informed by the understanding that all phenomena are like illusions, devoid of any intrinsic nature. The practice of them is always focused on and dedicated to the knowledge of all aspects. Such a practice of the perfections brings the bodhisattva close to the very limit of reality ‍— nirvāṇa. With skillful means, entering into all the meditative states without relishing them, taking birth through compassion but not through the force of meditative attainment, turning over everything to perfect and complete awakening for the sake of all beings, bodhisattvas are truly great beings delighting all the buddhas and bodhisattvas in the ten directions.


i.­55

Śāriputra asks Pūrṇa why a great being's vehicle is great. It is a great vehicle because when great beings practice the perfection of giving, and so on, it carries them higher and higher through the states of immeasurable love, compassion, joy, and equanimity, and higher and higher through the first to the fourth concentrations and through the four formless absorptions of endless space, endless consciousness, nothing-at-all, and neither perception nor non-perception. In the Great Vehicle bodhisattvas are absorbed in and emerge from all those meditative stabilizations and absorptions without falling to the śrāvaka or pratyekabuddha level.


i.­56

The Great Vehicle is a knowledge of all the emptinesses, meditative states, and aspects of the four noble truths [T1] by way of not apprehending anything [T2] [U2T], so it is not a knowledge in any of the three periods of time or in any of the three realms of desire, form, and formlessness. In this sense it is a knowledge [T1] that is no knowledge at all [T2] [U2T]. At the same time, the Great Vehicle is of infinite expanse, including all practices and attainments, including maturing beings, purifying a buddhafield, and complete and perfect awakening.


i.­57

How does the Great Vehicle proceed higher and higher? It does so as a practice of all the purification dharmas by a practitioner set on the knowledge of all aspects [T1] who does not apprehend anything at all [T2] [U2T]. The practitioner, "from the first thought of awakening up until sitting at the site of awakening," intentionally appropriates bodies to look after the needs of beings, roams from buddhafield to buddhafield, and listens to the teaching of the buddhas without any notion of buddhafields or beings to benefit. Finally, the practitioner gains the knowledge of all aspects and turns the wheel of the Dharma so that all the buddhas raise their voices in praise.
(i.e. Knowledge of all aspects (omniscience): Knowledge of all valid useful conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent concepts / ideas / truths / views / methods / practices / goals / adapted skillful means / antidotes [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind <==> together with their emptiness of inherent existence [T2], as a Union of the Two Truths [U2T / U2T-3S / U2T-opp / U2T-2T]. Thus being able to use conventionally / relatively, but without any attachment / fixation / absolutes; thus not slaves to them. Bodhisattvas wants to know all of those aspects because they awant to be able to help all sentient beings without discrimination. It is not omniscience about objects and relations in an objective world (like with sciences), but omniscience about the way beings think and about how to help them, about the functioning of the karmic cycle and how to disarm it.)

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Chapter 14 – Neither Bound nor Freed

(i.e. Because of being empty of inherent existence, all dharmas are not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither; ex. not bound / tainted / samsara, not free / purified / nirvana, not both together, not neither.
-
Bodhisattvas are armed with the six perfections, and the armor of other practices.
-
They act / practice without acting / practicing, without any grasping / attachment / obsession / fixation / reification / reference points / absolutes & oppositions [T2] [U2T], without falling for any extreme or middle, without any duality / di-vision between subject & object & action, cause & effect & causality, right & wrong, movement & rest, samsara (bounded) & nirvana (free); without accepting or rejecting anything in absolute terms; more and more in accord with the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now, with the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths [U2T].
-
"They view all dharmas as emptiness [T2] and they do not give up on all beings [T1] [U2T]."
– (i) "Even though bodhisattva great beings have released beings from the three terrible forms of life in an unbounded, infinite number of world systems [T1], still no beings (object) at all have been released (relation / action) (subject = the bodhisattva) [T2] [U2T]."
– (ii) "Even though bodhisattva great beings conjure up a splendid array of a wheel-turning emperor and give food to those seeking food, up to give whatever requirements are appropriate [T1], still they (subject) do not give (relation / action) anything (object-1-gift) to any being (object-2-recipient) [T2] [U2T]."
– (iii) "Even though bodhisattva great beings establish an unbounded, infinite number of beings in the ten wholesome actions, up to establish them in the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha [T1], still they do not establish any beings [F.134.b] in the ten wholesome actions, up to they do not establish any beings in the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha [T2] [U2T]."
– (iv) "Even though bodhisattva great beings establish an unbounded, infinite number of beings in the perfection of patience [T1], still they do not establish any beings in the perfection of patience [T2] [U2T]."
– (v) "Even though bodhisattva great beings establish all beings in physical and mental perseverance [T1], still they do not cause any beings to take up, enter into, and be established in physical and mental perseverance [T2] [U2T]."
– (vi) "Even though bodhisattva great beings [F.136.a] establish all beings in the perfection of concentration [T1], still they do not cause any beings to take up, enter into, and be established in the perfection of concentration [T2] [U2T]. "
– (vii) "Even though bodhisattva great beings establish all beings in the perfection of wisdom [T1], still they do not establish any beings in the perfection of wisdom [T2] [U2T]."
– (viii) "Even though bodhisattva great beings establish all beings in the perfection of wisdom [T1], still they do not establish any beings in the perfection of wisdom [T2] [U2T]."
– (ix) "Even though bodhisattva great beings establish all beings in as many world systems as there are sand particles in the Gaṅgā River to the east and in all ten directions in the six perfections [T1], still they do not establish any beings in the six perfections [T2] [U2T]."
– (x) "Even if bodhisattva great beings were to produce the thought, 'I have to establish an unbounded, infinite number of beings in the six perfections, up to the knowledge of all aspects furnished with the best of all aspects,' [T1] they would not have produced a thought for the welfare of any being [T2] [U2T]."
-
"Those bodhisattva great beings should be understood to be armed with no armor
because all dharmas [T1], given the illusory nature of dharmas, are empty of their own mark [T2] [U2T]."
-
Why? Because all dharmas – including the three spheres of any relation / action / causality / production, the apparent opposites of any duality, even the two truths themselves – are empty of inherent existence [T2] <==> because dependently co-arisen / interdependent [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S]. And vice versa; one aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T].
Because the knowledge of all aspects is not made, is not unmade, and does not occasion anything, and those beings for whose sake bodhisattva great beings are armed with great armor are not made, not unmade, and do not occasion anything either. So bodhisattvas act without acting, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes (just conventional / relative / inter-subjective concepts, ideas, truths, views, methods, practice, milestones, goals, teachings …).
Why? Because all dharmas are not made, not unmade, and do not occasion anything.
Because all dharmas do not make, do not unmake, and do not occasion anything.
Because they absolutely do not exist inherently and absolutely cannot be apprehended.
-
All dharmas are not bound (tainted / samsara) and are not freed (purified / nirvana).
And why? Because all dharmas do not exist inherently [T2] [do not exist objectively / independently of the subject / mind].
That is why they are not bound and are not freed. [not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither – for whatever 'this' is.]
Similarly, because they are isolated and so on, they are not bound and are not freed.
.
Because all dharmas are like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.',
then they are not bound and are not freed.
Because all dharmas do not exist inherently, all dharmas are not bound and are not freed.
It is because all dharmas are isolated (from the words and signs for things?), calm, empty, signless, wishless, do not occasion anything, and are not produced that they are not bound and are not freed. (see 10.30)
A form… that is wholesome, unwholesome, with afflictions, without afflictions, with basic immorality, without basic immorality, with outflows, without outflows, ordinary, extraordinary, defiled, and purified is not bound and is not freed. Because form… does not exist inherently.
-
Logic: Because of being empty of inherent existence <==> because dependently co-arisen / interdependent, then all dharmas – including the Great Vehicle and Suchness – are not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither – for whatever 'this' is; and vice versa. Meaning not describable / conceivable / understood by our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s), not indescribable / inconceivable / misunderstood, not both together, not neither.
-
Résumé of Madhyamaka Logic: Because all dharmas – physical, conceptual, mental; pure or impure; including the three spheres of any type of relation / action, the apparent opposites of any duality / triad / quad, even the two truths themselves – are conventionally dependently co-arise (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S] in dependence of its conditioning / karma, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional / useless / meaningless, <==> Then all dharmas are empty of inherent existence [T2], not really existent / caused / functional <==> then all dharmas are like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, echos, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T] <==> Then there are no real three stages of becoming or three times, or complete absence of those – origination / beginning / birth / coming / before / past, duration / middle / life / during / present, cessation / ending / death / going / after / future -- for any dharma; and there are no real relation or non-relation / opposition or non-opposition / separation or union / differentiation or identity … between dharmas <==> Then all dharmas are not existent / caused / functional, not non-existent / non-caused / non-functional, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilated, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not dependent / related / caused / produced, not independent / unrelated / non-caused / non-produced / spontaneous, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not empty, not non-empty, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not dependently co-arisen [T1-only], not empty of inherent existence [T2-only], not both truths together as if different and opposite [2T], not neither of the two truths as if the same and one [1T]; not equal / pure / perfect / divine / complete / free / enlightened, not unequal / impure / imperfect / ordinary / incomplete / bounded / unenlightened, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not isolated / calm / empty / signless / wishness / unoriginated / unarisen / unproduced / unconditioned / unchanging / unceasing, not non-isolated / non-cal / non-empty / non-signless / non-wishless / originated / arisen / produced / conditioned / changing / ceasing, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not bound (tainted / samsara), not free (purified / nirvana), not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth– for whatever 'this is'. Meaning the true nature & dynamic of all dharmas is indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s); beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all defining limitations, beyond all conditioning / karma; beyond causality, matter-energy, space & time, beyond being describable or undescribable, beyond being conceivable or inconceivable. <==> Then there is no independent / universal / absolute / inherently existing basis for anything, for any judgment, for any discrimination / differentiation / ranking, for any activity in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / intersubjectively. <==> Then  there is nothing to accept / affirm / seek / add / do in absolute terms, nothing to reject / negate / abandon / eliminate / subtract / not-do in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively if it help someone to get closer to the inconceivable liberating Truth [U2T].)

i.­58

Armed with great armor the bodhisattvas enter into a variety of bodies and demonstrate the practice of the six perfections, pervading all world systems with light and shaking the earth, blowing out all the fires in the hells, and so on. Demonstrating the perfection of giving, bodhisattvas cause beings to emerge from the hells and other bad rebirths and be reborn as gods and humans, understanding the performance of the perfections to be illusory, doing everything like a magician, conjuring up worlds made of beautiful materials, and giving food and whatever else beings require or enjoy.

