Wednesday, November 18, 2020

Introduction to Madhyamaka Reasonings - 032

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Blowing in the Wind.

Introduction to various forms of Madhyamaka reasonings:

Note: That is what is implicit in all the texts I have posted on FB and on the Blog.
It is important to understand the various Madhyamaka Reasonings to be able to analyse any Madhyamaka text.
Otherwise we are just "๐™—๐™ก๐™ค๐™ฌ๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™œ ๐™ž๐™ฃ ๐™ฉ๐™๐™š ๐™ฌ๐™ž๐™ฃ๐™™" -- which is different from "singing or dancing with the cosmos".

In general a reasoning is in the form: assuming "a is inseparable... with b";
if we can demonstrate "a" then "b" is automatically proven because they are inseparable...

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๐Ÿ‚ Ex. ๐—ง๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฒ ๐˜ƒ๐—ฎ๐—ท๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐˜€ -- ๐—ฏ๐—ผ๐—ฑ๐˜†, ๐˜€๐—ฝ๐—ฒ๐—ฒ๐—ฐ๐—ต ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฑ ๐—บ๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ฑ -- ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ ๐—ถ๐—ป๐˜€๐—ฒ๐—ฝ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ฎ๐—ฏ๐—น๐—ฒ; meaning one cannot exist without the other. (ex. even between lives there are very subtle body, speech & mind ... representing the inseparable three kayas)

Opposites like the three vajras are always inseparable, interdependent (one implies the other(s)), co-defined (the definition of one implies the definition of the other(s)), co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing, in harmony (not in real opposition) ... 

Each of those terms characterize the type of relationship between the three vajras.

  • The same for the three spheres -- subject, action and object.

  • The same for any other group of conceptual opposites: dualities, triads, quads, etc.

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So if one opposite is empty ==> then the other(s) are also empty because they are inseparable...

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That is the concept of the ๐—จ๐—ป๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐—ผ๐—ฝ๐—ฝ๐—ผ๐˜€๐—ถ๐˜๐—ฒ๐˜€: ࿊ ࿋ ࿌ … ex.

  • Union of the three vajras -- body speech & mind;

  • Union of the three spheres -- subject, relation/action, object;

  • Union of the three Jewels -- Buddha, Dharma, Sangha;

  • Union of the three kayas -- dharmakaya, sambhogakaya, nirmanakaya;

  • Union Ground <==> Path <==> Fruition.

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The only way to prove this to yourself is to try to analyse each case by yourself; or to find Madhyamaka texts that do it.

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Note the three -- body, speech & mind -- are always inseparable whether they are impure (of ordinary beings) or pure (of Buddhas). The only difference is that Buddhas have purified / transmuted the three simply by becoming fully aware of their inseparability, interdependence, co-dependence, co-emergence, co-evolution, co-cessation, harmony ... Union. It is the wisdom, the perception, that purifies. Just that! Reasonings are there to help to get there by removing wrong views.

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๐ŸŒบ And it is exactly because the three vajras are DEPENDENTLY CO-ARISEN or interdependent or co-dependent (1st truth) ==> that they are EMPTY of inherent existence (2nd truth). That is one way to prove the emptiness of everything. It is used in many Madhyamaka teachings. In general, something could be co-dependent with its causes & conditions  (if applicable), its parts (if applicable), its conceptual opposite(s) (always), and as object with the mind / subject merely labelling / imputing it (always). More reasons to prove the emptiness of something.

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And vice versa: it is exactly because they are EMPTY of inherent existence (2nd truth) ==> that they are DEPENDENTLY CO-ARISEN and relatively functional (1st truth).

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One aspect or truth implies the other (<==>).

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That is ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐—ž๐—œ๐—ก๐—š ๐—ข๐—™ ๐— ๐—”๐——๐—›๐—ฌ๐—”๐— ๐—”๐—ž๐—” ๐—ฅ๐—˜๐—”๐—ฆ๐—ข๐—ก๐—œ๐—ก๐—š (the interrelation between dependent origination and emptiness). By demonstrating one side of the implication (<==>) we also prove the other side, because one side implies the other, they are inseparable, interdependent ...

That is the concept of 

Harmony or ๐—จ๐—ป๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐˜๐˜„๐—ผ ๐˜๐—ฟ๐˜‚๐˜๐—ต๐˜€ ๐—ฎ๐—ฏ๐—ผ๐˜‚๐˜ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฒ ๐˜ƒ๐—ฎ๐—ฟ๐—ท๐—ฎ๐˜€; or 

or ๐—จ๐—ป๐—ถ๐—ผ๐—ป ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐˜๐˜„๐—ผ ๐˜๐—ฟ๐˜‚๐˜๐—ต๐˜€ ๐—ฎ๐—ฏ๐—ผ๐˜‚๐˜ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฒ ๐˜€๐—ฝ๐—ต๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐˜€.

