Sunday, October 17, 2021

Union of Absolute Truth and Relative Truth - 130

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Union of Absolute Truth and Relative Truth - 130

-- Venerable Khenpo Rinpoche
Source: https://www.padmasambhava.org/2018/12/union-of-absolute-truth-and-relative-truth/ 

“Grasping spoils the natural radiance of arising phenomena by obscuring the beauty of the nature and leading to many difficulties and troubles. In response to the grasping habit patterns of beings, Nagarjuna and the other great Madhyamaka masters taught in such as way as to introduce us to the beauty of the nature, so that we can simply relax in the openness of mind without clinging to the iceberg of duality as if it were a precious jewel. 

All that arises [T1] is empty [T2],
and emptiness [T2] continually arises [T1], arises. [U2T]
[i.e. This is the Inseparability / Interdependence / Non-duality / Union of the Two Truths: Union of conventionally dependently co-arisen relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances [T1] <==> and emptiness of inherent existence [T2]. One truth implies the other (<==>).]

Such is the nature of everything, the very nature of what Dzogchen—the pinnacle of the Glorious Conqueror’s teachings— always points to. 

The unceasing display of clarity [T1] and emptiness [T2] is the very nature of mind [U2T about the mind].
When we discover the nature of mind, we begin to discover the nature of everything [U2T about all dharmas]. 

In general, this recognition begins in one’s own heart and extends out from the center of oneself to others. 

Thus, mind is referred to as empty [T2] and luminous [T1] (inseparable);
[i.e. U2T - Union of the Two Truths about the mind]
for although the mind is empty [T2],
emptiness sparks forth in a radiant, unceasing display of clarity [T1], or the arising clarity of bodhichitta—of love, compassion, and wisdom. 

These qualities [T1] are themselves inseparable from emptiness [T2],
[i.e. Union of the Two Truths: Union of Buddha-qualities (ex. bodhicitta, loving-kindness, compassion, equanimity, joy, wisdom …) <==> and emptiness of inherent existence. One aspect / truth implies the other (<==>).]
so there is no substantially existent [T2] love, compassion, or wisdom [T1] that we can cling to like a stone.
Nothing is substantially solid [T2].

Mind is often referred to as the inseparable Union of clarity [T1] and emptiness [T2].
[i.e. U2T -- Union of the Two Truths about the mind]

The Supreme Teacher described the nature of mind in many different ways: alternately as 

  • the union of appearance and emptiness

  • the union of great blissfulness and emptiness, and 

  • the union of absolute truth and relative truth emptiness. 

On the level of reality, all arising appearances are the inseparable union of these qualities, which exist in a single, indivisible state. The teachings often compare this union to a fire and its warmth, since one cannot be distinguished from the other.

Likewise, emptiness [T2] and appearances [T1] cannot be separated from each other;
[i.e. U2T - Union of appearances <==> and emptiness of inherent existence. One truth implies the other (<==>).]
they are reflections of a single state, or nature, with two different aspects.
(i.e. Those two aspects / truths are not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither)

In his Mula-madhyamaka-prajna, Nagarjuna compares this situation to molasses and sweetness in addition to fire and its warmth. In the same way, emptiness and appearances are inseparable [U2T]. The entire phenomenal display—all appearances without exception—are empty [U2T]. 

[NOTE:] Usually when we say that something is a “union,” we imply that two different ingredients have been added together to make a whole. Such is not the case with the nature of reality, which cannot be divided at all, in the same way water and its moisture can only be separated at the level of concepts. The true nature cannot be divided, categorized, or separated. This is the nature of everything!

But if the entire universe and world—including our own minds— are in an indivisible state of union,
[i.e. U2T - Inseparability / Interdependence / Union of the Two Truths [U2T], Union of the three spheres [U3S], Union of opposites [Uopp]]

why do great masters such Nagarjuna and the Buddha himself
emphasize emptiness, emptiness, emptiness [T2]? 

Why not appearances? It is because duality mind does not grasp very much to notions of emptiness [T2]; rather, it tends to grasp and cling to appearances [T1], or objects of perception. Because we are overwhelmed by dualistic conceptions [opposites], we tend to hold on to everything we experience, including the places we go and the activities we engage in. So all this talk of emptiness [T2] is designed to help us see past the mere surface of appearances [T1] and break down our beliefs about substantially existent phenomena. (And then later realise the Union of those two aspect / truths - U2T]”

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[Quote from Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika:
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18.8. (Sometimes the Buddha teaches using one view or another, one extreme or another as an antidote, but the true ultimate is beyond those four extremes / antidotes; it has to be directly perceived / realised / experienced:)
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Everything is "actual / real" (Extreme 1: teaching existence / dependent origination / T1 -- antidote to complete non-existence or mere-emptiness or nihilism)
Or "not-actual / unreal," (Extreme 2: teaching non-existence / emptiness of inherent existence / T2 -- antidote to inherent existence or mere-causality or naรฏve realism)
Or both "actual-and-not-actual," (Extreme 3: teaching both existence & non-existence together / the duality or opposition of the two truths together / 2T -- antidote to monism / oneness / 1T, the fourth extreme)
Or "neither-actual-nor-not-actual": (Extreme 4: teaching neither existence nor non-existence / the unity or oneness of the two truths / 1T -- antidote to dualism / 2T, the third extreme)
This is the teaching of the Buddha.
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(i.e. Teaching using various conventional adapted skillful means, using the four extreme views; using each extreme as the antidote of another; until the student can transcend all extremes altogether, transcend all dualistic conceptual proliferations, and directly realise the true nature of Reality as it is here & now.)
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18.9.
"Not caused by something else," "peaceful," "not elaborated by discursive thought,"
"Indeterminate," "undifferentiated": such are the characteristics of true reality (tattva).
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(i.e. But the true nature of Reality / Suchness / Dharmata / Dharmadhatu is beyond those four extremes / antidotes. It is the inconceivable Inseparability / Interdependence / Union of the Two Truths free from all extremes & middle, free from all conceptual proliferations. That is the final antidote to the four extremes altogether, the final liberation from all obstructions to omniscience. This is freedom from all extremes & middle, freedom from all conceptual proliferations. This is the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths. And freedom from conceptual proliferations transcends the distinctions / dualities between conceptualisation vs. non-conceptualisation, acceptation vs. rejection, good vs. bad … so it is not about rejecting concepts... anymore than accepting them for what they appear to be.)]


-- Venerable Khenpo Rinpoche
Opening the Wisdom Door of the Madhyamaka School (pgs 109-110)