The mind of the bodhisattva is always set on the knowledge of all aspects and always concerned with the welfare of every living being, working to establish them in whatever attainment is appropriate to their dispositions [T1], but always knowing the illusory nature of phenomena [T2] [U2T].

That is, the bodhisattvas know that all phenomena, even the knowledge of all aspects, are without defining marks, are not made, and do not occasion anything because there is nothing that could make them, just as in a dream.

For this reason, form and so on, all the defilement and purification dharmas, are not bound and are not freed.

Nothing is freed because nothing exists, just as in a dream.
(i.e. Knowledge of all aspects (omniscience): Knowledge of all valid useful conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent concepts / ideas / truths / views / methods / practices / goals / adapted skillful means / antidotes [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind <==> together with their emptiness of inherent existence [T2], as a Union of the Two Truths [U2T / U2T-3S / U2T-opp / U2T-2T]. Thus being able to use conventionally / relatively, but without any attachment / fixation / absolutes; thus not slaves to them. Bodhisattvas wants to know all of those aspects because they awant to be able to help all sentient beings without discrimination. It is not omniscience about objects and relations in an objective world (like with sciences), but omniscience about the way beings think and about how to help them, about the functioning of the karmic cycle and how to disarm it.)

—————————————————————

Chapter 15, chapter 16 – Dharmas of the Great Vehicle - I, Dharmas of the Great Vehicle - II

(i.e. Chapter 15: Dharmas of the Great Vehicle - I
Dharmas composing the Great Vehicle: the 6 perfections, the 18 emptinesses, the 108 meditative stabilizations.
-
Bodhisattvas set out in a Great Vehicle –
that includes the six perfections, the eighteen emptinesses, the four emptinesses, the hundred-eight meditative stabilizations.
-
[1] The six perfection are: the perfection of giving, perfection of morality, perfection of patience, perfection of perseverance, perfection of concentration, and perfection of wisdom. Bodhisattvas practice without practicing the six perfection [T1] (without any attachment / fixation / absolutes) for the benefits of all sentient beings, with the thought of awakening connected with the knowledge of all aspects, by way of not apprehending anything [T2] [U2T]. Thus more and more in accord with the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now, with the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths [U2T] free from all extremes & middle.
-
[2] The eighteen emptiness = emptiness of all dharmas – All dharmas – physical / body, conceptual / speech, mental / mind; all phenomena in both samsara & nirvana, with their marks / signs .. and names / labels; all subject / inner, relation / action / process / both inner and outer together, object / outer; all conditioned or unconditioned; all matter-energy, space & time; all apparent opposites (es. existence & non-existence, different & identity, permanence & impermanence …); even the two truths themselves; even the Union of the Two Truths / the True nature of Reality as it is / Suchness / Ground / Basis / Source beyond all extremes & middle; even the three Jewels and the three inseparable kayas; – are empty of inherent existence <==> because dependently co-arisen / interdependent, merely labeled / imputed by the mind.
-
[3] The four emptinesses: The sixteen emptinesses are condensed into four emptinesses –refuting the four extremes: existence, non-existence, both together, neither.
-
[4] The hundred-eight meditative stabilizations are: see below.)
-
—----------------------
-
(i.e. Chapter 16: Dharmas of the Great Vehicle - I
See i.60)

i.­59

Subhūti asks a series of questions:
"Lord, what is the Great Vehicle of bodhisattva great beings?
Lord, how have bodhisattva great beings come to have set out in the Great Vehicle?
Where will the Great Vehicle have set out?
Where will the Great Vehicle stand?
Who will go forth in the Great Vehicle?"


i.­60

The response to the first question occasions an explanation of all purification dharmas both as a personal practice and as a practice modeling the dharmas as a demonstration for others. It lists and explains the eighteen emptinesses and the meaning of each of the names of all the meditative stabilizations


  • Similarly, it lists and explains the four applications of mindfulness, occasioning a long explanation of mindfulness of the body through awareness of its makeup as sense faculties and their objects, of physical activity, of breathing, of the body's constituent elements and different types of filth, and of what it looks like after death. 

  • It also explains the rest of the thirty-seven dharmas on the side of awakening

  • the three meditative stabilizations on emptiness, signlessness, and wishlessness

  • the eleven knowledges

  • and each of the three faculties ‍— the faculty of coming to understand what one does not understand, the faculty of understanding, and the faculty of having understood. 

  • There is a further explanation of the stages of meditative stabilization between the desire realm and first concentration level, and from there to the highest formless absorption; 

  • of the ten mindfulnesses (of the Three Jewels and so on); and 

  • of the four immeasurables and each 

  • of the four concentrations

  • four formless absorptions

  • eight deliverances, and 

  • nine serial absorptions

  • There is also an explanation of each of the ten powers,

  • four fearlessnesses

  • four detailed and thorough knowledges, and 

  • eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha, and, 

  • finally, a detailed explanation of the types of dhāraṇī based on the letters of the Karoṣṭhī alphabet.

—————————————————————

Chapter 17 – Level Purification – The ten stages of the Bodhisattva Path, stages of purification / completion / perfection / preparation.

(i.e. Résumé:
Going without going through the ten stages of the Bodhisattva Path – stages of purification / completion / perfection / preparation – by way of not apprehending, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes. Purifying / completing / perfecting conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively, without purifying / completing / perfecting in absolute terms.
-
Stages of the Bodhisattva Path: practicing / completing with skillful means the six perfections [T1] by way of not apprehending, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes [T2] [U2T].
-
Bodhisattvas practicing the six perfections… change place, going from level to level [conventionally, relatively] [T1], by all dharmas not changing place [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T].
Because no dharma comes, or goes, or changes place, or is close to changing places [in absolute terms [T2], just conventionally [T1] [U2T]].
Because nothing really exists and changes / gets defiled or gets purified in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively.
-
"But even though they do not falsely project the level of those dharmas [T2],
do not direct their thoughts toward them [in absolute terms] [T2],
they still [conventionally, relatively] do the purification for a level [T1],
and they do notview those levels [in absolute terms] [T2] [U2T]."
-
There are ten levels of purification / completion on the bodhisattva's path.
They are practices / completions / purifications [T1], by way of notviewing, not apprehending, not paying attention to, not finding, not settling down on, not falsely projecting, not seizing, not wallowing in, not relying on, not getting attached to, not fixating, not reifying, not absolutising, not polarising … in absolute terms [T2] [U2T] – just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively.
Purifying / practicing / completing / perfecting without purifying / practicing / completing / perfecting, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes:
They are purifications in the conventional / relative / intersubjective sense [T1], but not a purification of anything in absolute terms [T2] [U2T].
It is the Middle Way free from all extremes & middle: nothing to accept / affirm / seek / add / do in absolute terms, nothing to reject / nagate / abandon / eliminate / subtract / not-do in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively if it helps someone to get closer to the inconceivable liberating Truth [U2T].
it is not relying on anything, not giving up / stopping / avoiding / giving up / eliminating / destroying… anything in absolute terms [T2], just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively as possible temporary impermanent tools / adapted skillful means / antidote [T1] [U2T].
-
Why? Because all dharmas are empty of inherent existence (T2], not really existent / caused / functional <==> because conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S] in dependence of its conditioning / karma. Andviceversa; one aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T]. Because everything is like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T]. Because all dharmas are unarisen / unborn, unconditioned, unchanging, unceasing – in the non-dual sense of those terms: not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither. Because all dharmas are equal, pure, perfect, divine, complete, free, enlightened, the inseparable three pure kayas, the true Buddha.
-
What is done in purification / completion?
What is purified / perfected in each level?
-
Brief explanation of many concepts.
-
Conclusion: all words / symbols / images / concepts, teachings, truths /views, methods / practices, milestones / stages / levels, goals, perfections …, all dharmas – physical / body, conceptual / speech, mental / mind; subject / beings, relation / action / process, object / phenomena; apparent opposites; even the two truths themselves – are 'purified / completed / perfected / transcended' by combining them with more and more wisdom about their true nature & dynamic as it is here & now, about the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths [U2T] about them. The bodhisattva path is not about discrimination / differentiation, accepting this in absolute terms, while rejecting / negating / abandoning / eliminating / stopping that in absolute terms; but about directly realising the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now [U2T / U3S / Uopp / U2T-2T], the true nature & dynamic of the self-conditioning / karmic cycle.)

i.­61

In response to Subhūti's question about how bodhisattvas come to have set out in the Great Vehicle, the text says that bodhisattvas do so by ascending from the first of the ten levels up to the last. For each of the ten levels there are a different number of purifications, first set forth in lists and then individually explained in a second section. A bodhisattva great being on the tenth level is called a tathāgata. To reach that level bodhisattvas practice all six perfections, and so on, with skillful means, passing beyond the Śuklavipaśyanā, Gotra, Aṣṭamaka, Darśana, Tanū, Vītarāga, Kṛtāvin, and Pratyekabuddha levels. These are all the fundamental Buddhist attainments of stream enterer, and so on, that bodhisattvas master but do not fully actualize. It then says the practitioner "pass beyond these nine levels and stands on the buddha level."


Even the unshared bodhisattva practice of mastery of all levels as a demonstration for the benefit of others is illusory and transcended. At that point the bodhisattva on the tenth level is modeling the perfect life of a fully awakened being, which is also transcended for the final authentic full awakening.