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The only way to prove this to yourself is to try to analyse many cases by yourself; or to find Madhyamaka texts that do it.

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๐ŸŒบ And it is exactly because the three vajras are EMPTY of inherent existence ==> that, using the ๐—ง๐—˜๐—ง๐—ฅ๐—”๐—Ÿ๐—˜๐— ๐— ๐—”,

  • they are ๐—ป๐—ผ๐˜ ๐—ฑ๐—ถ๐—ณ๐—ณ๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜, ๐—ป๐—ผ๐˜ ๐—ถ๐—ฑ๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜๐—ถ๐—ฐ๐—ฎ๐—น, not both different and identical together, not neither different nor identical -- and there is no other possibility; 

  • they are ๐—ป๐—ผ๐˜ ๐—บ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐˜†, ๐—ป๐—ผ๐˜ ๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ฒ, not both together one and many, not neither one nor many -- and there is no other possibility;

  • they are ๐—ป๐—ผ๐˜ ๐—ฑ๐˜‚๐—ฎ๐—น, ๐—ป๐—ผ๐˜ ๐—ป๐—ผ๐—ป-๐—ฑ๐˜‚๐—ฎ๐—น, not both together dual and non-dual, not neither dual nor non-dual -- and there is no other possibility;

  • they are ๐—ป๐—ผ๐˜ ๐—ด๐—ผ๐—ผ๐—ฑ, ๐—ป๐—ผ๐˜ ๐—ฏ๐—ฎ๐—ฑ, not both good and bad together, not neither good nor bad -- and there is no other possibility;

  • they are ๐—ป๐—ผ๐˜ ๐—ฒ๐˜…๐—ถ๐˜€๐˜๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜, ๐—ป๐—ผ๐˜ ๐—ป๐—ผ๐—ป-๐—ฒ๐˜…๐—ถ๐˜๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜, not both existent and non-existent together, not neither existent nor non-existent -- and there is no other possibility;

  • they are ๐—ป๐—ผ๐˜ ๐—ฝ๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—บ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜, ๐—ป๐—ผ๐˜ ๐—ถ๐—บ๐—ฝ๐—ฒ๐—ฟ๐—บ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ฒ๐—ป๐˜, not both permanent and impermanent together, not neither permanent nor impermanent -- and there is no other possibility;

  • they are ๐—ป๐—ผ๐˜ ๐˜๐—ต๐—ถ๐˜€, ๐—ป๐—ผ๐˜ ๐—ป๐—ผ๐—ป-๐˜๐—ต๐—ถ๐˜€, not both together, not neither -- and there is no other possibility.

So, in that sense, EMPTINESS (2nd truth) implies ==> the TETRALEMMA,

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and vice versa: the TETRALEMMA implies ==> EMPTINESS, or the Union of the Two Truths. If the "thing(s)" cannot exist in any of the four possibilities, and there is no other possibility, then it is necessarily empty of inherent existence, just merely labelled / imputed by the mind. That is another way to prove the emptiness of everything. It is used in many of those forms and more in many Madhyamaka teachings.

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One implies the other (<==>).

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That is ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ผ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ๐—ฟ ๐—ณ๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐—บ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐— ๐—ฎ๐—ฑ๐—ต๐˜†๐—ฎ๐—บ๐—ฎ๐—ธ๐—ฎ ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐˜€๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด. By demonstrating one side of the implication (<==>) we also prove the other side, because one side implies the other.

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The only way to prove this to yourself is to try to analyse many cases by yourself; or to find Madhyamaka texts that do it.

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Note: In many Madhyamaka texts only the first two possibilities are mentioned. But the two other ones are always implicit; that is the only way to cover all the possibilities, and to be able to conclude in emptiness.

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Note: The tetralemma ultimately means "free from all extremes & middle", "free from all conceptual elaborations", "indescribable / inconceivable", so necessarily empty of inherent existence, like transparent. And "free from" doesn't mean "without / abandoning / rejecting", but "not fooled by it, not slave to it, because fully aware of its true nature while using it". That is the Middle Way free from all extremes & middle: nothing to accept / affirm / seek / do / perceive in absolute terms, nothing to reject / negate / abandon / not-do / not-perceive in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / intersubjectively.

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๐ŸŒบ And it is exactly because they are EMPTY of inherent existence ==> that there is NO REAL THREE STAGES OF EXISTENCE: origination duration and cessation; or birth life and death; or three times: before during and after, or past present and future.