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(i.e. A. The true nature & dynamic of any & all dharmas -- ex. all appearances / fabrications / composites (the five aggregates; body, speech, mind; physical, conceptual, mental fabrications; individual, collective, cosmic; of samsara / impure and nirvana / pure), the three spheres (subject, relation / action, object for any type of relation or action), the opposites of any duality / triad / quad /etc, even the two truths themselves --
is indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed conditioned dualistic conceptual mind(s);
it has to be spontaneously personally non-conceptually non-dualistically directly perceived / realised / experienced / abided in.
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[ALL DHARMAS ARE EQUAL PURE PERFECT INSEPARABLE MANIFESTATIONS OF THE GROUND:]
All dharmas are spontaneous natural non-dual manifestations of the Ground, inseparable from the Ground: this inconceivable unique unborn unchanging unconditioned unceasing pristine Ground / Basis / Source / Suchness / Dharmata / Dharmadhatu / Buddha-nature / Genuine-emptiness / Ati / Dzogchen / Mahamudra / Union of the Two Truths [U2T] … the inconceivable unique true nature & dynamic of all dharmas beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all limits, beyond all conditioning / karma; beyond all views, methods and goals; beyond all desciption / conceptualisation, discrimination / dualities, causality / production, matter-energy, space & time; beyond both samsara & nirvana.
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[U2T: UNION OF THE TWO TRUTHS ABOUT ANY & ALL DHARMAS:]
The true nature & dynamic of any & all dharmas -- ex. the three spheres (subject / mind, relation / action, object / phenomena) [U3S], the opposites of any duality / triad / quad /etc. [Uopp], even the two truths themselves [U2T-2T] --
is like an ineffable / inconceivable Union of being conventionally dependently co-arisen / interdependent relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances [T1 - first truth], co-dependent with its parts, with its causes & conditions, its conceptual opposite(s), and especially co-dependent with the mind merely labelling / imputing / conceptualising / classifying it [U3S] in dependence of its past / conditioning / karma, not completely non-dependently-arising / non-existent / non-changing / non-functional / non-ceasing / useless / meaningless
<==> and being empty of inherent existence [T2 - second truth], never fixed / independent / separate / universal / absolute, but more like open / free, like illusions  / dreams / reflections / rainbows / like the displays of a magical show or cosmic dance of luminosity, not really dependently-arisen / existent / changing / functional / ceasing.
One aspect / truth implies the other (<==>) [U2T], one aspect / truth proves the other (<==>).
All dharmas are appearing <==> but still empty; empty of inherent existence <==> but still conventionally dependently co-appearing & relatively functional. And that is not grasping at the conventional / relative, or at the ultimate / emptiness, or both together, or neither.
[TETRALEMMA:] All dharmas are not inherently existent (still empty) <==> but still not completely non-existent (still appearing), not both existent & non-existent together, not neither existent nor non-existent, and there is no fifth. This is another way to express the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths [U2T].
[BEYOND:] Meaning their true nature is indescribable / inconceivable, beyond all extremes & middle, beyond all dualistic conceptual proliferations, beyond all limits, beyond all conditioning / karma (physica, conceptual, mental) x (individual, collective, cosmic).
[U2T-2T:] Theses two aspects / truths -- dependent origination [T1] and emptiness of inherent existence [T2] --, like any group of apparent opposites, are inseparable (one cannot exists without the other), interdependent (one implies the other), co-defined (the definition of one defines the other), co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent (they arise together), co-evolving (they change together), co-ceasing / co-transcended (they cease together), in harmony (not in real opposition) (in the non-dual sense of those terms: not this, not non-this, not both together, not neither) [T1-2T] <==> thus themselves empty of inherent existence [T2-2T]. The two truths are not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth. So all dharmas are not really arising [T1] or not, not really empty of inherent existence [T2] or not, not really both together [2T], not really neither [1T], and there is no fifth. The two truths themselves and their Union are mere pointers to the inconceivable, mere tools, mere imperfect temporary adapted skillful means. So there is nothing left to grasp as absolute here. Everything is like luminous space, an ocean of interdependence and emptiness.
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[BEST POINTERS TO THE INCONCEIVABLE:]
The true nature & dynamic of any & all dharmas -- ex. the three spheres (subject / mind, relation / action, object / phenomena), the opposites of any duality / triad / quad /etc, even the two truths themselves --
is pointed by concepts like:
the inconceivable Union of the Two Truths about all dharmas [U2T], the inconceivable Union of the three spheres about all dharmas [U3S / U2T-3S], the inconceivable Union of opposites about all dharmas [Non-duality / Oneness / Uopp / U2T-opp], the inconceivable Middle Way about all dharmas, the tetralemma about all dharmas, freedom from all extremes & middle, freedom from all dualistic conceptual proliferations, freedom from all limits, freedom from all conditioning / karma,
the Ground / Basis / Source / Suchness / Dharmata / Dharmadhatu / Buddha-nature / Genuine-emptiness / Ati / Dzogchen / Mahamudra /
Enlightened-mind / Intrinsic-awareness / Primordial-awareness.
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[TETRALEMMA:] All dharmas -- ex. the three spheres (subject / mind, relation / action, object / phenomena), the opposites of any duality / triad / quad /etc., even the two truths themselves -- are
-- not inherently existent, not completely non-existent, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth;
-- not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth;
-- not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilated, and there is no fifth;
-- not purely objective / physical / body, not purely subjective / mental / mind, not purely relational / process / conceptual / speech, not two or three of them together, not none of them, and there is no other possibility;
-- not dependent / caused / produced / functional, not independent / uncaused/spontaneous / unproduced / non-functional, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth;
-- not self-caused, not other-caused, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth;
-- not changing / evolving, not completely non-changing / evolving, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth;
-- not empty, not non-empty, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth;
-- not conventional / relative / false, not absolute / universal / true, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth;
-- not dependently co-arisen / interdependent / mere-interdependence [T1], not empty of inherent existence / mere-emptiness [T2], not both together [2T], not neither [1T], and there is no fifth;
-- not unequal / impure / imperfect / ordinary / bad, not equal / pure / perfect / divine / good, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth;
-- not describable / conceivable, not indescribable / inconceivable, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth;
-- not this, not non-this, not both together, not neither, and there is no fifth -- for whatever ‘this’ could be -- (this could be generalised for groups of more than two apparent opposites; ex. the three spheres, the three kayas, the three gems, the three times, the four cardinal directions, the five …, the six ...).
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[MIDDLE WAY:]
So the best attitude toward all dharmas is the Middle Way free from all extremes & middle: nothing to accept / affirm / seek / add / do in absolute terms, nothing to reject / negate / abandon / eliminate / subtract / not-do in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively if it helps someone to get closer to the inconceivable liberating Truths: the Union of the Two Truths.
Extremes like: i) existence / realism, ii) non-existence / nihilism, iii) both together / dualism, iv) neither / monism; or extremes like v) subject-only / mind-only / idealism / subjectivism, vi) object-only / naรฏve realism / objectivism, vii) relation-only / process-only / action-only / relationism / processism, viii) two or three of them together / pluralism, ix) none to them / monism.)

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Quotes

From Aryadeva - Four Hundred [verse 195]

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๐—ง๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐—ต๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด ๐—˜๐—ซ๐—œ๐—ฆ๐—ง๐—˜๐—ก๐—–๐—˜ (1), 

(i.e. Teaching via the thesis, “existence”: Using the thesis: The extreme philosophical position of existence -- all forms of realism (realism of objects / entities / characteristics / relations / forces / fields / strings / processes ...) / objectivism / materialism / relationism / processism. It could also be representative of ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—ณ๐—ถ๐—ฟ๐˜€๐˜ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—ง๐˜„๐—ผ ๐—ง๐—ฟ๐˜‚๐˜๐—ต๐˜€: ๐—ฒ๐˜…๐—ถ๐˜€๐˜๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ ๐—ถ๐—ป ๐—ฐ๐—ผ-๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—ฝ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ: co-dependence with its causes & conditions and effect (if applicable); co-dependence with its parts and wholes (if applicable), co-dependence with its opposites or items in relation (always applicable); and as an object co-dependent <==> with the subject / mind merely labelling / imputing it in dependence of its conditioning / karma (always applicable).)

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๐—ก๐—ข๐—ก-๐—˜๐—ซ๐—œ๐—ฆ๐—ง๐—˜๐—ก๐—–๐—˜ (2), 

(i.e. Teaching via the antithesis, “non-existence”: Using the antithesis: The extreme philosophical position of non-existence -- nihilism / all forms of idealism / subjectivism. It could also be representative of๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐˜€๐—ฒ๐—ฐ๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ฑ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—ง๐˜„๐—ผ ๐—ง๐—ฟ๐˜‚๐˜๐—ต๐˜€: ๐—˜๐—บ๐—ฝ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ฒ๐˜€๐˜€ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ต๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜ ๐—ฒ๐˜…๐—ถ๐˜€๐˜๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ.)

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๐—•๐—ข๐—ง๐—› (๐Ÿฏ) ๐—˜๐—ซ๐—œ๐—ฆ๐—ง๐—˜๐—ก๐—–๐—˜ ๐—”๐—ก๐—— ๐—ก๐—ข๐—ก-๐—˜๐—ซ๐—œ๐—ฆ๐—ง๐—˜๐—ก๐—–๐—˜, 

(i.e. Teaching via “both existence and non-existence”: Accepting both thesis and antithesis as true: the extreme philosophical position of both existence and non-existence together -- all forms of dualism / manyness.It could also be representative of ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—ง๐˜„๐—ผ ๐——๐—ถ๐—ณ๐—ณ๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜ ๐—ง๐—ฟ๐˜‚๐˜๐—ต๐˜€ ๐˜๐—ผ๐—ด๐—ฒ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ๐—ฟ: existence in co-dependence & emptiness of inherent existence.)