—————————————————————

Chapter 18 – No real going forth / movement / change or standing / resting / non-changing

(i.e. There are no real three stages of becoming – origination / production, duration / change / movement / going forth, cessation / resting  / standing –; no real origin / samsara, traveling / going forth and destination / nirvana.
-
All dharmas – including the great Vehicle – are not really caused / produced or non-caused / non-produced, existent or non-existent, changing or non-changing, moving / going forth or resting / standing, functional or non-functional, ceasing or non-ceasing … in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively.
-
Logic: Because of being empty of inherent existence <==> because dependently co-arisen / interdependent, then all dharmas – including the Great Vehicle and Suchness – are not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither – for whatever 'this' is; and vice versa. Meaning not describable / conceivable / understood by our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s), not indescribable / inconceivable / misunderstood, not both together, not neither.
-
[So there is nothing to accept or reject, nothing to change or not-change … in absolute terms:] The Great Vehicle is not really about somebody leaving samsara (going forth from the three realms) to get to nirvana (to stand in the knowledge of all aspects / omniscience) in absolute terms; just conventionally / relatively / intersubjectively – as an adapted skillful means.
-
All dharmas are unmoving / unchanging in absolute terms.
They do not go anywhere, they do not come from anywhere, and they do not remain anywhere.
All dharmas are without any real, inherently existing, three stages of becoming or three times – (i) origination / beginning / birth / coming / before / past, (ii) duration / middle / life / staying / change / during / present, (iii) cessation / ending / death / going / after / future; or cause / production, existence, functionality –. The three stages of becoming, or three times, are empty of inherent existence <==> because dependently co-arisen / interdependent, merely labeled / imputed by the mind. And vice versa. They are like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, echos, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' They are not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, no tboth together, not neither,  and there is no fifth. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable.
-
In Reality as it is here & now, all dharmas are primordially timeless, unarisen, unconditioned, unchanging, unceasing – thus not going forth, not changed, not tainted, not purified ... in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively — because all dharmas are empty of inherent existence [T2] <==> because dependently co-arising / interdependent [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S], like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, echos, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T].
-
Thus, the Great Vehicle [cause / path] will not go forth from the three realms [samsara / ignorance]
and will not stand in the knowledge of all aspects [final destination / effect: nirvana / omniscience].
That vehicle does not move [change].
-
The true nature & dynamic as it is of all dharmas – physical, conceptual , mental; body, speech, mind; subject, relation / action, object; entities, marks / signs, names; even the two truths – is inconceivable unique all-pervading timeless unborn non-existent unconditioned unchanging unceasing pristine.
This true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is also called: the very limit of reality / Ground / Basis / Source / Genuine-emptiness / Buddha-nature / Suchness / Union of the Two Truths [U2T] – free from all extremes & middle.
-
Even this Ground does not originate from causes & conditions / parts / or any basis, does not inherently exist, does not change, does not become defiled, does not become purified, does not go forth, does not produce, does not occasion, does not stop, does not cease in absolute terms; just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively.
It is not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth – for whatever 'this' is.
-
This Ground is inseparable from its spontaneous natural manifestations [UGM] – all appearances – which have the same attributes.
All dharmas do not originate from causes & conditions / parts / or any basis, do not inherently exist, do not change, do not become defiled, do not become purified, do not go forth, do not produce, do not occasion, do not stop, do not ceasein absolute terms; just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively.
All dharmas are not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth – for whatever 'this' is.
This is the unique mark – that is, no mark in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively.
-
Nothing is really caused / produced / existent / changing / functional / producing / ceasing [T2], only conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively [T1] [U2T].
Why? Because everything is like a Union of being empty of inherent existence [T2] <==> and being conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind in dependence of its conditioning / karma [U3S]. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T]. Because everything is like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, magical tricks: 'There, but not there,' [U2T].)
-
The Middle Way free from all extremes & middle: It is not about accepting / affirming / seeking / adding / doing anything in absolute terms, not about rejecting / negating / abandoning / eliminating / stopping / subtracting / not-doing anything in absolute terms, not about changing / improving / completing / purifying anything in absolute terms, not about going somewhere else. Enlightenment is not caused / produced, it is beyond change / movement / causality / production / duality / conceptualisation and non-causality / non-production / non-duality / non-conceptualisation. So it is not about going from samsara to nirvana, from ignorance to wisdom – as if these things were really existent and in real opposition.
-
Union of the Two Truths about apparent opposites like the three spheres of causality: subject / cause (the great vehicle) and object / effect (the knowledge of all aspect) (and relation / action / causality) are inseparable, interdependent, co-defined, co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing / co-transcended <==> thus empty of inherent existence <==> merely labeled / imputed by the mind in dependence of its experiences / conditioning / karma. They are not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither; not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither.
-
—--------------------------------------
-
Logic: Because of being empty of inherent existence <==> because dependently co-arisen / interdependent, then all dharmas – including the Great Vehicle and Suchness – are not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither – for whatever 'this' is; and vice versa. Meaning not describable / conceivable / understood by our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s), not indescribable / inconceivable / misunderstood, not both together, not neither.
-
Nothing is really caused or not-caused, existent or non-existent, changing or not-changing, resting / standing or moving / going forth, functional or not-functional, ceasing or not-ceasing … in absolute terms, only conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively. So there is no real origin / past, traveling / change / present, destination / future, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively; not real samsara, path, nirvana.
-
Conclusion: there is no real 'movement / going forth from the three realms', no real 'resting / standing in the knowledge of all aspects / omniscience', no real 'subject going forth from samsara to nirvana' – just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively. [U2T])

i.­62

In response to the question "From where will the Great Vehicle go forth?" the text says that a mahāyāna ("great vehicle") is equivalent to a niryāna that means both "going forth" and "devoid of a vehicle." The Great Vehicle includes all phenomena and all practices because all are illusory and none has any defining mark. Reality, emptiness, and the unmarked do not go forth from anywhere, and an illusion does not go forth, either. "That vehicle does not move."


i.­63

In response to the question "Where will the Great Vehicle stand?" the text says it stands nowhere because all phenomena stand nowhere, since even the intrinsic nature of reality is empty of the intrinsic nature of reality. All phenomena, all the noble beings in the results of basic practice, and even the bodhisattva practice stand nowhere.


i.­64

In response to the question "Who will go forth in the Great Vehicle?" the text says no one will go forth in the Great Vehicle because a self, a being, and so on cannot be apprehended anywhere, nor can any of the dharmas that might locate such a being be apprehended. Everything is absolutely pure in its nature and knows no increase or decrease. Nothing is apprehended because everything is empty.

—————————————————————

Chapter 19 – Surpassing - The Great Vehicle surpasses the apparent world.

(i.e. [Surpassing] The Great Vehicle (the practice of the six perfection …) surpasses all dharmas, the three spheres (subject, relation / action, object), apparent opposites, the two truths (dependent origination / production and emptiness), the three stages of becoming or three times (origination / past, duration / / change / present, cessation / future), the irreducible elements (earth, water, fire, wind, space, consciousness), suchness, omniscience, Buddhahood, nirvana, all description / conceptualisation, discrimination / differentiations / dualities ('this', 'non-this', both together, neither – for whatever 'this' is), forms / matter-energy, space & time; all words, concepts, ideas, philosophies, teachings, views, methods, practices, levels, goals — because all dharmas (physical, conceptual, mental; past, present, future; entities, characteristics / properties / qualities / marks / signs / relations / oppositions / activities, names / labels) are conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances, merely labeled / imputed by the mind <==> thus empty of inherent existence; and vice versa. Because all dharmas are like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, echos, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' Because the Great Vehicle refutes all extremes & middle, all dualistic conceptual proliferations, all defining limitations, all conditioning / karma.
-
Logic: Because of being empty of inherent existence <==> because dependently co-arisen / interdependent, then all dharmas – including the Great Vehicle and Suchness – are not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither – for whatever 'this' is; and vice versa. Meaning not describable / conceivable / understood by our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s), not indescribable / inconceivable / misunderstood, not both together, not neither.
-
It is the practice without practicing of the six paramitas …, the eighteen emptinesses …
The Great Vehicle‍ is a vehicle equally of the three time periods.
The Great vehicle is like space & time; useful but still cannot be seen / apprehended in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively.
It transcends causality, space & time – with the Union of the three times [U3T].
-
The Great vehicle surpasses the world because everything in the world – including all dharmas with their marks / signs and names / labels, the five aggregates, the eighteen elements, the irreducible elements, the four noble truths, the twelve links of dependent origination, the three Jewels, the three kayas, the six perfections, all types of mindfulness / mental stabilisations / concentrations / meditations, all the levels, all other dharmas of the path, the three spheres [3S] of any type of relations / actions, the apparent opposites [opp] of any duality / triad / quads / etc., even the two truths [2T] themselves (dependent origination / causality and the emptinesses), even space & time, even suchness [U2T], all types of knowledges, awakening / omniscience, the Great Vehicle itself –, is like an inconceivable Union of being empty of inherent existence [T2] <==> and being conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1] [U2T], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S], indescribable / inconceivable, beyond all dualities [Uopp], beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all defining limitations, beyond all conditioning / karma.
-
The Great Vehicle, like space, has room for infinite, countless beings beyond measure.
-
All dharmas are unmoving. They do not go anywhere, they do not come from anywhere, and they do not remain anywhere.
All dharmas are without any inherently existing three stages of becoming or three times: (i) origination / beginning / birth / coming / before / past, (ii) duration / middle / life / staying / change / during / present, (iii) cessation / ending / death / going / after / future – or cause, existence, functionality –. The three stages of becoming, or three times, are empty of inherent existence <==> because dependently co-arisen / interdependent, merely labeled / imputed by the mind. And vice versa. They are not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, no tboth together, not neither,  and there is no fifth. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable.
-
"Because of being empty of inherent existence, all dharmas are not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither; not permanent, not impermanent, not both together (neutral), not neither." (chapter 14 - Neither Bound nor Freed)
-
The Great Vehicle is about directly realising the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now, the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths about all dharmas [U2T / U2T-3S, U2T-opp, U2T/2T), and acting more and more in accord with it. It surpasses everything in the three worlds, because everything is like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, echos, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T], and the path is about directly realising that and getting free from all the illusions. It is Great because it does not hold any absolute.
-
It is a Great Vehicle because it refutes all extremes & middle, not just one extreme (inherent existence): because it views all dharmas as like an inconceivable Union of being conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means, merely labeled / imputed by the mind, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional <==> thus empty of inherent existence, not really existent / caused / functional. And vice versa: one aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other [U2T]. Because all dharmas are like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, echos, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T]. That all dharmas are not inherently existent, not completely non-existent, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth, not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither – for whatever 'this' is. Meaning the true nature & dynamic of all dharmas is indescribable / inconceivable. That is the Middle Way free from all extremes & middle. Extremes like (i) existence / causality / dependent origination [T1-only], (ii) non-existence / nothingness / mere-emptiness [T2-only], (iii) both existence & non-existence together / the two truth together as different and in opposition [2T], (iv) not neither existence nor non-existence as if the etrow truths were identical and one [1T].)