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And vice versa. It is because we cannot find true origination, duration and cessation for anything ==> that everything is EMPTY of inherent existence. That is another way to prove the emptiness of everything. It is also used in many Madhyamaka teachings.

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One implies the other (<==>).

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That is ๐—ฎ๐—ป๐—ผ๐˜๐—ต๐—ฒ๐—ฟ ๐—ณ๐—ผ๐—ฟ๐—บ ๐—ผ๐—ณ ๐— ๐—ฎ๐—ฑ๐—ต๐˜†๐—ฎ๐—บ๐—ฎ๐—ธ๐—ฎ ๐—ฟ๐—ฒ๐—ฎ๐˜€๐—ผ๐—ป๐—ถ๐—ป๐—ด. By demonstrating one side of the implication (<==>) we also prove the other side, because one side implies the other.

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The only way to prove this to yourself is to try to analyse many cases by yourself; or to find Madhyamaka texts that do it.

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๐ŸŒบ So we can resume many Madhyamaka reasonings this way:


Chain: {[Union of opposites] <==> [Union Dependent origination <==> Emptiness about the opposites] <==> [Tetralemma about any dualistic characteristics for the opposites] <==> [No real origination duration & cessation of any of the opposites] ....}

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or {Uopp <==> U2T <==> Tetralemma <==> [No origination duration & cessation] ...}

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Reasonings: Proving / demonstrating one element on this chain automatically implies the proof of any other elements of this chain because all elements are inseparable ... one implies the others. Most Madhyamaka reasonings in many Madhyamaka texts are covered by this chain.

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The only way to convince yourself of the validity of this, is to see by yourself that most reasonings you can find in Madhyamaka texts can be included in this chain.

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(i.e. Dependent Origination / Conventionality <==> Emptiness <==> Tetralemma: not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither; nor permanent, not impermanent, not both together, not neither; not dependent, not independent, not both together, not neither; not empty, not non-empty, not both together, not neither; not true, not false, not both together, not neither; not this, not non-this, not both together, not neither ... free from all conceptual elaborations, free from all extremes & middle, beyond all concepts & dualities, inconceivable <==> no real origination / production / birth, duration / change, cessation / death; no real before simultaneous and after; no real past, present and future.)

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Note: the chain as presented here is not complete. 

Few more Madhyamaka concepts could be added to this chain.

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ex. {Uopp <==> U2T <==> U3W <==> Tetralemma <==> [No origination duration & cessation] <==> Middle Way}

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These are covered in another document on the Blog.

But the format used may be too condensed for an introduction.

Hence this Post.