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๐—”๐—ก๐—— ๐—ก๐—˜๐—œ๐—ง๐—›๐—˜๐—ฅ (4) 

(i.e. Teaching via “neither existence nor-non-existence”: Rejecting both thesis and antithesis as false: the extreme philosophical position of neither existence nor non-existence -- all forms of monism / holism / radical oneness / God or TOE; opting for just a Big Cosmic Transcendental One from which existence and non-existence could arise as mere appearances. It could also be representative of thinking that ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—ง๐˜„๐—ผ ๐—ง๐—ฟ๐˜‚๐˜๐—ต๐˜€ ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ ๐—œ๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜๐—ถ๐—ฐ๐—ฎ๐—น / ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฑ๐˜‚๐—ฐ๐—ถ๐—ฏ๐—น๐—ฒ ๐˜๐—ผ ๐—ข๐—ป๐—ฒ ๐—ง๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐˜€๐—ฐ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜๐—ฎ๐—น ๐—ง๐—ฟ๐˜‚๐˜๐—ต neither existence in co-dependence nor emptiness of inherent existence.)

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๐˜€๐˜‚๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—น๐˜† ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ ๐—บ๐—ฒ๐—ฑ๐—ถ๐—ฐ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ฒ๐˜€ ๐—ณ๐—ผ๐—ฟ ๐—ฎ๐—น๐—น ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฎ๐˜ ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ณ๐—น๐˜‚๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ๐—ฑ ๐—ฏ๐˜† ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐˜€๐—ถ๐—ฐ๐—ธ๐—ป๐—ฒ๐˜€๐˜€.

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[i.e. No absolute vision / truths, path / methods, or fruit / goals. Using different gradual temporary imperfect adapted skillful means, antidotes, conventional truths methods & goals,  -- ex. the four extremes -- depending on each case, depending on the conditioning / karma of the individual. Even the Two Truths -- dependent origination and emptiness -- are mere adapted skillful means, complementary antidotes; even the concept of the Union of the Two Truths is only a pointer, a tool. And it would be wrong to think that there is “SOMETHING beyond all extremes”, an inconceivable Reality / State, or a “NOTHINGNESS beyond all extremes”; see Nagarjuna’s 20 emptinesses and Chandrakirti’s commentary.]

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From Aryadeva - Four Hundred [verse 287-288]

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287.

For the unreceptive, conceptions of A SELF (EXISTENCE (T1)) are best;

To teach them SELFLESSNESS / NO-SELF (NON-EXISTENCE (T2)) is not.

They would go to bad rebirths,

While the extraordinary attain peace.

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346.

The approach of EXISTENCE (1),

NON-EXISTENCE (2),

BOTH (3) EXISTENCE AND NON-EXISTENCE,

AND NEITHER (4),


Should always be applied by those

With mastery to oneness [i.e. Union of the Two Truths, Union of opposites] and so forth.

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[Steps to the Middle Way according to Mipham Rinpoche]

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(i.e. Gradually refuting the four extremes views in succession -- Gradually understanding and then directly realizing the genuine meaning of the Middle Way (Madhyamaka) / Reality as it is / Genuine-emptiness / Buddha-nature / Suchness / Dharmata / Dharmadhatu / the Union of the Two Truths.)

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(Note: There are ๐—ณ๐—ผ๐˜‚๐—ฟ ๐—ฒ๐˜…๐˜๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ฒ๐˜€ ๐˜ƒ๐—ถ๐—ฒ๐˜„๐˜€ about Reality: 1) existence, 2) non-existence, 3) both existence & non-existence together, 3) neither existence nor non-existence. And there is no fifth view in terms of the duality of existence vs. non-existence.

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Or the ๐—ณ๐—ผ๐˜‚๐—ฟ ๐—ฒ๐˜…๐˜๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ฒ๐˜€ ๐˜ƒ๐—ถ๐—ฒ๐˜„๐˜€ ๐—ถ๐—ป ๐˜๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—บ๐˜€ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐˜๐˜„๐—ผ ๐˜๐—ฟ๐˜‚๐˜๐—ต๐˜€ : 1) the first truth alone - dependent origination / causality [T1], 2) the second truth alone - emptiness of inherent existence [T2], 3) the two truths together in a duality / saying they are different [2T], 4) neither of the two truths / the unity or oneness of the Two Truths / saying they are identical / the same [1T]. And there is no fifth view about the two truths.)

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This selection shows Mipam’s explanation of “๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—ณ๐—ผ๐˜‚๐—ฟ ๐˜€๐˜๐—ฎ๐—ด๐—ฒ๐˜€ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—ฑ๐—ฎ๐˜„๐—ป๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐— ๐—ถ๐—ฑ๐—ฑ๐—น๐—ฒ ๐—ช๐—ฎ๐˜†.” It is taken from his (Mipham's) overview of Longchenpa’s commentary on the Secret Essence Tantra, and nearly the same words can also be found in his commentary on the Ornament of the Middle Way. This illustrates the importance of this Middle Way view in the contexts of both sutra and tantra.

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[๐—œ-๐—œ๐—ฉ. ๐—ง๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—ณ๐—ผ๐˜‚๐—ฟ ๐˜€๐˜๐—ฎ๐—ด๐—ฒ๐˜€:]

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Through a fourfold scheme, he outlines ๐—ฎ ๐—ฝ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—ฐ๐—ฒ๐˜€๐˜€ ๐—ณ๐—ผ๐—ฟ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ผ๐˜€๐—ฒ ๐˜„๐—ต๐—ผ ๐—ฝ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—ด๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐˜€๐˜€๐—ถ๐˜ƒ๐—ฒ๐—น๐˜† ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ด๐—ฎ๐—ด๐—ฒ ๐—ถ๐—ป ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—บ๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐—ป๐—ผ๐—ป-๐—ฐ๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ๐—ฝ๐˜๐˜‚๐—ฎ๐—น๐—ถ๐˜๐˜† (๐˜ช.๐˜ฆ. ๐˜“๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ฅ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ญ ๐˜ฆ๐˜น๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด & ๐˜ฎ๐˜ช๐˜ฅ๐˜ฅ๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ, ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ญ ๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜ถ๐˜ข๐˜ญ ๐˜ฑ๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜ช๐˜ง๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ด, ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ญ ๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ / ๐˜ฌ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ฎ๐˜ข; ๐˜ฃ๐˜ฆ๐˜บ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜ถ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜บ & ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ-๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜ถ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜บ, ๐˜ฅ๐˜ถ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜บ & ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ-๐˜ฅ๐˜ถ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜บ, ๐˜ฅ๐˜ช๐˜ง๐˜ง๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ & ๐˜ช๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜บ, ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ด & ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ-๐˜ฆ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ด, ๐˜ฆ๐˜ต๐˜ค.)

through the stages of empty (emptiness of inherent existence), unity (Union of the Two Truths), freedom from constructs, and equality (Union of opposites in general).

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Beginning with the object of negation, true existence, ๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐—ต ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐˜€๐˜๐—ฎ๐—ด๐—ฒ๐˜€ ๐—ฝ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—ฏ๐—ฒ๐˜€ ๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—ฒ๐—ฝ๐—ฒ๐—ฟ ๐—ถ๐—ป๐˜๐—ผ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—บ๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด ๐—ผ๐—ณ [๐—ด๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜‚๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ฒ-]๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ฝ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ฒ๐˜€๐˜€ ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฑ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐— ๐—ถ๐—ฑ๐—ฑ๐—น๐—ฒ ๐—ช๐—ฎ๐˜†.

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The process culminates with equality (ex. Union of the Two Truths, Union of the three spheres, Union of opposites), free from all concepts and dualities, which is beyond all distinctions between sentient beings and buddhas, nirvana and samsara.

(๐˜ช.๐˜ฆ. ๐˜๐˜ต ๐˜ค๐˜ถ๐˜ญ๐˜ฎ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ด ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ถ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ด๐˜ต๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ฅ๐˜ช๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ค๐˜ต ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ช๐˜ด๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜”๐˜ช๐˜ฅ๐˜ฅ๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ž๐˜ข๐˜บ; ๐˜ฅ๐˜ช๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ค๐˜ต ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ช๐˜ด๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜Ž๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ถ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ-๐˜ฆ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ด; ๐˜ฅ๐˜ช๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ค๐˜ต ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ช๐˜ด๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜๐˜ฏ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ฃ๐˜ช๐˜ญ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜บ / ๐˜๐˜ฏ๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ / ๐˜œ๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜›๐˜ธ๐˜ฐ ๐˜›๐˜ณ๐˜ถ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ด ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ญ ๐˜ฆ๐˜น๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด & ๐˜ฎ๐˜ช๐˜ฅ๐˜ฅ๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ, ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ญ ๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜ถ๐˜ข๐˜ญ ๐˜ฑ๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜ช๐˜ง๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ด, ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ญ ๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ / ๐˜ฌ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ฎ๐˜ข; ๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ ๐˜œ๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ด๐˜ฑ๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด -- ๐˜ด๐˜ถ๐˜ฃ๐˜ซ๐˜ฆ๐˜ค๐˜ต, ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ญ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ/๐˜ข๐˜ค๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ, ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฃ๐˜ซ๐˜ฆ๐˜ค๐˜ต -- [๐˜œ3๐˜š]; ๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ  ๐˜œ๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฑ๐˜ฑ๐˜ฐ๐˜ด๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ด [๐˜œ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฑ๐˜ฑ]in general ...)