i.­65

The Great Vehicle is great because it surpasses the world. It is like space in that it encompasses all the perfections up to the dhāraṇīs, and just as you cannot apprehend space as coming or going, and just as time is equally just time in all time periods and does not come and go, so too with the Great Vehicle.


i.­66

The Great Vehicle surpasses the world because the world is a construction. The Great Vehicle is equal to space. The directions of space do not make themselves known. Space cannot be qualified by size, color, time, defilement, or purification, as something that should be understood, as free from greed and so on, and there are no levels or paths or results in space. You cannot hear or see or remember space, and it is not included anywhere. In space no thought comes into being, and similarly with the Great Vehicle. The dharma-constituent (dharmadhātu), space, and beings are infinite because, playing on the similarity of the Sanskrit words sattva ("being," "state of being") and sattā ("state of existence"), to be is not to exist, and spaces are states that do not exist, and so too with all phenomena. Just as the state of nirvāṇa has room for all beings, so too does the Great Vehicle.


i.­67

All dharmas are unmoving, so the Great Vehicle does not move. The basic nature of all dharmas does not come, does not go, and does not remain. There is no before, middle, and after to the journey of the Great Vehicle because all time periods are empty of those time periods.

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Chapter 20 – Not Two – Non-duality: All dharmas – including the two truths – are non-dual: not two, not one, not both together, not neither.

(i.e. [Union of opposites / Uopp / U3S / U2T / U2T-2T]: Non-duality: All dharmas – including the two truths – are non-dual: not two, not one, not both together, not neither.
-
All teachings / paths / lives come together and stream into the perfection of wisdom [U2T / U3S / Uopp / U2T-2T].
Whatever the dharma, all these dharmas are not conjoined (identical / united / one), are not disjoined (different / separate / two), are formless, cannot be pointed out, do not obstruct, and have only one mark [U2T]‍ — that is, no mark [in absolute terms [T2], just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively] [T1].
-
Logic: Because of being empty of inherent existence <==> because dependently co-arisen / interdependent, then all dharmas – including the Great Vehicle and Suchness – are not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither – for whatever 'this' is; and vice versa. Meaning not describable / conceivable / understood by our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s), not indescribable / inconceivable / misunderstood, not both together, not neither.
-
[Tetralemma on the three stages of becoming:] Things are not caused / originating / existing / moving / changing / functional / ceasing, not non-caused / non-arising / non-existing / non-moving / non-changing / non-functional / non-ceasing, not both together, not neither; not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilated, not both together, not neither; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither – for whatever 'this' is. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable.
-
Conventionally we say things are 'caused, arising, lasting, moving, changing, functional / occasioning this or that, then ceasing' conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively, but in Reality as it is, nothing really originates, lasts, changes, moves, functions by occasioning this or that, and then ceases in absolute terms just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively.
-
Limitlessness & centerlessness: Because all dharmas – entities (physical, conceptual, mental), characteristics / properties / qualities / marks / signs / relations / oppositions / activities, names / labels, even the two truths themselves – are empty of inherent existence (do not arise, do not really exist, do not change, do not cease, cannot be asserted, cannot be seen, cannot be apprehended, cannot be located in space-time, cannot be defined, cannot be named, cannot be related, cannot be found in absolute terms) [T2] <==> because conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1] and merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S] <==> then there are no real three stages of becoming or three times – origination / before / past, duration / during / present, cessation / after / future – relative to anything; nor are they completely absent / non-existent. There are no real extreme limits or middle for the processes of definitions / signs / marks / names / knowledge, nor for causality / production / acquisition / karma, space & time. How could those dharmas... have ever come into being, and at particular places, particular times, from particular causes and conditions, with particular signs / marks, with particular names / labels ... (at particular places, a particular times, from particular causes and conditions, with particular signs / marks, with particular names / labels ...)? All cause & effects have their own causes & effects; all words / concepts / definitions are relative to other words / concepts / definitions; all defining characteristics are defined by their own defining marks; all producers / acquirers are produced / acquired, and all products are producing; all position in space-time are relative to other positions; all knowledge are relative to other knowledges, all perceiver / knower are perceived / known, etc. Samsara is limitless and centerless. And that is perfect, as long as we are fully aware of it.
-
Take any pair of apparent opposites, in Reality as it is,
one opposite is not 'one thing' and the other 'another'
(i.e. One vs. another: different / separate / multiple / dual -- in absolute terms).
(and we can generalise this to groups of more than two opposites.)
-
[The true inter-relation between apparent opposites:] Apparent opposites, in any duality / triad / quad / ect., are not really different, separate, in opposition; but are more like inseparable, interdependent, co-defined, co-relative, co=-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving. co-ceasing / co-transcended, in harmony; in tother words 'conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means <==> thus both empty of inherent existence [T2]. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T].
Why? Because that is the true nature & dynamic of our mind; that is how it works; that is what we need to realise. We operate on a conventional / relative level, never on an absolute level. And that is perfectly fine, as long as we are always aware of it.
-
These apparent opposites and their relation / opposition are like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, echos, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.'
These apparent opposites are always not really existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilated, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not dependent, not independent, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not empty, not non-empty, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not dependently co-arisen [T1], not empty of inherent existence [T2], not both truths together [2T], not neither truths [1T], and there is no fifth; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth – for whatever 'this' is.
Meaning the true nature & dynamic of the apparent opposites and their inter-relation / inter-action is indescribable / inconceivable in absolute terms for our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s). Not describable / conceivable / conceptualisable, not indescribable / inconceivable / non-conceptualisable, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth.
Why? Because that is the true nature & dynamic of our mind; that is how it works; that is what we need to realise. We operate on a conventional / relative level, never on an absolute level. And that is perfectly fine, as long as we are always aware of it.
-
This applies to the apparent opposites of any kind. Example, this also applies to the apparent opposites that are the three spheres of any type of relation / actions [3S] – ex. subject / actor / perceiver / knower, relation / action / perception / cognition, object / result / perceived / known; another example: subject / actor / cause / producer, relation / action / causality / production, object / result / effect / product; another example: subject / acquirer, relation / action / acquisition, object / result / acquired  –.
It also applies to the two apparent opposites that are the two truths [2T] – appearances / dependent origination / functionality and emptiness of inherent existence –.
This also applies to the two apparent opposites that are the Ground / Basis / Source / Genuine-emptiness / Buddha-nature / Suchness / True nature of Reality as it is here & now / Union of the two truths … and its manifestations / appearances [GM].
Why? Because that is the true nature & dynamic of our mind; that is how it works; that is what we need to realise. We operate on a conventional / relative level, never on an absolute level. And that is perfectly fine, as long as we are always aware of it.
In the case of apparent opposites in general we call this inter-relation "the Union of opposites [Uopp / U2T-opp].
In the particular case of the three spheres in general we call this inter-relation "the Union of the three spheres [U3S / U2T-3S].
In the particular case of subject / perceiver / knower / beings & object / perceived / known / phenomena we call this inter-relation "the Union of the three spheres of perception / cognition [U3S / U2T-3S].
In the particular case of cause & effect we call this inter-relation "the Union of the three spheres of causality [U3S / U2T-3S].
In the particular case of the two truths we call this inter-relation "the Union of the two truths [U2T].
In the case of 'conventional vs. absolute' we call this inter-relation "the Union of conventional & absolute [Uopp].
In the case of 'relative vs. universal' we call this inter-relation "the Union of relative vs. universal [Uopp].
In the particular case of the Ground and its manifestations we call this inter-relation "the Union of the Ground / Suchness & its manifestations / appearances [UGM].
In the particular case of the three times / three stages of becoming we call this inter-relation "the Union of the three times [U3T / U2T-3T].
In the case of 'samsara / bound / ignorance vs. nirvana / freed / wisdom / knowledge' we call this inter-relation "the Union of samsara & nirvana [Uopp].
In the case of the three vajras / three kayas – body, speech, mind – we call this inter-relation "the Union of the three vajras [U3V / U3K].
In the case of the three Jewels –Buddha, Dharma, Sangha – we call this inter-relation "the Union of the three Jewels [U3J].
In the case of the path 'virtuous methods vs wisdom' we call this inter-relation "the Union of method & wisdom [Uopp].
In the case of the fruition 'compassion vs. emptiness' we call this inter-relation "the Union of compassion & emptiness [Uopp].
In the case of 'the view, the path and fruition' we call this inter-relation "the Union of View, Path and Fruition [Uopp].
In the case of 'action / movement / practice / training vs. non-action / rest / non-practice / non-training' we call this inter-relation "the Union of movement & rest [Uopp].
In the case of 'dharma / existence / presence vs. non-dharma / non-existence / absence' we call this inter-relation "the Union of dharma & non-dharma [Uopp / U2T].
In the case of 'originated / produced / lasting / changing / cessing vs. unarisen / unproduced / nonexistent / unchanging / unceasing' we call this inter-relation "the Union of changing & unchanging [Uopp].
In the case of 'right vs. wrong' we call this inter-relation "the Union of right & wrong [Uopp].
In the case of 'illusory vs. real' we call this inter-relation "the Union of reality & illusion [Uopp].
In the case of 'light vs. darkness' we call this inter-relation "the Union of light & darkness [Uopp].
In the case of 'inferior vs. superior vs. average' we call this inter-relation "the Union of inferiority & superiority [Uopp].
In the case of 'permanence vs. impermanence' we call this inter-relation "the Union of permanence & impermanence [Uopp].
In the case of 'with-sign/marks/name vs. without-sign/mark/name' we call this inter-relation "the Union of signed/named vs. signless/nameless [Uopp].
In the case of 'objective vs. subjective vs. relative' we call this inter-relation "the Union of the three spheres [U3S].
In the case of 'equality / purity / perfection / divinity / completeness vs. inequality / impurity / mimperfection / ordinariness / incompleteness' we call this inter-relation "the Union of purity & impurity… [Uopp].
In the case of 'duality / two vs. non-duality / one' we call this inter-relation "the Union of duality & non-duality[Uopp].
In the case of 'everything vs. nothing' we call this inter-relation "the Union of everything & nothing [Uopp].
In the case of 'conventional vs. absolute' we call this inter-relation "the Union of conventional & absolute [Uopp].
In the case of 'conventional vs. absolute' we call this inter-relation "the Union of conventional & absolute [Uopp].
In the case of 'accept / affirm / seek / add / do vs. reject / negate / abandoned / eliminate / subtract / not-dol' we call this inter-relation "the Union of accepting & rejecting [Uopp].
In the case of 'this vs. non-this' we call this inter-relation "the Union of this & non-this – whatever 'this' is [Uopp].
Why? Because that is the true nature & dynamic of our mind; that is how it works; that is what we need to realise. We operate on a conventional / relative level, never on an absolute level. And that is perfectly fine, as long as we are always aware of it.
-
With these 'Unions' one can remain free from all extremes & middle. That is liberation.)