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(i.e. Logic: This rรฉsumรฉ of all Madhyamaka reasonings will be useful to analyse this text:
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Union of the Two Truths about any & all dharmas [U2T]:
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{All dharmas are not really different / separate / multiple / dual / in opposition or relation, but are more like an inconceivable Union of being empty of inherent existence (2nd truth - not real existence) <==> because of being inseparable (one cannot exists without the other), interdependent (one implies the other), co-defined (the definition of one defines the other), co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent (they arise together), co-evolving, co-ceasing / co-transcended (they cease together), in harmony (not in real opposition), equal / non-dual / one (1st truth - not complete non-existence);
they are like illusions / dreams / reflections / rainbows / like the displays of a magical show or cosmic dance of luminosity; in other words, they are appearing but still empty, empty but still appearing; one aspect / truth implies the other (<==>), one aspect / truth proves the other (<==>). This is the King of reasoning; the Union of the Two Truths. [U2T]}
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<==> {because of that then they have no real three stages of existence: i. origination / beginning / birth / before / past, ii. duration / middle / life / change / during / present, iii. cessation / ending / death / after / future; they have no real parts, or defining characteristics, or three marks, or functional properties, or qualities;
and so they have no permanence / continuity / eternity, no impermanence / discontinuity / annihilation, or any combination of the two, or neither, between one infinitesimal moment and the next one (valid for any thing, any being, any relation / action), or between two consecutive rebirths for beings, or between samsara and nirvana}
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<==> {because of these then they are merely labelled / imputed / conceptualised / categorised / classified by the mind / subject (after the fact) in co-dependence with its conditioning / karma (physical, conceptual, mental; individual, collective, cosmic); in other words, as objects they are inseparable, interdependent, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing, non-dual with the subject / mind -- in the non-dual sense of those terms; ex. subject & object are not different / separate / two / dual / independent, not identical / united / one / non-dual / dependent, not both together, not neither [U3S]}
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<==> {because of these then there is no real difference, separation, opposition, relation, dependence, duality between them…, and no real identity / sameness, unity, equality, non-duality, oneness, independence either; there is no inherent / universal / absolute basis for any discrimination between them (acceptation or rejection) or non-discrimination, action or non-action; ex. it is not about accepting one or few opposite(s) while rejecting the other(s), not about accepting all opposites, not about rejecting all opposites [Uopp]}
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<==> {because of these then they are not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither (tetralemma) -- and there is no other possibility -- for whatever dualistic concept ‘this’ is --; meaning their true nature is indescribable, inconceivable, beyond all conceptual proliferations, beyond all extremes & middle; examples, they are
- not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither;
- not inherently existent, not completely non-existent, not both together, not neither;
- not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilated, not both together, not neither;
- not purely objective / physical / body, not purely subjective / mental / mind, not purely relational / process / conceptual / speech, not two or three of them together, not none of them;
- not dependent / caused / produced / functional, not independent / uncaused/spontaneous / unproduced / non-functional, not both together, not neither;
- not empty, not non-empty, not both together, not neither;
- not dependently co-arisen / interdependent (1st truth), not empty of inherent existence (2nd truth), not both truths together, not neither truth;
- not good / pure / perfect / equal / divine, not bad / impure / imperfect / unequal / ordinary, not both together, not neither;
- not conventional / relative / false, not absolute / universal / true, not both together, not neither;
- not this/that, not non-this/non-that, not both together, not neither.}
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<==> {because of these then we say that they are like transparent, uncompounded, self-arisen, unborn, uncreated, unfabricated, unchanging, unceasing, spontaneous displays of the Ground, unobstructed, infinite, timeless, one in naturelessness, primordially equal, pure, perfect, divine, Buddha-nature, Buddhaverse, Dharmata, Suchness, Trikaya … That is the inconceivable indivisible self-arisen Ground / Dharmata. With direct wisdom, everything is transcended / purified / self-liberated into this self-arisen timeless equal pure perfect Ground / the inconceivable true nature of Reality as it is in the three times.}
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<==> {because of these then the best attitude toward them is the Middle Way free from all extremes & middle;
Extremes like: i) existence / realism, ii) non-existence / nihilism, iii) both together / dualism, iv) neither / monism; or extremes like v) subject-only / mind-only / idealism / subjectivism, vi) object-only / naรฏve realism / objectivism, vii) relation-only / process-only / action-only / relationism / processism, viii) two or three of them together / pluralism, ix) none to them / monism;
so there is nothing to accept / affirm / seek / do / perceive / know in absolute terms, nothing to reject / negate / abandon / not-do / not-perceive / not-know in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively if it helps someone to get closer to the truth about the true nature of Reality as it is here & now;
so the best attitude is just to let them be, and transcend / purify / self-liberate them by directly perceiving / realising / abiding in their true nature (the Ground); to use them as possible temporary imperfect adapted skillful means while being fully aware of their true essence nature & dynamic, without any fixation / reification, without any illusion about them, without being fooled by them, without any grasping, without any attachment, without any di-vision between subject action & object, without becoming slave to them, while being totally free from them not without them}
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All dharmas are like that. Everything in all Madhyamaka teachings comes down to these reasonings. Together they are like a self-arisen indestructible vajra; one facet supported by the others. Together they point to the Ground, and generate 'certainty' about the view, path and fruition.)


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For more, see other Blog Posts treating this subject.

  • A Madhyamaka reading of Kant’s Position & Madhyamaka Logic

  • The true meaning of Unity / Non-duality / Union of opposites

  • Introduction to the three conceptual spheres

  • Rรฉsumรฉ of all Madhyamaka Reasonings

  • The Two Truths Indivisible

  • “Union”

  • In Praise of Dependent Origination

  • Etc.

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QUOTES:

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Manjushri's Flaming-Sword : Maรฑjuล›rฤซ is a bodhisattva associated with prajรฑฤ (insight / wisdom) in Mahฤyฤna Buddhism.
The sword, in Sanskrit, is called a Khadga. Not only is Manjushri’s sword a symbol of discriminating wisdom, but it also helps us cut through delusions, aversions, attachments, and all the things that trap us in our dualistic world of Samsara and suffering.
Note: the blade cuts through the incorrect perceptions of reality, including wrong conceptions of emptiness, and of the two truths, leaving room for a spontaneous direct non-conceptual non-dualistic realisation of the true nature of Reality.