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[๐—œ. EMPTY: ๐—ง๐Ÿฎ - ๐—ฅ๐—ฒ๐—ณ๐˜‚๐˜๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—ณ๐—ถ๐—ฟ๐˜€๐˜ ๐—ฒ๐˜…๐˜๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ฒ: ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ต๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜ ๐—ฒ๐˜…๐—ถ๐˜€๐˜๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ / ๐—ฎ๐—ฝ๐—ฝ๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ๐˜€ & ๐—บ๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ-๐—ฐ๐—ฎ๐˜‚๐˜€๐—ฎ๐—น๐—ถ๐˜๐˜†:]

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When beginners properly investigate using the reasons that establish ๐™š๐™ข๐™ฅ๐™ฉ๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™š๐™จ๐™จ — such as [the reason of] being neither singular nor plural — through contemplating the meaning of the non-establishment of a pot and so forth, they [mistakenly] think that the abiding reality is non-establishment itself because, although existing when not analyzed, nothing is found upon investigation. Therefore, through alternating appearance and emptiness, the empty quality dawns.

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[๐—œ๐—œ. UNITY/ UNION: ๐—ง๐Ÿญ - ๐—ฅ๐—ฒ๐—ณ๐˜‚๐˜๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐˜€๐—ฒ๐—ฐ๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ฑ ๐—ฒ๐˜…๐˜๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ฒ: ๐—ฐ๐—ผ๐—บ๐—ฝ๐—น๐—ฒ๐˜๐—ฒ ๐—ป๐—ผ๐—ป-๐—ฒ๐˜…๐—ถ๐˜€๐˜๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ / ๐—บ๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ-๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ฝ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ฒ๐˜€๐˜€:]

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At that time, by contemplating that the non-existence of phenomena also is just a mere imputation not actually established, or by contemplating the manner in which things appear while empty from the beginning, one generates the distinctive certainty that while empty, they appear and while appearing, are empty, like [a reflection of ] the moon in water. When the absence of intrinsic nature and ๐™™๐™š๐™ฅ๐™š๐™ฃ๐™™๐™š๐™ฃ๐™ฉ ๐™–๐™ง๐™ž๐™จ๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™œ dawn without contradiction, one has “the understanding of unity.”

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[๐—œ๐—œ๐—œ ๐—ฎ-๐—ฏ. FREEDOM FROM CONSTRUCT: ๐—จ๐Ÿฎ๐—ง - ๐—ฅ๐—ฒ๐—ณ๐˜‚๐˜๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ถ๐—ฟ๐—ฑ ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฑ ๐—ณ๐—ผ๐˜‚๐—ฟ๐˜๐—ต ๐—ฒ๐˜…๐˜๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ฒ๐˜€: ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐˜ƒ๐—ถ๐—ฒ๐˜„๐˜€ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐—ฏ๐—ผ๐˜๐—ต ๐—ฒ๐˜…๐—ถ๐˜€๐˜๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ & ๐—ป๐—ผ๐—ป-๐—ฒ๐˜…๐—ถ๐˜€๐˜๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ ๐˜๐—ผ๐—ด๐—ฒ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ๐—ฟ, ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฑ ๐—ป๐—ฒ๐—ถ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ๐—ฟ ๐—ฒ๐˜…๐—ถ๐˜€๐˜๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ ๐—ป๐—ผ๐—ฟ ๐—ป๐—ผ๐—ป-๐—ฒ๐˜…๐—ถ๐˜€๐˜๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ. ๐—ฅ๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐—น๐—ถ๐˜€๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฎ๐˜ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐˜๐˜„๐—ผ ๐˜๐—ฟ๐˜‚๐˜๐—ต๐˜€ ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ ๐—ถ๐—ป๐˜€๐—ฒ๐—ฝ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—ฏ๐—น๐—ฒ, ๐—ถ๐—ป๐˜๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—ฝ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜, ๐—ถ๐—ป ๐—จ๐—ป๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป - ๐—ป๐—ผ๐˜ ๐—ฑ๐—ถ๐—ณ๐—ณ๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜ / ๐˜€๐—ฒ๐—ฝ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ฒ, ๐—ป๐—ผ๐˜ ๐—ถ๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜๐—ถ๐—ฐ๐—ฎ๐—น / ๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ฒ:]

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At that time, certainty is generated in the manner that both — the lack of inherent nature [T2 - emptiness of inherent existence] and dependent arising [T1 - conventionally dependently co-arisen relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances, merely labelled / imputed by the mind in dependence of its conditioning / karma] — although different in being expressed by two phrases, are ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ฑ๐—ถ๐˜ƒ๐—ถ๐˜€๐—ถ๐—ฏ๐—น๐—ฒ (๐—ถ๐—ป ๐—จ๐—ป๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป) ๐˜„๐—ถ๐˜๐—ต๐—ผ๐˜‚๐˜ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐˜€๐—น๐—ถ๐—ด๐—ต๐˜๐—ฒ๐˜€๐˜ ๐—ฑ๐—ถ๐—ณ๐—ณ๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ (๐—ผ๐—ฟ ๐—ถ๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜๐—ถ๐˜๐˜†) ๐—ถ๐—ป ๐—ฒ๐˜€๐˜€๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ. (๐˜ช.๐˜ฆ. ๐˜œ๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜›๐˜ธ๐˜ฐ ๐˜›๐˜ณ๐˜ถ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ด. ๐˜›๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ต๐˜ธ๐˜ฐ ๐˜›๐˜ณ๐˜ถ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ด ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ต ๐˜ฅ๐˜ช๐˜ง๐˜ง๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ต / ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ฆ / ๐˜ฎ๐˜ถ๐˜ญ๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฑ๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ / ๐˜ฅ๐˜ถ๐˜ข๐˜ญ, ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ต ๐˜ช๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ค๐˜ข๐˜ญ / ๐˜ถ๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ฅ / ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ / ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ-๐˜ฅ๐˜ถ๐˜ข๐˜ญ, ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ต ๐˜ฃ๐˜ฐ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ ๐˜ต๐˜ฐ๐˜จ๐˜ฆ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ, ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ต ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ.)

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Thereby, the thought that apprehends appearance as the basis of negation, which is affixed to an object of negation that is eliminated, naturally deconstructs. And then dawn the qualities of a ๐—ณ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฒ๐—ฑ๐—ผ๐—บ ๐—ณ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—บ ๐—ฐ๐—ผ๐—ป๐˜€๐˜๐—ฟ๐˜‚๐—ฐ๐˜๐˜€, such as the ability to remain naturally ๐—ณ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฒ ๐—ณ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—บ ๐—ป๐—ฒ๐—ด๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฑ ๐—ฎ๐—ณ๐—ณ๐—ถ๐—ฟ๐—บ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป, ๐—ฎ๐—ฑ๐—ฑ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฑ ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ผ๐˜ƒ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด.

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(๐˜ช.๐˜ฆ. ๐˜›๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜”๐˜ช๐˜ฅ๐˜ฅ๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ž๐˜ข๐˜บ ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ญ ๐˜ฆ๐˜น๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด & ๐˜ฎ๐˜ช๐˜ฅ๐˜ฅ๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ, ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ญ ๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜ถ๐˜ข๐˜ญ ๐˜ฑ๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜ช๐˜ง๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ด, ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ญ ๐˜ข๐˜ค๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ & ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ซ๐˜ฆ๐˜ค๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ, ๐˜ข๐˜ง๐˜ง๐˜ช๐˜ณ๐˜ฎ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ & ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ๐˜จ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ, ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ค๐˜ฉ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ & ๐˜ข๐˜ฃ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ, ๐˜ข๐˜ฅ๐˜ฅ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ & ๐˜ด๐˜ถ๐˜ฃ๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ค๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ, ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฐ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ & ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ-๐˜ฅ๐˜ฐ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ, ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ฌ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ & ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ-๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ฌ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ, ๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜ถ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ช๐˜ด๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ & ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ-๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜ถ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ช๐˜ด๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ, ๐˜ฅ๐˜ช๐˜ค๐˜ณ๐˜ช๐˜ฎ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜จ & ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ-๐˜ฅ๐˜ช๐˜ด๐˜ค๐˜ณ๐˜ช๐˜ฎ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ, ๐˜ฆ๐˜น๐˜ช๐˜ด๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ & ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ-๐˜ฆ๐˜น๐˜ช๐˜ด๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ, ๐˜ฅ๐˜ช๐˜ง๐˜ง๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ & ๐˜ช๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜บ, ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ & ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ, ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ด & ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ-๐˜ฆ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ด, ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ต ๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ๐˜ช๐˜จ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ & ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ด, ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ญ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ท๐˜ฆ & ๐˜ข๐˜ฃ๐˜ด๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜ถ๐˜ต๐˜ฆ, ๐˜จ๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ถ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ & ๐˜ฎ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ง๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ต๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ, ๐˜ฆ๐˜ต๐˜ค.)