i.­68

To talk about the Great Vehicle is to talk about the Perfection of Wisdom because both include all wholesome dharmas. Ultimately there is no difference between any phenomena [equality], so bodhisattvas train in them to master them and demonstrate them to those who benefit from them, not for any goal. This is because all phenomena [although appearing [T1]] are illusory [U2T] and share the same defining mark ‍— no mark at all [T2] [U2T].


i.­69

How is it possible to give instructions to bodhisattvas who cannot be found in any of the three time periods, are unproduced, and are without a limit? A bodhisattva is just a word [T1] and cannot be apprehended [T2] [U2T]. The instructions are given with the understanding of that reality.


i.­70

Śāriputra poses many questions and Subhūti, in response, says beings ("states of beings") are not asserted to be at any limit ‍— before, after, or in between ‍— because they are non existent ("states of non-existence"), and the same holds true for all phenomena and practices. There are no [inherently existing] bodhisattvas to whom one can give instructions, because form and so on are empty of form and empty of every other dharma [T2] [U2T]. Bodhisattva is just a name plucked out of thin air [T1].


The Lord says "self" again and again [T1], but it has absolutely never come into being because it does not exist and is not found [T2] [U2T], and the same holds true for all phenomena. All [appearing] phenomena [T1] thus are the non-existence of an intrinsic nature [T2] [U2T] because an intrinsic nature arisen from a union (sāmyogika) does not exist. What does not come into being has no basic nature, so it cannot be instructed or give instruction, and yet it is just an unproduced bodhisattva that practices the Perfection of Wisdom by not seeing any phenomena other than those that have not come into being. Such bodhisattvas see all phenomena as like illusions and are not scared when given instructions in the Perfection of Wisdom. The practitioner sees no [inherently existing] phenomena at all [T2] [just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively [T1] [U2T]].

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Chapter 21 – Subhūti – Perfecting without perfecting the six perfections, without attachments / fixation / absolutes to the three spheres. Ex. Empty-actor/producer empty-acting/producing empty-results/effects/ products [U3S / U2T-3S].

Bodhisattvas perfect without perfecting the six perfections, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes about the three spheres. Ex. Empty-actor/producer empty-acting/producing empty-results/effects/products – while being fully aware of the Union of the Two Truths about the three spheres [U2T-3S].
-
Bodhisattvas know the aspects of all dharmas [T1] but they do not settle down on those dharmas in absolute terms [T2] [U2T].
They know them conventionally without knowing them in absolute terms, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes.
-
Bodhisattvas know their marks / characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / features / relations / oppositions / processes / activities / changes … but they do not settle down on those in absolute terms [T2] [U2T] –
They know them conventionally without knowing them in absolute terms, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes.
-
Bodhisattvas know their names / labelsbut they do not settle down on those in absolute terms [T2] [U2T] –
They know them conventionally without knowing them in absolute terms, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes.
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The perfection of wisdom is going far off (going beyond / transcending / purifying) all of these dharmas, signs / marks, and names / labels.
It is going conventionally without going far off in absolute terms, transcending without transcending in absolute terms,without any attachment / fixation / absolutes.
-
Bodhisattvas do not investigate in absolute terms, those dharmas, and their characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / features / relations / oppositions / processes / activities / changes, and their names / labels.
It is investigating them conventionally without investigating them in absolute terms, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes.
-
Investigating without investigating those dharmas… like that, is practicing without practicing the perfection of wisdom:
-
Ex. Acting / investigating / knowing without acting / investigating / knowing, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes – about the three spheres of giving – subject / investigator, relation / action / investigating, objects / gift / investigated; or about cause, causality, effect / knowledge –. That is, not grasping at any of those three spheres as if existing independently / separately / absolutely / inherently , and as having inherently existing characteristics / properties / attributes / qualities / features / relations / oppositions / processes / activities / changes.
-
The same for all other virtuous practices – ex. the other five perfections and generating Bodhicitta –;
the same for all activities of the body, speech and mind.
Ex. Acting / practicing / giving without acting / practicing / giving,
but without any grasping / attachment / apprehension / obsession / fixation / reification / reference points / absolutes;
without falling into any extreme or middle;
without any duality / di-vision between subject & object & action, cause & causality & effect, right & wrong, movement & rest, samsara & nirvana;
more and more in accord with the Middle Way: not accepting / affirming / seeking / adding / improving / doing in absolute terms, not rejecting / negating / abandoning / eliminating / subtracting / not-doing anything in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively;
thus more and more in accord with the transcendent perfection of wisdom;
more and more in accord with the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is;
more and more in accord with the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths about all dharmas [U2T / U2T-3S / U2T-opp / U2T-2T] beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all defining limitations, beyond all conditioning / karma.)
-
[U2T-all] All dharmas are empty of inherent existence <==> because conventionally dependently co-arise (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S]. And vice versa.
[U2T-2T] The two truths – appearances and emptiness – are not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither.
[Tetralemma causality / production:] All dharmas are not caused / produced, not non-caused / non-produced, not both together, not neither.
[Conventionally but not ultimately:] Conventionally we say things are 'caused / produced, arising, lasting, moving, changing, functional / occasioning this or that, then ceasing' conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively, but in Reality as it is, nothing really originates, lasts, changes, moves, functions by occasioning this or that, and then ceases in absolute terms – just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively.
[Tetralemma three stages of becoming:] Things are not caused / produced / originating / existing / moving / changing / functional / ceasing, not non-caused / non-produced / non-arising / non-existing / non-moving / non-changing / non-functional / non-ceasing, not both together, not neither; not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilated, not both together, not neither; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither – for whatever 'this' is. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable.
-
[U2T] Union of the Two Truths about all dharmas: All dharmas are empty of inherent existence <==> because conventionally dependently co-arise (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S]. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T]. They are like illusions / reflections / mirages / dreams / echos / magical tricks: There, but not there.' [U2T]. They are not really existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional / useless / meaningless, not both together, not neither; not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither – for whatever 'this' is. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable.
-
[U2T-2T] Union of the Two Truths about the two truths – appearance and emptiness –: These two aspects / truths are not really separate, independent, dual, in opposition; they are more like inseparable, interdependent, co-defined, co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing / co-transcended, in harmony – but in the non-dual sense of those terms: ex. not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither.
The two truths themselves are empty of inherent existence <==> because conventionally dependently co-arise (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S]. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T]. They are like illusions / reflections / mirages / dreams / echos / magical tricks: There, but not there.' [U2T]. They are not really existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional / useless / meaningless, not both together, not neither; not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither – for whatever 'this' is. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable.
-
[U3S / U2T-3S-causality/production:] Union of the Two Truths about the three spheres of causality / production – subject / actor / cause / producer, relation / action / causality / production, object / result / effect / product –. These three spheres are not really separate, independent, dual, in opposition; they are more like inseparable, interdependent, co-defined, co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing / co-transcended, in harmony – but in the non-dual sense of those terms: ex. not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither.
The three spheres of causality / production are empty of inherent existence <==> because conventionally dependently co-arise (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S]. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T]. They are like illusions / reflections / mirages / dreams / echos / magical tricks: There, but not there.' [U2T]. They are not really existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional / useless / meaningless, not both together, not neither; not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither – for whatever 'this' is. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable.
-
[Uopp:] Union of the Two Truths about apparent opposites–. Apparent opposites are not really separate, independent, dual, in opposition; they are more like inseparable, interdependent, co-defined, co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing / co-transcended, in harmony – but in the non-dual sense of those terms: ex. not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither.
Apparent opposites are empty of inherent existence <==> because conventionally dependently co-arise (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S]. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T]. They are like illusions / reflections / mirages / dreams / echos / magical tricks: There, but not there.' [U2T]. They are not really existent / caused / functional, not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional / useless / meaningless, not both together, not neither; not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither – for whatever 'this' is. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable.
-
[Tetralemma:] Because of being empty of inherent existence <==> because dependently co-arisen / interdependent [U2T], then all dharmas are not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither – and vice versa –; ex. not caused / produced / functional, not non-caused / non-produced / non-functional, not both together, not neither; not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither; not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither; not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilated, not both together, not neither; not dependent, not independent, not both together, not neither; not empty, non non-empty, not both together, not neither; not dependently co-arisen [T1], not empty of inherent existence [T2], not both truth together [2T], not neither of the two truths [1T]; etc.
-
Ex. Things are not caused / produced / originating / existing / moving / changing / functional / ceasing, not non-caused / non-produced / non-arising / non-existing / non-moving / non-changing / non-functional / non-ceasing, not both together, not neither; not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilated, not both together, not neither; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither – for whatever 'this' is. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable.
-
All dharmas are non-dual: not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / on-dual, not both together, not neither.
-
From Chapter 20: "Whatever the dharma, all these dharmas are not conjoined (identical / united / one), are not disjoined (different / separate / two), are formless, cannot be pointed out, do not obstruct, and have only one mark [U2T]‍ — that is, no mark [in absolute terms [T2], just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively] [T1].
-
Because of absolute purity bodhisattvas then view the non [real] production [T2] of all dharmas [T1] [U2T].
(i.e. From Chapter 9: The purity of all dharmas:
Because of the state of absolute purity bodhisattvas do not apprehend (reify, objectify) any dharma [T2] [U2T].
"Śāriputra," replied the Lord, not being produced, not stopping, not being defilement, not being purification, not appearing, not being apprehended, and not occasioning anything [in absolute terms] is called the purity of all dharmas.)
-
[U3S-production / U2T-3S-production:] An empty-actor/cause necessarily has an empty-action/production of an empty-result/effect; and vice versa. None of them can be real / inherently existent. This is the limitless & centerless cycle of causality / production / co-evolution of the three spheres, the karmic cycle. Everything is empty because dependently caused / produced, caused / produced because empty of inherent existence. One aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other. There are conventional / relative / inter-subjective actors / causes / producers, actions / causality / production, results / effects / products, but not not in absolute terms, not inherently existing.)