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The Five Great Madhyamaka Lines of Reasoning - Study Buddhism


Madhyamaka masters use the five great Madhyamaka lines of reasoning (dbu-ma'i gtan-tshigs chen-po lnga; five great Madhyamaka syllogisms) to establish the voidness of true existence. The five are:

  1. The line of reasoning "parted from being either singular or plural" (gcig-du bral-gyi gtan-tshigs, the syllogism of neither one nor many), used to analyze the essential nature (ngo-bo) of all phenomena. Of the three gateways to liberation (rnam-par thar-pa'i sgo gsum), this line of reasoning opens the way to the voidness of true existence (stong-pa-nyid) itself. The classic example is, "The subject, all phenomena, such as a sprout, lacks true existence (EMPTINESS), <==> because it is neither a truly existent singular entity nor truly existent plural entities (TETRALEMMA: NOT MANY, NOT ONE, not both together, not neither -- and there is no other possibility.)."

  2. The line of reasoning "vajra droplets" (rdo-rje gzegs-ma'i gtan-tshigs, the syllogism of vajra fragments), used to analyze causes. This line of reasoning is called "vajra droplets" because it destroys incorrect views about the nature of causality, like droplets of water wearing down a rock mountain. Of the three gateways to liberation, this line of reasoning opens the way to the lack of a sign (of a truly existent cause) (mtshan-ma med-pa). The classic example is, "The subject, functional phenomena, such as a sprout, lacks a truly existent arising (EMPTINESS), <==> because it does not arise from its (truly existent) self, from something (truly existent) that is other, from both, or from neither, equivalent to from no cause. (TETRALEMMA: cause & effect are NOT DIFFERENT, NOT IDENTICAL, not both together, not neither -- and there is no other possibility.)"

  3. The line of reasoning "refuting the arising of something already existent or non-existent" (yod-med skye-'gog-gi gtan-tshigs), used to analyze results. Of the three gateways to liberation, this line of reasoning opens the way to the lack of a hope (for a truly existent result) (smon-pa med-pa). The classic example is, "The subject, functional phenomena, such as a sprout, lacks true existence (EMPTINESS), <==> because it does not arise as something that, at the time of its cause, was truly existent, truly non-existent, both, or neither. (TETRALEMMA: NOT EXISTENT, NOT NON-EXISTENT, not both together, not neither -- and there is no other possibility.)"

  4. The line of reasoning "refuting the four possibilities of arising" (mu-bzhi skye-'gog-gi gtan-tshigs), used to analyze both causes and results. The classic example is: "The subject, functional phenomena, lacks true existence (EMPTINESS), <==> because from the deepest point of view (don-dam-par), one (truly existent) cause cannot give rise to either one or many (truly existent) results, and many (truly existent) causes cannot give rise to either one or many (truly existent) results. (TETRALEMMA: NOT MANY, NOT ONE, not both together, not neither -- and there is no other possibility.)"

  5. The line of reasoning "dependent arising" (rten-'brel-gyi gtan-tshigs), is the king of reasons (rigs-pa'i rgyal-po), used to establish the lack of true existence of all phenomena. The classic example is, "The subject, functional phenomena, cannot be established as having true existence (EMPTINESS), <==> because it dependently arises. (DEPENDENT ORIGINATION)"

https://studybuddhism.com/en/advanced-studies/lam-rim/vipashyana/the-5-great-madhyamaka-lines-of-reasoning-for-emptiness 

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Five great Madhyamaka lines of reasoning - Study Buddhism


Five lines of reasoning employed by the Madhyamaka tenet systems for gaining correction cognition of voidness (emptiness)

  1. the line of reasoning "parted from being either singular or plural", 

  2. the line of reasoning "vajra droplets", 

  3. the line of reasoning "refuting the arising of something already existent or non-existent", 

  4. the line of reasoning "refuting the four possibilities of arising", and 

  5. the line of reasoning "dependent arising".

https://studybuddhism.com/en/glossary/five-great-madhyamaka-lines-of-reasoning 

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Four Great Logical Arguments of the Middle Way - Lotsawa House

by Mipham Rinpoche and Khenpo Nรผden


The four great logical arguments of the Middle Way are:

  1. The investigation of the cause: the Diamond Splinters (#2 above)

  2. The investigation of the result: refuting existent or non-existent results (#3 above)

  3. The investigation of the essential identity: ‘neither one nor many’ (#1 above)

  4. The investigation of all: the Great Interdependence (#5 above)


https://www.lotsawahouse.org/tibetan-masters/mipham/four-great-logical-arguments 

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Madhyamaka 5 Reasonings

  1. Analysis of cause
    The reasoning refuting arising from the four extremes: The Vajra Sliver reasoning:
    All Phenomena do not exist, because they do not arise from itself, others, from both, and from neither.
    (i.e. Emptiness <==> Tetralemma (cause & effect: no identical, not different, not both, not neither))
    .

  2. Analysis of results
    The reasoning refuting arising of Existents and Non-existents:
    All phenomena do not exist, because they are neither existent nor not existent in the cause.
    (i.e. Emptiness <==> Tetralemma (effect not existent, not non-existent, not both, not neither))
    .