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[๐—œ๐—ฉ. EQUALITY: ๐Ÿญ๐—ง - ๐——๐—ถ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฐ๐˜ ๐—ฝ๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ฐ๐—ฒ๐—ฝ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป / ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐—น๐—ถ๐˜€๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป / ๐—ฒ๐˜…๐—ฝ๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ๐—ถ๐˜ƒ๐—ฎ๐—ฏ๐—น๐—ฒ ๐—จ๐—ป๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—ง๐˜„๐—ผ ๐—ง๐—ฟ๐˜‚๐˜๐—ต๐˜€, ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—จ๐—ป๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฒ ๐˜€๐—ฝ๐—ต๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐˜€, ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—จ๐—ป๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐—ผ๐—ฝ๐—ฝ๐—ผ๐˜€๐—ถ๐˜๐—ฒ๐˜€, ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐— ๐—ถ๐—ฑ๐—ฑ๐—น๐—ฒ ๐—ช๐—ฎ๐˜† -- ๐—ฎ๐—น๐—น ๐—ณ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฒ ๐—ณ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—บ ๐—ฎ๐—น๐—น ๐—ฒ๐˜…๐˜๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ฒ๐˜€ & ๐—บ๐—ถ๐—ฑ๐—ฑ๐—น๐—ฒ, ๐—ณ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฒ ๐—ณ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—บ ๐—ฎ๐—น๐—น ๐—ฐ๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ๐—ฝ๐˜๐˜‚๐—ฎ๐—น ๐—ฝ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—น๐—ถ๐—ณ๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป๐˜€, ๐—ณ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฒ ๐—ณ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—บ ๐—ฎ๐—น๐—น ๐—ฐ๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ฑ๐—ถ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด / ๐—ธ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—บ๐—ฎ:]

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Through becoming familiar (ex. using repeated meditation) with such a freedom of constructs again and again, all aspects of dualistic phenomena, in which one sets apart particular objects (manifestations) and their distinctive suchness (Ground), are purified. Through bringing forth an exceptional certainty in the nature of all phenomena as ๐—˜๐—ค๐—จ๐—”๐—Ÿ๐—œ๐—ง๐—ฌ one reaches completion.

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(๐˜ช.๐˜ฆ. ๐—˜๐—ค๐—จ๐—”๐—Ÿ๐—œ๐—ง๐—ฌ: ๐˜›๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜”๐˜ช๐˜ฅ๐˜ฅ๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ž๐˜ข๐˜บ ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ญ ๐˜ฆ๐˜น๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด & ๐˜ฎ๐˜ช๐˜ฅ๐˜ฅ๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ, ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ญ ๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜ถ๐˜ข๐˜ญ ๐˜ฑ๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜ช๐˜ง๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ด, ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ญ ๐˜ข๐˜ค๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ & ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ซ๐˜ฆ๐˜ค๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ, ๐˜ข๐˜ง๐˜ง๐˜ช๐˜ณ๐˜ฎ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ & ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ๐˜จ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ, ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ค๐˜ฉ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ & ๐˜ข๐˜ฃ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ, ๐˜ข๐˜ฅ๐˜ฅ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ & ๐˜ด๐˜ถ๐˜ฃ๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ค๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ, ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฐ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ & ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ-๐˜ฅ๐˜ฐ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ, ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ฌ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ & ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ-๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ฌ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ, ๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜ถ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ช๐˜ด๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ & ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ-๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜ถ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ช๐˜ด๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ, ๐˜ฅ๐˜ช๐˜ค๐˜ณ๐˜ช๐˜ฎ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜จ & ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ-๐˜ฅ๐˜ช๐˜ด๐˜ค๐˜ณ๐˜ช๐˜ฎ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ, ๐˜ฆ๐˜น๐˜ช๐˜ด๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ & ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ-๐˜ฆ๐˜น๐˜ช๐˜ด๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ, ๐˜ฅ๐˜ช๐˜ง๐˜ง๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ & ๐˜ช๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜บ, ๐˜ด๐˜ถ๐˜ฃ๐˜ซ๐˜ฆ๐˜ค๐˜ต & ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฃ๐˜ซ๐˜ฆ๐˜ค๐˜ต , ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ & ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ, ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ด & ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ-๐˜ฆ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ด, ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ต ๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ๐˜ช๐˜จ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ & ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฎ๐˜ฑ๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ด, ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ญ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ท๐˜ฆ & ๐˜ข๐˜ฃ๐˜ด๐˜ฐ๐˜ญ๐˜ถ๐˜ต๐˜ฆ, ๐˜ฆ๐˜ต๐˜ค.; ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ต ๐˜ช๐˜ด ๐˜ฅ๐˜ช๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ค๐˜ต๐˜ญ๐˜บ ๐˜ฑ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ช๐˜ท๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ / ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ช๐˜ด๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ / ๐˜ฆ๐˜น๐˜ฑ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ช๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ช๐˜ท๐˜ข๐˜ฃ๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ต๐˜ณ๐˜ถ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฏ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ถ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜™๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ญ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜บ ๐˜ข๐˜ด ๐˜ช๐˜ต ๐˜ช๐˜ด, ๐˜ด๐˜ถ๐˜ค๐˜ฉ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ด / ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ฎ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ข / ๐˜ฅ๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ฎ๐˜ข๐˜ฅ๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ถ, ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ถ๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ฒ๐˜ถ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ถ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฃ๐˜ฐ๐˜ณ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ถ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฉ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜จ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ ๐˜ถ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ข๐˜ด๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜จ ๐˜ฑ๐˜ณ๐˜ช๐˜ด๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ ๐˜Ž๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ถ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฅ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ด๐˜ฆ๐˜ฑ๐˜ข๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ฃ๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ง๐˜ณ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฎ ๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ด ๐˜ฎ๐˜ข๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ง๐˜ฆ๐˜ด๐˜ต๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ด, ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ๐˜ค๐˜ฆ๐˜ช๐˜ท๐˜ข๐˜ฃ๐˜ญ๐˜ฆ ๐˜œ๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜›๐˜ธ๐˜ฐ ๐˜›๐˜ณ๐˜ถ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ด [๐˜œ2๐˜›], ๐˜œ๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ต๐˜ฉ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฆ ๐˜ด๐˜ฑ๐˜ฉ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ด -- ๐˜ด๐˜ถ๐˜ฃ๐˜ซ๐˜ฆ๐˜ค๐˜ต, ๐˜ณ๐˜ฆ๐˜ญ๐˜ข๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ/๐˜ข๐˜ค๐˜ต๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ, ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฃ๐˜ซ๐˜ฆ๐˜ค๐˜ต -- [๐˜œ3๐˜š], ๐˜œ๐˜ฏ๐˜ช๐˜ฐ๐˜ฏ ๐˜ฐ๐˜ง ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฑ๐˜ฑ๐˜ฐ๐˜ด๐˜ช๐˜ต๐˜ฆ๐˜ด [๐˜œ๐˜ฐ๐˜ฑ๐˜ฑ] ๐˜ช๐˜ฏ ๐˜จ๐˜ฆ๐˜ฏ๐˜ฆ๐˜ณ๐˜ข๐˜ญ ...)

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(Note: What is said about the opposites of the duality of existence & non-existence --  the four extreme positions, the utilisation of those four extremes as possible adapted skillful means / temporary tools, and the refutation of those four extremes positions leading ultimately to a state of freedom from those four extreme opposites, and freedom from all conceptual proliferations about them -- it also applied to the opposites of any duality / triad / quad / etc. Then we have freedom from all extremes & middle(s) of any duality, freedom from all conceptual dualistic proliferations, from all conditioning / karma. That is the meaning of EQUALITY.)