i.­71

Expanding on the responses he provided to Śāriputra in the previous chapter, Subhūti again explains what a bodhisattva and the Perfection of Wisdom are and what an investigation of phenomena entails. Using different etymologies, he says a bodhisattva is so called because bodhi ("awakening") is itself one's state of being (sattva).

To awaken to a phenomenon means to know it [T1] without settling down on it as ultimately real [T2] [U2T], to know it through, and as, the different names for it.

The perfection (pāramitā) of wisdom is so called because it has "gone far off" (āram itā) or "gone to the other side" (pāram itā) of all phenomena.


i.­72

In a final exchange, Śāriputra and Subhūti say ordinary beings are not already in nirvāṇa or awakened even though all beings and all dharmas are equally not produced and only like illusions, because an unproduced being or dharma has no attainment or clear realization. There are no difficult practices that bodhisattvas have to undertake to reach the goal. Bodhisattvas simply work for the welfare of all beings [T1] knowing that everything is unproduced and empty [T2] [U2T] and like an illusion [U2T]. Attainment and clear realization happen in a non-dual way. They exist as mere conventions. The forms of life that arise from afflictions and karma and the purification dharmas are all just conventional terms for the benefit of beings [T1]. As for non-production [T2], it is not there because something real or not real does not happen ‍— it is the way things are [U2T].


i.­73

The doctrine has never been taught because no words have ever been produced [T2]. No confidence giving a readiness to speak, and none of the categories and phenomena to be explained, have ever been produced. Everything is empty of a basic nature [T2], so nobody can take any fixed position in regard to anything [no absolute basis].


i.­74

Still, the path to awakening is purified by an integrated practice of the six perfections [T1]. There are ordinary and extraordinary perfections. The practice of the ordinary perfection of giving is being generous while still attached to the idea of self, the idea of other, and the idea of giving. The extraordinary perfection of giving [T1] is free from those attachments [T2] [U2T]. The other perfections are similar. As for the path that is purified, it is the path that includes every practice and result that beings of different dispositions might feel attracted to. It includes all the purification dharmas, and the practice of them all is work at the extraordinary Perfection of Wisdom. This is the work that all the buddhas of the three time periods have engaged in.


i.­75

Śāriputra says that all beings who would be bodhisattvas always pay attention to the goal, the knowledge of all aspects, in order to be of benefit to beings even though they do not know it.

Subhūti agrees, but not when you take the statement as a statement of an absolute truth. Bodhisattvas do not continually pay attention to the goal of the knowledge of all aspects to be of benefit to beings by turning the wheel of the Dharma, because all phenomena are non-existent and empty.
(i.e. Knowledge of all aspects (omniscience): Knowledge of all valid useful conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent concepts / ideas / truths / views / methods / practices / goals / adapted skillful means / antidotes [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind <==> together with their emptiness of inherent existence [T2], as a Union of the Two Truths [U2T / U2T-3S / U2T-opp / U2T-2T]. Thus being able to use conventionally / relatively, but without any attachment / fixation / absolutes; thus not slaves to them. Bodhisattvas wants to know all of those aspects because they awant to be able to help all sentient beings without discrimination. It is not omniscience about objects and relations in an objective world (like with sciences), but omniscience about the way beings think and about how to help them, about the functioning of the karmic cycle and how to disarm it.)


i.­76

This exposition of the doctrine by Subhūti causes the worlds to shake, and the Lord smiles because, simultaneous with it, in a billion-fold world system buddhas teaching the same doctrine cause billions of beings to produce the thought of unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening.

—————————————————————

Chapters 22, 23, 24 – Śatakratu, Hard to Understand, Unlimited

(i.e. Chapter 22:
Standing without standing in the inconceivable – the Buddha-dharma, the perfection of wisdom, the true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is.
How to stand in the perfection of wisdom?
How to not stand in the perfection of wisdom?
-
Bodhisattva great beings should stand in the perfection of wisdom like that, by way of not taking a stand.
-
Bodhisattvas should pay attention to dharmas, their characteristics, their labels …, and that without apprehending anything [in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / intersubjectively].
-
This not settling down on and not apprehending any one part [T2], even while thus making an examination of all the parts of the picture [T1] [U2T], is the bodhisattva great beings' perfection of wisdom."
-
Why? Because:
Non-duality / Uopp: Apparent opposites – including the three spheres, the two truths, the Ground and its manifestations – are not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth. Meaning indescribable / inconceivable. Apparent opposites are empty of inherent existence [T2], not really existent / caused / functional <==> because conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S], not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional. And vice versa; one aspect / truth implies the other (<==>) [U2T]. They are like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, echos, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T]. So there is no independent / universal / absolute / inherently existing basis for any discrimination / differentiation in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively. So, there is nothing to accept / affirm / seek / add / do in absolute terms, nothing to reject / negate / abandon / eliminate / subtract / not-do in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / intersubjectively. So, Bodhisattvas could use without using words, concepts, ideas, views, truths, methods, practices, levels, goals, teachings, antidotes, adapted skillful means … but without any attachment / fixation / absolutes. They can use them conventionally / relatively but not in absolute terms, not by way of apprehending something.
-
Logic: Because of being empty of inherent existence <==> because dependently co-arisen / interdependent, then all dharmas – including the Great Vehicle and Suchness – are not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither – for whatever 'this' is; and vice versa. Meaning not describable / conceivable / understood by our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s), not indescribable / inconceivable / misunderstood, not both together, not neither.
-
Bodhisattvas SHOULD STAND without standing in the perfection of wisdom by way of not apprehending it, by way of not standing in it, by way of not dwelling in it; without any attachment / fixation / absolutes.
Bodhisattvas SHOULD STAND without standing in the six paramitasby way of not apprehending them, by way of not standing in them, by way of not dwelling in them; without any attachment / fixation / absolutes.
Bodhisattvas SHOULD STAND without standing in any/all dharmas by way of not apprehending it/them, by way of not standing in it/them, by way of not dwelling in it/them; without any attachment / fixation / absolutes.
-
Bodhisattvas SHOULD NOT STAND in the perfection of wisdom by way of apprehending something; with attachment / fixation / absolutes.
Bodhisattvas SHOULD NOT STAND in the six paramitasby way of apprehending something; with attachment / fixation / absolutes.
Bodhisattvas SHOULD NOT STAND in any/all dharmas by way of apprehending something; with attachment / fixation / absolutes.
-
Bodhisattvas COULD USE without using in any/all dharmas by way of not apprehending it/them, by way of not standing in it/them, by way of not dwelling in it/them; without any attachment / fixation / absolutes.
-
Inconceivable: "Unteachable is the awakening of the tathāgatas; there is no discourse on it, nobody has heard it, and nobody has comprehended it."
-
"Bodhisattvas should stand in the perfection of wisdom like this, based on there being no discourse and no listening.")

—----------------------
(i.e. Chapter 23:
In this perfection of wisdom, the three vehicles…‍ are taught in detail [T1], by way of not apprehending anything [T2] [U2T].
-
Because all dharmas are empty of inherent existence [T2], not really existent / caused / functional <==> because conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S], not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional / useless / meaningless. And vice versa; one aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T].
Because all dharmas are like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, echos, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T].
All dharmas are not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth, not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth – for whatever 'this' is.
Meaning indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s); beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all defining limitations, beyond all conditioning / karma.
-
"All dharmas" includes all dharmas with their characteristics / properties / qualities / marks / relations / activities …, with their names / labels; ex. the five aggregates, the eighteen elements, the six paramitas, the eighteen emptinesses, the two truths, suchness, the Union of the Two truths, even buddhahood / nirvana.
-
So they say: this perfection of wisdom is so deep, so hard to behold, so hard to understand, so peaceful, so sublime, so subtle, so private, so not an object of speculative thought, so brilliant, so absolutely noble, and so much an object to be known by the learned and wise.
—----------------------
(i.e. Chapter 24:
Bodhisattvas should learn / train / teach without learning / training in / teaching the perfection of wisdom, in the three vehicles, the six paramitas … [T1], without any attachment / fixation / absolutes [T2] [U2T], without making a division into two – by way of not contradicting the inconceivable true nature of Reality as it is here & now, suchness, the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths [U2T  U3S / Uopp / U2T-2T]; by way of not getting hold of all dharmas.
-
That is acting without acting,
but without any grasping / attachment / apprehension / obsession / fixation / reification / reference points / absolutes;
without falling into any extreme or middle;
without any duality / di-vision between subject & object & action, cause & causality & effect, right & wrong, movement & rest, samsara & nirvana;
more and more in accord with the Middle Way: not accepting / affirming / seeking / adding / improving / doing in absolute terms, not rejecting / negating / abandoning / eliminating / subtracting / not-doing anything in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively;
thus more and more in accord with the transcendent perfection of wisdom;
more and more in accord with the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is;
more and more in accord with the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths about all dharmas [U2T / U2T-3S / U2T-opp / U2T-2T]
beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all defining limitations, beyond all conditioning / karma.
-
Why?
Because they do not see any inherently existing dharma – ex. body / physical, speech / conceptual, mind / mental fabrications; entities, characteristics / marks…, names / labels; subject relation/ action objec; cause causality, effect apparent opposites; the two truths; suchness …
Because they do not see the production and stopping, acceptance and rejection, defilement and purification, or decrease and increase of any dharma.
-
Because all dharmas – ex. the three spheres, apparent opposites, the two truths, all words / concepts / ideas / views / truths / methods / practices / level / goals / trainings … – are empty of inherent existence [T2], not really existent / caused / functional <==> because conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances / tools / adapted skillful means [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind (mere designations) [U3S], not completely non-existent / non-caused / non-functional / useless / meaningless. And vice versa; one aspect / truth implies / proves / enables the other (<==>) [U2T].
Because all dharmas are like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, echos, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T].
All dharmas are not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilated, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth – for whatever 'this' is.
Meaning indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s); beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all defining limitations, beyond all conditioning / karma.
-
"All dharmas" includes all dharmas with their characteristics / properties / qualities / marks / relations / activities …, with their names / labels; ex. the five aggregates, the eighteen elements, the six paramitas, the eighteen emptinesses, the two truths, suchness, the Union of the Two truths, even buddhahood / nirvana.
-
Bodhisattvas thus training in the non-production and non-stopping, non-acceptance and non-rejection, non-defilement and non-purification, and non-decrease and non-increase of all dharmas will, training in the perfection of wisdom by way of not training and not going forth, go forth to the knowledge of all aspects.
-
This perfection of wisdom is great, immeasurable, infinite, limitless – because all dharmas are great, immeasurable, infinite, limitless – limitless and centerless in nature, causality, space & time – because all dharmas are primordially inconceivable, spaceless, timeless, limitless, equal, pure, perfect, divine, complete, free, enlightened, the inconceivable three pure kayas, the true Buddha.)