  3. Analysis of both causes and results
    The reasoning refuting arising from the four possibilities:
    All phenomena do not exist, because a single result does not arise from a single cause; many results do not arise from a single cause; a single result does not arise from many causes; and many results also do not arise from many causes.
    (i.e. Emptiness <==> Tetralemma (cause & effect are not many, not one, not both, not neither))
    .

  4. Analysis of Nature
    The reasoning of freedom from singularity and multiplicity:
    All phenomena do not exist, because they are not established as being single or multiple.
    (i.e. Emptiness <==> Tetralemma (everything is not many, not one, not both, not neither))
    .

  5. Analysis of mere appearance
    The reasoning of dependent origination, The King of Reasonings:

a) Dependence in terms of imputation (co-dependence with the mind / subject)

All phenomena do not exist, because they are only established on dependence of each other.

b) Dependence in terms of Origination (co-dependence with parts or causes & conditions or conceptual opposite(s))

All phenomena do not exist, because they are dependently arisen. 

All phenomena are not entirely non-existent, because they are dependently arisen. 

(i.e. Emptiness <==> Dependent Origination)

https://quizlet.com/58862330/madhyamaka-5-reasonings-flash-cards/ 

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Four great logical arguments of the Middle Way -- RigpaWiki

The four great logical arguments of the Middle Way (Tib. เฝ‘เฝ–ུ་เฝ˜เฝ ི་เฝ‚เฝเฝ“་เฝšིเฝ‚เฝฆ་เฝ†ེเฝ“་เฝ”ོ་เฝ–เฝžི་, umรฉ tentsik chenpo shyi; Wyl. dbu ma'i gtan tshigs chen po bzhi) are:

  1. The investigation of the cause: the Diamond Splinters
    (Emptiness <==> Tetralemma: cause & effect are not different, not identical, not both, not neither)
    .

  2. The investigation of the result: refuting existent or non-existent results
    (Emptiness <==> Tetralemma: effect not existent, not non-existent, not both, not neither)
    .

  3. The investigation of the essential identity: ‘neither one nor many’
    (Emptiness <==> Tetralemma: everything is not many, not one, not both, not neither)
    .

  4. The investigation of all: the Great Interdependence
    (Emptiness <==> Co-dependence with parts, causes & conditions, conceptual opposite(s), mind merely labelling / imputing it)
    .

  5. Sometimes it is said that there are ‘five great arguments of the Middle Way,’ but, according to Mipham Rinpoche, the fifth—the investigation of both the cause and the effect: refuting production according to the four alternatives—can be included within the first category, i.e., the investigation of the cause.
    (i.e. Emptiness <==> Tetralemma (ex. opposites like cause & effect are: not different / separate / many / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither; not this, not non-this, not both together, not neither; ... and for each there is no other possibility than those four.))


https://www.rigpawiki.org/index.php?title=Four_great_logical_arguments_of_the_Middle_Way 

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Everything is dependently arising ~ 17th Karmapa


When we talk about emptiness, it has to be based on an understanding of the relativity (dependent co-origination) of all things. Looking at ‘the reflection of the moon on water’, we can see that there is nothing there. Even that is dependently arisen, dependent on the existence of the moon and the water, on the ability of water to reflect. All of these things must come together to enable us to see the reflection of the moon on the water. That is emptiness. Emptiness (2nd truth) and interdependence (1st truth) are inseparable (in 'Union', '<==>'). (i.e. The King of Reasoning)


(Union of the Two Truths: Union of conventionally dependently co-arisen relatively functional impermanent appearances (physical, conceptual or mental) <==> and emptiness of inherent existence. One aspect or truth implies the other (<==>).) 

  1. Everything is dependently arising; nothing exists on its own. ==> Therefore, the nature of everything is emptiness. 

  2. And because everything is emptiness ==> and everything is interdependent, then everything is possible.

-- 17th Karmapa

https://quotes.justdharma.com/everything-is-dependently-arising/ 

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Artificial like the mirror image ~ Shantideva

What arises through the meeting of conditions (1st truth -- dependent origination)

And ceases to exist when these are lacking,

Is artificial like the mirror image; (2nd truth -- emptiness of inherent existence)

How can true existence be ascribed to it?


-- Shantideva

Bodhicharyavatara (chapter 9, verse 144)

https://quotes.justdharma.com/artificial-like-the-mirror-image-shantideva/ 


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.
The dynamic Yin-Yang symbol -- composed of two swirling and interconnected blades --
is associated with many different dichotomies / dualities in Buddhism.
It represents the Inseparability / Harmony / Union of those apparent opposites.
Those apparent opposites co-emerge and co-evolve (revolve) and co-cease together.