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From: JAMGร–N MIPHAM - His Life and Teachings

Douglas Duckworth, Shambhala, 2011

Part III - Select Translations

Section 4 - Steps to the Middle Way

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Another Quote (about The Four Stages Of The Dawning Of The Middle Way);
From Jamgon Mipam - His Life His Teaching, by Douglas Duckworth

7.2 STEPS TO THE NON-CONCEPTUAL
-- A BRIDGE FROM A CONCEPTUAL MEANING TO A NON-CONCEPTUAL ONE
-- GRADUALLY REFUTING THE FOUR EXTREMES (OF ANY DUALITY) ONE AFTER THE OTHER;
leaving the place for a spontaneous direct non-conceptual non-dualistic realization of the true nature of reality as it is here & now beyond all concepts, opposition / duality, conditioning / karma;
== GRADUALLY REALIZING THE UNITY/UNION OF THE TWO TRUTHS & THE UNITY/UNION OF THE THREE WORLDS & THE UNITY/UNION OF OPPOSITES (not existence, not non-existence, not both together, not neither; not difference / separation / multiplicity / duality, not identity / unity / oneness / non-duality, not both together, not neither; not pure objectivity, not pure subjectivity, not both together, not neither; not bad / impure / imperfect / inequal, not good / pure / perfect / equal, not both together, not neither ...)
== GRADUALLY REALIZING THE UNION OF PURITY <==> EQUALITY OF THE MIDDLE WAY: FREEDOM FROM ALL EXTREMES & MIDDLE:
nothing to accept / affirm nothing to reject / negate in absolute terms, just relatively / conventionally / inter-subjectively. 

The Great Perfection offers immediate access to recognizing the nature of reality.
Except for the exceptionally gifted few, however,
most of us lack the good fortune for instantaneous realization
and need to rely on a gradual path of study and contemplation.
Mipham describes such a progressive approach to THE VIEW OF THE MIDDLE WAY in four stages,
which have been said to correspond to the famous four lines of the Heart Sutra: 

“Form is emptiness. (refuting existence)
Emptiness is form. (refuting non-existence / emptiness)
There is no form other than emptiness. (refuting the difference between the two, the duality)
There is also no emptiness other than form.” 115 (refuting the identity of the two, the oneness / non-duality)

MIPHAM LABELS THE FOUR STAGES AS FOLLOWS: EMPTY, UNITY/UNION, FREEDOM FROM CONSTRUCTS, AND EQUALITY.
We will briefly consider this process.

  1. [Not inherently existence = emptiness / 2nd truth; refuting realism:]
    Mipham describes the first stage, empty, as the time in the beginning of analysis, when we come to see that all things lack true existence and that nothing can be found under analysis. This stage involves reasoning into the nature of things, analyzing their mode of existence to see if it is a singular or multiple entity, and so forth. During this stage, emptiness and appearance are known in alternation: phenomena are empty when analyzed and appear when not analyzed [U2T]. 116

  2. [Not complete non-existence = dependent origination of appearances / 1st truth; refuting nihilism:]
    After understanding that phenomena are empty, we can then move to the next stage, called UNITY/UNION. Even while things are found to be empty, or rather, even though nothing is found under analysis, things do not cease to appear. Here, we come to understand that emptiness and appearance are not in conflict, because dependent arising is the meaning of emptiness [U2T]. Phenomena are empty simply because they do not exist independently. At this stage, we come to understand that being empty does not stop phenomena from appearing; rather, we recognize that being empty is the necessary condition for appearance. So this stage points further to THE GENUINE UNITY/UNION OF APPEARANCE AND EMPTINESS [U2T].

  3. [Not both existence & non-existence together = freedom from constructs / opposites; refuting dualism:]
    In the next stage, freedom from constructs, we come to understand that things being empty and things appearing do not have a different meaning (the two are not different / separate / two / dual). Other than different modes of expression, or different ways of conceiving reality, we now see that there is actually no difference [nor identity] between appearance and emptiness. In this phase, we recognize that an object “being empty”—as a property separate from that appearing object—is only a linguistic or conceptual distinction: there is no such distinction in reality. 117
    We can appreciate what Mipham is getting at here when we consider that the emptiness of an appearance is like the blueness of a blue sky, it is a quality that is only separable by abstraction. We do not find a separate blueness when we look at the sky. Similarly, empty appearance and appearing emptiness are just two ways of saying the same thing. They are not different in reality. We cannot even say that they are the same, because sameness implies two things being the same; so in reality, they are not (even) one!

  4. [Not neither existence nor non-existence = equality; refuting monism / holism / oneness; refuting all extremes; freedom from all extremes:]
    The final stage in the fourfold process is equality. At this stage, all duality dissolves (the two are not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither -- beyond all dualities, like manyness & oneness, difference & identity, duality & non-duality ...) through our becoming accustomed to the freedom from constructs. We come to understand the meaning of equality beyond constructs by familiarizing ourselves with this truth again and again. Through cultivating this awareness without conceptual fabrication, we directly perceive equality where there is no distinction between buddhas and sentient beings, and we come to integrate this insight within experience.

These four stages—empty, UNITY/UNION, freedom from constructs, and equality—counteract respectively the four extremes (the “tetralemma”) of existence, non-existence, both, and neither. 

  1. The first stage, empty, negates the first extreme of existence.
    (Affirm the 2nd truth: the emptiness of inherent existence of everything; that everything is not inherently existent.)
    This is the most dominant extreme, because we are habituated to conceive things (our self, our things, the world) as truly real. By seeing these as empty, we come to recognize that they do not really exist the way we conceive them to be.

  2. The second stage, UNITY/UNION, counteracts the second extreme of non-existence.
    (Affirm the 1st truth: the dependent origination of everything; that everything is not completely non-existent.)
    After negating the extreme of existence, if we hold on to that absence—a mere lack of true existence—we are still in the grips of conceptual constructs, because this absence is wholly dependent on its binary counterpart of true existence. If existence were truly something to be negated, its negation as non-existent would be real too. However, since nothing has ever been truly existent, non-existence cannot be real either. This is the reason why even the negation of existence cannot be affirmed. As is the case with the death of a man who was never born, without existence, non-existence cannot be real either.

  3. The third stage, freedom from constructs, counteracts the third and supposedly more subtle extreme of both existence and non-existence.
    (Affirm that the two truths are not different; that everything is not both existent / dependently arisen and non-existent / empty together.)
    We might think that since reality is neither truly existent nor truly non-existent, then perhaps it is both. However, to both truly exist and truly not exist is a contradiction. Being and nonbeing, real and unreal, are mutually exclusive; we can only speak meaningfully of one or the other. Of course, we could say that things ultimately do not exist, while conventionally they do, but this is introducing a dichotomy of TWO TRUTHS. Here, we are talking about one truth, how things really are, as the ultimate or true nature of things. In “the way things are in reality, which are ultimate, the way that reality appears to a sublime being’s perception", nothing is both existent and non-existent.

  4. The fourth and last stage, equality, counteracts what is said to be the most subtle of the four extremes, that of neither existence nor non-existence. (Affirm that the two truths are not identical; that everything is not neither existent / dependently arisen nor non-existent / empty.)
    Since things do not really both exist and not exist, we might think they neither exist nor not exist. However, this is still bound up within the premises of our conceptual categories. This stage takes us a step further, in a similar way as the move from the first stage to the second (because things do not really exist does not mean they must really be non-existent either): just because things do not both exist and not exist does not mean that they must necessarily neither exist nor not exist. This may sound like a contradiction, but it need not be so. The dichotomy of existence and non-existence, the law of noncontradiction, and the excluded middle are products of thought. They form the framework of our conceptual constructions. Yet even if consistent thought and language must follow these laws, our experience doesn’t need to because it is not necessarily confined to our conceptual structures. By first recognizing this experience beyond concepts and becoming accustomed to it, we come to directly experience equality. To know equality is to experience the one taste of all things, where there is no separate self or other in samsara or nirvana.