i.­77

The assembled gods all, like the sun, emit light, but the light of the Tathāgata, a natural light that is not the maturation of any action, totally eclipses it. The head god, Śatakratu, the one who has performed a hundred of the most complex rituals, asks Subhūti to teach. Subhūti says that even the gods with the greatest accomplishment, even the accomplishment of nirvāṇa, must produce the thought to become awakened for the sake of all beings by training in the Perfection of Wisdom, and they have the capacity to do so. The Perfection of Wisdom is to demonstrate the four noble truths, the twelve links of dependent origination, and all the purification dharmas with the thought that by doing so one will gain the knowledge of all aspects for the sake of all beings.
(i.e. Knowledge of all aspects (omniscience): Knowledge of all valid useful conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent concepts / ideas / truths / views / methods / practices / goals / adapted skillful means / antidotes [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind <==> together with their emptiness of inherent existence [T2], as a Union of the Two Truths [U2T / U2T-3S / U2T-opp / U2T-2T]. Thus being able to use conventionally / relatively, but without any attachment / fixation / absolutes; thus not slaves to them. Bodhisattvas wants to know all of those aspects because they awant to be able to help all sentient beings without discrimination. It is not omniscience about objects and relations in an objective world (like with sciences), but omniscience about the way beings think and about how to help them, about the functioning of the karmic cycle and how to disarm it.)


i.­78

The practice puts one part of the picture together with all the other parts, mastering all the doctrines and practices while making a detailed and thorough analysis, thinking, "They are selfless, they are not me, and they are not mine." The thought of awakening, bodhicitta, is a motivation that leads to the planting of wholesome roots ‍— the roots that grow into the awakened state that is of ultimate benefit to self and others. The thought is the wholesome roots in the sense that it remains steady, growing stronger. And it is a dedication in the sense that it remains set on awakening for the sake of others. And yet none of these stages in bodhicitta ultimately exist. They are separated from each other as ordinary enactments and yet ultimately are exactly the same.
The bodhisattva practitioner-god thus practices the Perfection of Wisdom [T1] by not settling down on any part, seeing the ultimate unity of the parts and their illusory difference [T2].


i.­79

The Lord praises Subhūti for his exposition, and Subhūti reflects how the Lord, as a bodhisattva, engaged in just this practice of the Perfection of Wisdom. Feeling a sense of gratitude, Subhūti then teaches the Perfection of Wisdom to the gods [T1]. The gods then think they cannot understand a word Subhūti is saying, and Subhūti says he has said nothing, just as nobody in a magical creation says anything [T2] [U2T]. When the gods think this is deep, Subhūti says there is nothing deep. When they ask if nothing has been designated, Subhūti says nothing ‍— awakening is not teachable. (i.e. The true nature of Reality as it is is indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned mind(s).)


i.­80

The speaker, listener, and teaching are like a dream. Everything is like a dream. Only the great śrāvakas and bodhisattvas, only those with wholesome roots that have been planted well, will receive such a teaching that is not the object of speculative thought.


i.­81

In the Perfection of Wisdom, the vehicle of the śrāvakas, the vehicle of the pratyekabuddhas, and the bodhisattva's buddha vehicle are taught in detail as performance for the sake of others, because all phenomena are empty.


i.­82

Then the head of the gods magically produces a rain of flowers and Subhūti uses them as an example for practice.
Bodhisattva-gods should not train [in absolute terms] in anything because of not seeing anything.
Bodhisattva-gods do not see anything [in absolute terms] because everything is empty of an intrinsic nature;
they train without making a duality out of practice (cause) and result (effect), or out of knowledge (subject) and an object known.
Training in the Perfection of Wisdom like that, the gods go forth to the knowledge of all aspects.
(i.e. Knowledge of all aspects (omniscience): Knowledge of all valid useful conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent concepts / ideas / truths / views / methods / practices / goals / adapted skillful means / antidotes [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind <==> together with their emptiness of inherent existence [T2], as a Union of the Two Truths [U2T / U2T-3S / U2T-opp / U2T-2T]. Thus being able to use conventionally / relatively, but without any attachment / fixation / absolutes; thus not slaves to them. Bodhisattvas wants to know all of those aspects because they awant to be able to help all sentient beings without discrimination. It is not omniscience about objects and relations in an objective world (like with sciences), but omniscience about the way beings think and about how to help them, about the functioning of the karmic cycle and how to disarm it.)


i.­83

All the perfect instructions Subhūti gives to the gods are given through the sustaining power of the Tathāgata, but they are not sustained by anything, because all phenomena, even emptiness and reality, are not sustained by anything, are not held up by or powered by anything. Nothing is conjoined with or disjoined from reality such that it could be sustained by it. It is just this isolation that is its sustaining power.
(i.e. Not conjoined not not disjoined: Since all dharmas are empty of inherent existence because dependently co-arisen, merely labeled / imputed by the mind; then all dharmas are not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither; not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither; not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilated, not both together, not neither; not dependent / related / opposed, not independent / non-related / non-opposed, not both together, not neither; not empty, not non-empty, not both together, not neither; not dependently co-arisen, not empty of inherent existence, not both together, not neither; not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither – for whatever 'this' is. Meaning the true nature & dynamic of all dharmas is indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed dualistic conceptual conditioned ordinary mind(s).)

—————————————————————

Chapter 25 – Second Śatakratu – Showing respect, demonstrating reverence for, showing honor to, worshiping, arranging for the guarding, protection, and safekeeping of Bodhisattvas.

(i.e. The world with its gods, humans, and asuras should constantly and always show respect for, demonstrate reverence for, show honor to, worship, and arrange for the guarding, protection, and safekeeping of bodhisattva great beings who do not become separated from the perfection of wisdom, by way of not apprehending anything.)

i.­84

The gods shout out in delight at this exposition of the Perfection of Wisdom that presents three vehicles [T1] without presenting any phenomena to be apprehended at all [T2] [U2T]. Bodhisattvas training in this Perfection of Wisdom are called tathāgatas.


i.­85

The Lord says to the gods that when he was a brahmin student in Padmāvatī practicing the six perfections and all the other purification dharmas [T1] by way of not apprehending anything [T2] [U2T], the buddha Dīpaṃkara prophesied that in the Fortunate Age, after incalculable eons, he would become the Buddha Śākyamuni.


i.­86

He says to the gods that the Perfection of Wisdom will protect them and all others from harm, so they should take it up and practice it. The gods say they will always protect the Perfection of Wisdom and those practicing the Perfection of Wisdom, because it is the source of all the good in the world.

—————————————————————

Chapters 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 – Getting Old, Reliquary, Declaration of the Good Qualities of the Thought of Awakening, Different Tīrthika Religious Mendicants, The Benefits of Taking Up and Adoration