The indivisibility of the two truths ~ Patrul Rinpoche

Ultimately we need to realize the indivisibility (Union) of the two truths, but claiming that the relative refers to existence, while on the absolute level things do not-exist, will never qualify as the view of the middle way. When we realize the one genuine nature of the correct relative, the two truths will merge inseparably (Union, <==>), beyond the conceptual extremes of existing, not existing(, both, neither), permanence and nothingness(, both, neither). (i.e. The Union of the Two Truths free from all conceptual elaborations; free from all extremes & middle; inconceivable; beyond all conceptualisation / description, discrimination / opposites / dualities, causality / production, form / matter-energy, space & time. That is the 'Ground' of everything in both samsara & nirvana. Not just appearances (physical, conceptual, mental), not just emptiness, but the inconceivable Union of the two.) 


(i.e. Dependent Origination / Conventionality <==> Emptiness <==> Tetralemma: not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither; nor permanent, not impermanent, not both together, not neither; not dependent, not independent, not both together, not neither; not empty, not non-empty, not both together, not neither; not true, not false, not both together, not neither; not this, not non-this, not both together, not neither ... free from all conceptual elaborations, free from all extremes & middle, beyond all concepts & dualities, inconceivable <==> no real origination / production / birth, duration / change, cessation / death; no real before simultaneous and after; no real past, present and future.)


As it says in the Mother Prajnaparamita:


‘The real nature of the relative is the real nature of the absolute.

(i.e. Recursivity: We can apply the chain of reasonings to these two apparent opposites, the two truths themselves, to understand their true nature -- or what they are not. For the result see: https://www.gilehtblog.com/2020/10/buddhist-logic_18.html ) 


Patrul Rinpoche

https://quotes.justdharma.com/the-indivisibility-of-the-two-truths/ 

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[Mind] Emptiness and dependent origination ~ 3rd Jamgon Kongtrul Rinpoche

Mind is by its very nature empty, yet appearances arise from it without obstruction. Out of the unobstructed emptiness of mind the whole range of appearances can manifest without limit. 


On a relative level, phenomena manifest through DEPENDENT ORIGINATION; this is inseparable (Union; <==>) from the EMPTINESS of mind, which is the ultimate level. 


Freedom from extremes is realizing that emptiness and dependent origination are one (in Union) and do not contradict each other. Confusion lies neither in the appearance of things, nor in the fact that they are manifested by mind, but in one’s own misunderstanding of the emptiness and luminosity of mind. 

(i.e. Appearances -- physical, conceptual, mental; pure or impure -- are the inseparable natural spontaneous luminosity / clarity / clear light / functionality of the true naked mind. The inseparable displays of the Buddhaverse. The cosmic dance between emptiness and conventionally dependently co-arisen relatively functional impermanent appearances.)


3rd Jamgon Kongtrul Rinpoche

from the book Cloudless Sky

https://quotes.justdharma.com/emptiness-and-dependent-origination/ 

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The birth of certainty ~ Lama Tsongkhapa

The knowledge that appearances arise unfailingly in dependence (1st truth),

And the knowledge that they are empty (2nd truth) and beyond all assertions (beyond all conceptual elaborations, free from all extremes & middle, tetralemma)

As long as these two appear to you as separate, (must be in Union, <==>)

There can be no realization of the Buddha’s wisdom. 

(i.e. understanding the chain of reasonings, and then directly realising this inconceivable Union of the Two Truths is Enlightenment)


Yet when they arise at once, not each in turn but both together,

Then through merely seeing unfailing dependent origination

Certainty is born, and all modes of misapprehension fall apart—

That is when discernment of the view has reached perfection.


(i.e. Dependent Origination / Conventionality <==> Emptiness <==> Tetralemma: not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither; nor permanent, not impermanent, not both together, not neither; not dependent, not independent, not both together, not neither; not empty, not non-empty, not both together, not neither; not true, not false, not both together, not neither; not this, not non-this, not both together, not neither ... free from all conceptual elaborations, free from all extremes & middle, beyond all concepts & dualities, inconceivable <==> no real origination / production / birth, duration / change, cessation / death; no real before simultaneous and after; no real past, present and future.)