Through these four stages, Mipham charts a process through which conceptual analysis is used to transcend concepts. The stages have a certain progression, and he says we cannot skip any stage without a proper understanding of the stages that precede it. 118 Consequently, a thorough analysis is essential to this process. Even so, while careful analysis is necessary in the preliminary stages, concepts must eventually be overcome in the end. At some point, the conceptual structure needs to break down for a non-conceptual experience to take place, but the problem is: this cannot be done by concepts alone. For Mipham, the process is something like rubbing two sticks together: we need the sticks in the beginning to make the fire, but in the end, the friction from the sticks of concepts results in the non-conceptual fire of WISDOM [U2T-pure-SA] that consumes those sticks. 119

In this way, Mipham creates a bridge from a conceptual meaning to a non-conceptual one. What comes about through this kind of conceptual analysis is a semblance (rjes mthun) of the meaning of the non-conceptual, an approximation that is supposed to give way to a genuine, non-conceptual realization [U2T]. This semblance of the non-conceptual is the place where Mipham pivots between a determinate, analytical certainty and an unbounded dimension of experiential insight. 

Indeed, the role of cultivating a semblance, or an approximation, as a means to understand the genuine plays a major part in the way he depicts the process of coming to understand THE VIEW (AS THE UNITY/UNION OF APPEARANCE AND EMPTINESS [U2T]), as well as the way he presents meditation (as the process of taking non-conceptual WISDOM [U2T-pure-SA] as the path). 120 One could argue that his appeal to a semblance of the genuine meaning makes his analytical process less rigorous, in that it attempts the impossible (conceptualizing the non-conceptual) and thus sullies a crisp, analytical representation of emptiness. Or one might have the opposite view: that the process of conceptual analysis disrupts the beauty and simplicity of a pure, experiential insight. Yet one might also see how wedding these two approaches—the conceptual cultivation of a semblance of non-conceptuality and the direct experience of it—is an effective means to bring forth genuine insight. Indeed, this fusion is an important part of Mipham’s presentation of the view and meditation, and it is a central means by which he brings together sutra and tantra and integrates analytical reason with experiential insight (see translation 4).

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From the Prajnaparamita Sutra: 


“How do you perceive reality?”

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-- ... “No, look deeper.”

-- ... “No.”

-- ... “No. Look deeper.”

-- ... “No, that’s too limited an understanding.” ...

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Then Avalokiteshvara proclaimed the pith of the prajnaparamita, the essence of the rug-pulling-out experience, the essence of the fearless, open state of mind. It came in the form of a mantra: 


“OM GATE GATE PARAGATE PARASAMGATE BODHI SVAHA.” 

(“OM gone, gone, gone beyond, gone completely beyond, awake, so be it.”)

(i.e. transcending the four extremes in succession)

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Just as a seed contains the tree, this mantra contains the entire teachings on abiding in prajnaparamita, abiding in the fearless state.

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“Good, good! You expressed it perfectly, Avalokiteshvara.”

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"Most Tibetan Buddhist philosophers agree that the tetralemma is a tool that allows one to realize the ultimate, but they differ in their explanations of the ways in which this tool functions. Gorampa argues that one must negate each of the four extremes in succession by using logic and reasoning, and then one must subsequently realize the negation of all four extremes simultaneously through meditative practices."

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From: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/gorampa/ 

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[๐•‹๐•™๐•– ๐•๐•š๐•Ÿ๐•œ ๐•“๐•–๐•ฅ๐•จ๐•–๐•–๐•Ÿ "๐”ฝ๐•ฃ๐•–๐•–๐••๐• ๐•ž ๐•—๐•ฃ๐• ๐•ž ๐•–๐•ฉ๐•ฅ๐•ฃ๐•–๐•ž๐•–๐•ค" ๐•’๐•Ÿ๐•• ๐•ฅ๐•™๐•– "๐•Œ๐•Ÿ๐•š๐• ๐•Ÿ ๐• ๐•— ๐•ฅ๐•™๐•– ๐•‹๐•จ๐•  ๐•‹๐•ฃ๐•ฆ๐•ฅ๐•™๐•ค" : ]

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๐—˜๐—บ๐—ฝ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ฒ๐˜€๐˜€ ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฑ ๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—ฝ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜ ๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐—ด๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป 

~ 3rd Jamgon Kongtrul Rinpoche

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Mind is by its very nature ๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ฝ๐˜๐˜† [T2],  <==> yet ๐—ฎ๐—ฝ๐—ฝ๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ๐˜€ ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐˜€๐—ฒ from it [T1] without obstruction [U2T]. 

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Out of the unobstructed ๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ฝ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ฒ๐˜€๐˜€ [T2] of mind the whole range of ๐—ฎ๐—ฝ๐—ฝ๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ๐˜€ [T1] can manifest without limit. [U2T - Union of the Two Truths - One truth implies the other (<==>).]

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On a relative level, phenomena manifest through dependent origination [T1]; <==> this is inseparable from the emptiness [T2] of mind, which is the ultimate level. 

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*** ๐—™๐—ฅ๐—˜๐—˜๐——๐—ข๐—  ๐—™๐—ฅ๐—ข๐—  ๐—˜๐—ซ๐—ง๐—ฅ๐—˜๐— ๐—˜๐—ฆ ๐—œ๐—ฆ ๐—ฅ๐—˜๐—”๐—Ÿ๐—œ๐—ฆ๐—œ๐—ก๐—š (๐—ง๐—›๐—˜ ๐—จ๐—ก๐—œ๐—ข๐—ก ๐—ข๐—™ ๐—ง๐—›๐—˜ ๐—ง๐—ช๐—ข ๐—ง๐—ฅ๐—จ๐—ง๐—›๐—ฆ *** : ) ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฎ๐˜ ๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ฝ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ฒ๐˜€๐˜€ [T2] ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฑ ๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—ฝ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜ ๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐—ด๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป [T1] ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ ๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ฒ [๐—จ๐—ป๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป]  ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฑ ๐—ฑ๐—ผ ๐—ป๐—ผ๐˜ ๐—ฐ๐—ผ๐—ป๐˜๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—ฑ๐—ถ๐—ฐ๐˜ ๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐—ต ๐—ผ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ๐—ฟ. [that one truth implies the other; they are inseparable, interdependent]

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Confusion lies neither in the appearance of things, nor in the fact that they are manifested by mind, but in one’s own misunderstanding of the emptiness [T2] and luminosity [T1] of mind. [i.e. U2T about the mind]

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-- 3rd Jamgon Kongtrul Rinpoche

from the book Cloudless Sky: The Mahamudra Path of the Tibetan Buddhist Kagyu School
https://quotes.justdharma.com/emptiness-and-dependent-origination/ 

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[THE UNION OF THE TWO TRUTHS AND FREEDOM FROM EXTREMES]

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The Nyingma tradition is the oldest of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. It is founded on the first translations of Buddhist scriptures from Sanskrit into Tibetan, in the eighth century. ๐—๐˜‚ ๐— ๐—ถ๐—ฝ๐—ต๐—ฎ๐—บ(1846–1912) in his commentary to the Madhyamฤlaแนƒkฤra of ลšฤntarakแนฃita (725–788) says:

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"If one trains for a long time in ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—จ๐—ป๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—ง๐˜„๐—ผ ๐—ง๐—ฟ๐˜‚๐˜๐—ต๐˜€, the stage of acceptance (on the path of joining), which is attuned to primordial wisdom, will arise. By thus acquiring a certain conviction in that which surpasses intellectual knowledge, and by training in it, one will eventually actualize it. This is precisely how the Buddhas and the Bodhisattvas have said that liberation is to be gained."