(i.e. Chapter 26: The good qualities and benefits Bodhisattvas will get hold of if they practice with skillful means, without apprehending anything.
-
The good qualities and benefits that sons of a good family and daughters of a good family
(who are practicing without practicing the six paramitas…
without apprehending anything, without any attachment / fixation, absolutes)
will come about in this very life and those that will come about in a future life.
Their unwholesome dharmas will be reduced, and their wholesome dharmas will increase.
It is because this perfection of wisdom is something that calms down all wrong unwholesome dharmas;
it is not something that increases them.)
—------------------
(i.e. Chapter 27: Which of them makes the greater merit?
-
This very perfection of wisdom makes that place serve as a reliquary for all beings, suitable to be worshiped, honored, revered, and venerated with flowers, perfumes, incense, garlands, creams, powders, robes, parasols, flags, and banners.
-
Producing without producing immeasurable merit, without apprehending anything:
Bodhisattvas, inseparable from the thought of the knowledge of all aspects, should write out and make this perfection of wisdom into a book; should constantly listen to, takes it up, bears it in mind, reads it aloud (recite), masters it, set in motion, and properly pays attention to just this perfection of wisdom; and they should respect, revere, honor, and worship it with flowers, perfumes, incense, garlands, creams, powders, robes, parasols, flags, and banners.
They should also take up, bear in mind, recite, master, and pay proper attention to all the other infinite buddha-dharmas included in the perfection of wisdom.
-
This way they would accumulate immeasurable merit & wisdom together.
Why? Because all wholesome dharmas are included in the perfection of wisdom.
—------------------
(i.e. Chapter 28: Good Qualities II
Sons of a good family or daughters of a good family who want to obtain this accumulation of perfect good qualities (for this life and future lives) should take up, bear in mind, read aloud, master, and properly pay attention to this perfection of wisdom and not become separated from the thought of the knowledge of all aspects. Up until they fully awaken to unsurpassed, perfect, complete awakening, they will never be without these good qualities in this life or in future lives.
Because all that is good issue forth from this perfection of wisdom.
Because the perfection of wisdom has been set out for the elimination [transcendence] of all unwholesome dharmas and for the completion of all wholesome dharmas.
—------------------
(i.e. Chapter 29: Protection against Māra.
The perfection of wisdom is the protection against all evils.
Māra or the gods of the Māra class cannot find a way to cause trouble to any son of a good family or daughter of a good family who takes up, bears in mind, reads aloud, masters, and properly pays attention to this perfection of wisdom.
Because the knowledge of all aspects issues forth from this‍ — that is, the perfection of wisdom‍ — and the perfection of wisdom issues forth from this, that is, the knowledge of all aspects.
The knowledge of all aspects and the perfection of wisdom are not two and cannot be divided into two; they have not been broken apart and have not been cut apart.
—------------------
(i.e. Chapter 30: Benefits
The other five perfections are preceded by the perfection of wisdom.
Just this perfection of wisdom is the leader of these perfections, up to the eighteen distinct attributes of a buddha and the knowledge of all aspects.
All dharmas are purified / completed / perfected by combining them with the perfection of wisdom, by directly realising their true nature & dynamic as it is here & now [U2T / U3S / Uopp / U2T-2T].
All activities, of the body, speech and mind, should be done without establishing anything, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes; while being aware of the true nature & dynamic as it is of all dharmas involved – ex. the three spheres, apparent opposites, the two truths –, in a non-dual way, in a non-appropriating way, in a non-apprehending way. This way all activities become more and more in accord with the inconceivable true nature & dynamic of Reality as it is here & now, with the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths [U2T / U3S / Uopp / U2T-2T].
This way, Bodhisattvas are freed from the dualistic thought of the śrāvaka and pratyekabuddha levels without being separated from any dharma and without it having been produced at all.
This way, they will obtain these good qualities in this life and in future lives.)

i.­87

The Perfection of Wisdom is greatly beneficial. It brings benefit to beings through teaching the three vehicles. It prevents conflict and interreligious animosities. The gods naturally guard and protect, and the buddhas and bodhisattvas naturally take notice of those practicing the Perfection of Wisdom, because of their demonstration of generosity, morality, forbearance, and so on. They are without any conceit because of seeing all the training they demonstrate as empty, just a demonstration for the benefit of others.


i.­88

Even if attacked, the attack does no harm, even when fighting on the front line. Nothing can get through to hurt someone training in the Perfection of Wisdom.


i.­89

There is great benefit from worshiping the physical remains of a tathāgata placed in a reliquary, but that does not compare with the benefit from admiring even just the Perfection of Wisdom as a physical book, because the physical remains of a tathāgata can be traced back to the Perfection of Wisdom. The Perfection of Wisdom, from which the relics of a tathāgata's physical body originate, is the teacher. The Three Jewels and all their benefits come from having the knowledge of all aspects, so the benefit of worshiping even just the physical book that explains it is far greater.
(i.e. Knowledge of all aspects (omniscience): Knowledge of all valid useful conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent concepts / ideas / truths / views / methods / practices / goals / adapted skillful means / antidotes [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind <==> together with their emptiness of inherent existence [T2], as a Union of the Two Truths [U2T / U2T-3S / U2T-opp / U2T-2T]. Thus being able to use conventionally / relatively, but without any attachment / fixation / absolutes; thus not slaves to them. Bodhisattvas wants to know all of those aspects because they awant to be able to help all sentient beings without discrimination. It is not omniscience about objects and relations in an objective world (like with sciences), but omniscience about the way beings think and about how to help them, about the functioning of the karmic cycle and how to disarm it.)


i.­90

Why, then, do people not know this? Why do so many worship statues and reliquaries of the Tathāgata, but not the Perfection of Wisdom? It is because an admiration for the Perfection of Wisdom that teaches the thought of awakening and the illusory nature of all practices and attainments is not easily gained. How many beings even admire basic morality and the Three Jewels more than the experiences of saṃsāra? It is extremely rare to admire the thought of awakening; it is even rarer to admire the thought of awakening as just an empty demonstration.


i.­91

Great is the merit gained from building a reliquary of gold, jewels, and so on to hold the remains of a tathāgata's body. But even just writing out the Perfection of Wisdom and admiring it produces even greater merit. Even if as many beings as can be imagined were to make as many huge reliquaries as can be imagined and worship the remains of tathāgatas placed in them, it still would not produce as much merit as that which issues forth from just writing out the Perfection of Wisdom and admiring it, because all ordinary and extraordinary wholesome acts and attainments come from the Perfection of Wisdom. All the benefits here and in the beyond derive from it because the thought to fully awaken to everything that could benefit any being anywhere at any time informs the Perfection of Wisdom.


i.­92

Just reciting the Perfection of Wisdom turns back those of other faiths who want to criticize it. There is no value in attempting to teach it to those who have decided it is no good. Māra cannot stand it and wants to sow confusion, but the head god, seeing this, just recites the Perfection of Wisdom and Māra turns back. The other gods rejoice and throw flowers into the air.


i.­93

Ānanda asks why, of the six perfections, the Perfection of Wisdom is privileged.
It is because the other perfections become perfections when they are informed by wisdom.
When the practitioner dedicates the training in the perfections to the knowledge of all aspects
in a non-dual way, within knowing that all phenomena are empty and illusory in nature,
they become perfections.
(i.e. Knowledge of all aspects (omniscience): Knowledge of all valid useful conventionally dependently co-arisen (interdependent) relatively functional ever-changing impermanent concepts / ideas / truths / views / methods / practices / goals / adapted skillful means / antidotes [T1], merely labeled / imputed by the mind <==> together with their emptiness of inherent existence [T2], as a Union of the Two Truths [U2T / U2T-3S / U2T-opp / U2T-2T]. Thus being able to use conventionally / relatively, but without any attachment / fixation / absolutes; thus not slaves to them. Bodhisattvas wants to know all of those aspects because they awant to be able to help all sentient beings without discrimination. It is not omniscience about objects and relations in an objective world (like with sciences), but omniscience about the way beings think and about how to help them, about the functioning of the karmic cycle and how to disarm it.)


i.­94

The good qualities that issue forth from the Perfection of Wisdom are innumerable and immeasurable. Bodhisattvas training in the Perfection of Wisdom attract all the gods who come to admire or listen. The beneficial presence of those celestial beings is known by a special fragrance, so the place where there is a copy of the Perfection of Wisdom in written form, or where it is being practiced, should be kept clean and decorated beautifully. Training in the Perfection of Wisdom, bodhisattvas feel physically and mentally at ease, have good dreams, hear the Perfection of Wisdom being taught everywhere, see tathāgata reliquaries and the people worshiping them, and are filled with enthusiasm and energy.

—————————————————————

Chapters 31, 32 – Physical Remains, The Superiority of Merit

(i.e. Chapter 31: Worshiping without worshiping, without any attachment / fixation / absolutes.
-
I would choose the perfection of wisdom over anything else, but without establishing anything.
-
"I respect, revere, honor, and worship those physical remains of the tathāgatas
because they come about from the perfection of wisdom.
The physical remains of the tathāgatas are suffused by the perfection of wisdom.
That is why the physical remains of the tathāgatas get to be worshiped."
"Furthermore, those physical remains were the receptacle of the knowledge of a knower of all aspects,
the elimination of all residual impressions, connections, and afflictions,
a constant staying in a state of equanimity, and the natural state not robbed of mindfulness.
That is why they get to be worshiped."
"Those physical remains of a tathāgata were the receptacle of perfections that are the true nature of dharmas.
Those physical remains of the Tathāgata are suffused with the true nature of dharmas.
That is why those physical remains of a tathāgata get to be worshiped."
"But still, it is on account of revering the perfection of wisdom that one reveres,
that one respects, that one honors, and that one worships the physical remains of the tathāgatas."
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Everybody should respect, should revere, should honor, and should worship this perfection of wisdom
with flowers, perfumes, incense, garlands, creams, powders, clothes, parasols, flags, and banners;
they should take it up, bear it in mind, read it aloud, and master it.
Because everything good comes from it.
-
"A son of a good family or daughter of a good family who has written out this perfection of wisdom and bestowed it on others creates even more merit than that son of a good family or daughter of a good family who respects, reveres, honors, and worships it with flowers, perfumes, incense, garlands, creams, powders, robes, parasols, flags, and banners.
"Furthermore, a son of a good family or daughter of a good family who goes to others and explicates, teaches, explains, gives a commentary on, and makes clear this perfection of wisdom creates even more merit than that earlier one."
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Still, the perfection of wisdom cannot be apprehended, cannot be pointed out,
does not obstruct, and has only one mark‍ — that is, no mark‍ — so it cannot be take it up.
Why? Because all dharmas are empty of inherent existence [T1] <==> because dependently co-arisen / interdependent [T2], merely labeled / imputed by the mind [U3S]; like illusions, reflections, mirages, dreams, echos, magical tricks: 'There, but not there.' [U2T].
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Buddha: "It is just this perfection of wisdom.
It is just this perfection of wisdom that I myself,
also respect, revere, honor, and worship,
that I have respected, revered, honored, and worshiped,

and that I rely on and stay by."

—------------------
(i.e. Chapter 32:

)

i.­95

The Perfection of Wisdom, even just in book form, is more valuable than an entire world filled with reliquaries containing the material remains of tathāgatas, but still it cannot be seized on and taken up. Ultimately it does not bestow any benefit [in absolute terms]. The Perfection of Wisdom deserves worship. Just as the other gods worship the throne of the head god when he is not there, so too all beings come to worship the Perfection of Wisdom as the place where all the tathāgatas and all good qualities are located.