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The following sentence from ๐— ๐—ถ๐—ฝ๐—ต๐—ฎ๐—บ's exegesis of ลšฤntarakแนฃita's Madhyamฤlaแนƒkฤra highlights the relationship between ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—ฎ๐—ฏ๐˜€๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—ณ๐—ผ๐˜‚๐—ฟ ๐—ฒ๐˜…๐˜๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ฒ๐˜€  (mtha'-bzhi) and ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—ป๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ฑ๐˜‚๐—ฎ๐—น ๐—ผ๐—ฟ ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ฑ๐—ถ๐˜ƒ๐—ถ๐˜€๐—ถ๐—ฏ๐—น๐—ฒ (๐—ผ๐—ฟ ๐—จ๐—ป๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ผ๐—ณ) ๐—ง๐˜„๐—ผ ๐—ง๐—ฟ๐˜‚๐˜๐—ต๐˜€ (bden-pa dbyer-med):

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"The learned and accomplished [masters] of the Early Translations considered this ๐˜€๐—ถ๐—บ๐—ฝ๐—น๐—ถ๐—ฐ๐—ถ๐˜๐˜† ๐—ฏ๐—ฒ๐˜†๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ฑ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—ณ๐—ผ๐˜‚๐—ฟ ๐—ฒ๐˜…๐˜๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ฒ๐˜€ (๐—ถ.๐—ฒ. ๐˜๐—ต๐—ถ๐˜€ ๐—ณ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฒ๐—ฑ๐—ผ๐—บ ๐—ณ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—บ ๐—ฎ๐—น๐—น ๐—ฒ๐˜…๐˜๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—บ๐—ฒ๐˜€, ๐—ผ๐—ฟ ๐—ณ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฒ๐—ฑ๐—ผ๐—บ ๐—ณ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—บ ๐—ฎ๐—น๐—น ๐—ฐ๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ๐—ฝ๐˜๐˜‚๐—ฎ๐—น ๐—ฝ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—น๐—ถ๐—ณ๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป๐˜€), ๐˜๐—ต๐—ถ๐˜€ ๐—ฎ๐—ฏ๐—ถ๐—ฑ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด ๐˜„๐—ฎ๐˜† ๐—ถ๐—ป ๐˜„๐—ต๐—ถ๐—ฐ๐—ต ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐˜๐˜„๐—ผ ๐˜๐—ฟ๐˜‚๐˜๐—ต๐˜€ ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ฑ๐—ถ๐˜ƒ๐—ถ๐˜€๐—ถ๐—ฏ๐—น๐—ฒ (๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—จ๐—ป๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—ง๐˜„๐—ผ ๐—ง๐—ฟ๐˜‚๐˜๐—ต๐˜€), as their own immaculate way."

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Dzogchen holds that the two truths are ultimately resolved into non-duality as a lived experience and are non-different. (๐—ถ.๐—ฒ. ๐—จ๐—ป๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—ง๐˜„๐—ผ ๐—ง๐—ฟ๐˜‚๐˜๐—ต๐˜€)

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Via: Wikipedia - Two truths doctrine

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Two_truths_doctrine#Tibetan_Buddhism 

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[TOO MANY PEOPLE STILL THINK IT IS ABOUT ABANDONING ALL THINKING, CONCEPTS, DISCRIMINATION, ACTIVITY ...]

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Note: I have been reading some western literature about the Two Truths and about Gorampa. They are way confused.

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One important point: ๐—ณ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฒ๐—ฑ๐—ผ๐—บ ๐—ณ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—บ ๐—ฐ๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ๐—ฝ๐˜๐˜‚๐—ฎ๐—น ๐—ฑ๐˜‚๐—ฎ๐—น๐—ถ๐˜€๐˜๐—ถ๐—ฐ ๐—ฝ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—น๐—ถ๐—ณ๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป๐˜€ ๐—ฑ๐—ผ๐—ฒ๐˜€๐—ป'๐˜ ๐—บ๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐—ป ๐˜๐—ผ ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ท๐—ฒ๐—ฐ๐˜ / negate / abandon / subtract / not-do ๐—ฐ๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ๐—ฝ๐˜๐˜‚๐—ฎ๐—น๐—ถ๐˜€๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป & ๐—ฑ๐—ถ๐˜€๐—ฐ๐—ฟ๐—ถ๐—บ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป & ๐—ฐ๐—น๐—ฎ๐˜€๐˜€๐—ถ๐—ณ๐—ถ๐—ฐ๐—ฎ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ... 

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๐—œ๐˜ ๐—บ๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐˜€ ๐—ท๐˜‚๐˜€๐˜ ๐˜๐—ผ ๐—ฏ๐—ฒ ๐—ณ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฒ ๐—ณ๐—ฟ๐—ผ๐—บ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ๐—บ, free from acceptation & rejection, not fooled by them, not grasping at them, not thinking they are independent / absolute / inherently existing, not slaves to them. No need to reject them. Nothing is inherently existing and inherently bad.

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That is the Middle Way where there is nothing to accept / affirm / seek / add / do in absolute terms, nothing to reject / negate / abandon / subtract / not-do in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively if it helps someone to get closer to the inconceivable liberating Truths.

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It is freedom from our conditioning / karma by simply directly realising its true nature & dynamic. It is not about rejecting / abandoning the world, our body, speech & mind. Just about being fully aware of their true nature & dynamic as it is here & now while using them as simple tools.

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There is nothing to reject. Nirvana is samsara purified by wisdom, not by rejecting the world and going somewhere else.

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The Ultimate is beyond dualities like good vs. bad, conceptualisation vs. non-conceptualisation, discrimination vs. non-discrimination, classification vs. non-classification, thinking vs. non-thinking, doing vs. non-doing, empty vs. not-empty, dependent vs. independent, existence vs. non-existence, etc.

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Buddhas still think, talk, discriminate, act, live, chop wood & carry water ... they just do it with wisdom and compassion inseparable.

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[It is simple. REALITY is the Union of the Two Truths: a Middle Way free from the extremes of inherent existence & complete non-existence.]

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Emptiness and non-existence ~ 14th Dalai Lama
https://quotes.justdharma.com/emptiness-and-non-existence/ 

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The doctrines of emptiness [T2 - not inherent existence] and selflessness do not imply the non-existence of things. Things do exist [T1 - not complete non-existence]. 

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When we say that all phenomena are void of self-existence [T2 - emptiness], it does not mean that we are advocating non-existence [nihilism / nothingness], that we are repudiating that things exist [rejecting / escaping the world]. 

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Then what is it we are negating? We are negating, or denying, that anything exists from its own side without depending on other things. 

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Hence, ๐—ถ๐˜ ๐—ถ๐˜€ ๐—ฏ๐—ฒ๐—ฐ๐—ฎ๐˜‚๐˜€๐—ฒ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด๐˜€ ๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—ฝ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฑ ๐—ณ๐—ผ๐—ฟ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ๐—ถ๐—ฟ ๐—ฒ๐˜…๐—ถ๐˜€๐˜๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ ๐˜‚๐—ฝ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ผ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ๐—ฟ ๐—ฐ๐—ฎ๐˜‚๐˜€๐—ฒ๐˜€ ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฑ ๐—ฐ๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ฑ๐—ถ๐˜๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป๐˜€ [๐—ง๐Ÿญ] <==> ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฎ๐˜ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ๐˜† ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ ๐˜€๐—ฎ๐—ถ๐—ฑ ๐˜๐—ผ ๐—น๐—ฎ๐—ฐ๐—ธ ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—ฝ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜ ๐˜€๐—ฒ๐—น๐—ณ-๐—ฒ๐˜…๐—ถ๐˜€๐˜๐—ฒ๐—ป๐—ฐ๐—ฒ [๐—ง๐Ÿฎ].

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(i.e. UNION OF THE TWO TRUTH [U2T] : everything is empty of inherent existence [T2], like illusions, not really existing <==> exactly because everything is conventionally dependently co-arisen / interdependent relatively functional ever-changing impermanent appearances [T1] -- physical, conceptual, mental; subject, relation/action, object --, merely labelled / imputed by the mind in dependence of its past / conditioning / karma -- individual, collective, cosmic --, not completely non-existent. One aspect / truth implying the other (<==>).)

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(Note: Everybody agrees about that. The tricky part that not everybody agree about, but that is exactly true, is that this 'Union of the Two Truths: that something is empty <==> because it is dependently co-arisen / interdependent' also applies to the two truth themselves -- dependent origination / causality and emptiness of inherent existence --. That is called the Union of the Two Truths about the Two Truths themselves [U2T-2T]. 

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The two tuths themselves -- dependent origination / causality & emptiness -- are themselves both empty of inherent existence [T2], not really existent <==> exactly because they are inseparable / interdependent / co-dependent [T1], merely labelled / imputed by the mind. And vice versa (<==>). 

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In other words: if appearances are not real, then their negation / emptiness is also not real. Without the belief in the inherent existence of things, then there is no more need for its antidote / emptiness. So 'emptiness' is not really some kind of Ultimate Truth or Reality. It is the ultimate truth only in name. The Ultimate Reality is inconceivable, beyond all dualities like empty vs. non-empty.

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And this leaves nothing to grasp at all. This is transcending all views, all extremes & middle, all dualistic conceptual proliferations.

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Tetralemma: Everything is not inherently existent, not completely non-existent, not both existent & non-existent together, not neither existent nor non-existent.)

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– 14th Dalai Lama

from the book "Answers: Discussions With Western Buddhists"

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