Lama Tsongkhapa

Three Principal Aspects of the Path

https://quotes.justdharma.com/the-birth-of-certainty-lama-tsongkhapa/ 

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The Noble Great Vehicle Sลซtra “Teaching the Practice of a Bodhisattva”

1.76

“Since they understand

That all phenomena lack essence (i.e. Emptiness),

The wise do not generate

Concepts such as ‘near’ and ‘far.’“ (i.e. beyond all conceptual elaborations; free from all extremes & middle; tetralemma)


(i.e. Dependent Origination / Conventionality <==> Emptiness <==> Tetralemma: not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither; nor permanent, not impermanent, not both together, not neither; not dependent, not independent, not both together, not neither; not empty, not non-empty, not both together, not neither; not true, not false, not both together, not neither; not this, not non-this, not both together, not neither ... free from all conceptual elaborations, free from all extremes & middle, beyond all concepts & dualities, inconceivable <==> no real origination / production / birth, duration / change, cessation / death; no real before simultaneous and after; no real past, present and future.)

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Genuine Emptiness = Buddha-nature = Union of the Two Truths; when all three are defined as free from all extremes & middle.
In Zen the ensล (the drawing above) symbolizes absolute enlightenment, strength, elegance,
the Inseparability / Union of the universe (appearances) and mu (emptiness),
the Union of the Two Truths.

What, then, is emptiness (an antidote to reification / grasping) ~ 9th Karmapa

What, then, is emptiness? All phenomena from form through omniscience are, from the outset, not established whatsoever as any extreme elaboration such as existent, non-existent ..., arisen, ceased ..., permanent, impermanent ..., empty, not empty ..., true, or false ... (Tetralemma. -- Note: only the first two possibilities out of four are mentionned for each dualities, but the other two are implicit.)


To that lack of establishment, mere conventional terms such as “emptiness” and “suchness” are given. It is nothing more than that. This emptiness — that conventionally all phenomena are empty of their own entities — is the natural being (rang bab/rang babs), the abiding mode, of all knowable objects. Resting in equipoise within it is the antidote to all obscurations. It is the sun that conquers the darkness of wrong views, the supreme medicine that clears away the snake poison of reification, the essential nectar of the Buddha’s teachings. Everyone who sincerely desires liberation and omniscience should engage it through applying great effort in hearing, contemplating, and meditating.


(i.e. But one should not reify / grasp at emptiness either; because then the medicine would turn into an addictive poison. Mere emptiness is not the ultimate reality / 'Ground'. The inconceivable Union of the Two Truths free from all extremes & middle is.)


(i.e. Dependent Origination / Conventionality <==> Emptiness <==> Tetralemma: not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither; nor permanent, not impermanent, not both together, not neither; not dependent, not independent, not both together, not neither; not empty, not non-empty, not both together, not neither; not true, not false, not both together, not neither; not this, not non-this, not both together, not neither ... free from all conceptual elaborations, free from all extremes & middle, beyond all concepts & dualities, inconceivable <==> no real origination / production / birth, duration / change, cessation / death; no real before simultaneous and after; no real past, present and future.)


9th Karmapa

from the book The Karmapa's Middle Way: Feast for the Fortunate, A Commentary on Chandrakirti's Madhyamakavatara

https://quotes.justdharma.com/what-then-is-emptiness-9th-karmapa/ 

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My very own nature ~ Trulshik Rinpoche

The primordial ground, the great, ever-pure primordial emptiness (2nd truth),

Which is free from all elaboration (tetralemma) and change (ground),

Is (Union) the very nature of uncompounded 

and self-arising awareness (1st truth: clarity / functionality):

Bless me so that I may recognize the view, my very own nature.


(i.e. Dependent Origination / Conventionality <==> Emptiness <==> Tetralemma: not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither; nor permanent, not impermanent, not both together, not neither; not dependent, not independent, not both together, not neither; not empty, not non-empty, not both together, not neither; not true, not false, not both together, not neither; not this, not non-this, not both together, not neither ... free from all conceptual elaborations, free from all extremes & middle, beyond all concepts & dualities, inconceivable <==> no real origination / production / birth, duration / change, cessation / death; no real before simultaneous and after; no real past, present and future.)


Trulshik Rinpoche

https://quotes.justdharma.com/my-very-own-nature-trulshik-rinpoche/ 

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Open to infinity ~ Longchenpa

Pure mind is like the empty sky, (i.e. emptiness)

Without memory, supreme meditation;

It is our own nature, unstirring, uncontrived, (i.e. dependent origination)

And wherever that abides is the superior mind,

One in buddhahood without any sign,

One in view free of limiting elaboration, (i.e. tetralemma)

One in meditation free of limiting ideation,

One in conduct free of limiting endeavor,

And one in fruition free of limiting attainment.


Vast! spacious!

Released as it stands!

With neither realization nor non-realization; (i.e. tetralemma)

Experience consummate! No mind!

It is open to infinity.


(i.e. Dependent Origination / Conventionality <==> Emptiness <==> Tetralemma: not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither; nor permanent, not impermanent, not both together, not neither; not dependent, not independent, not both together, not neither; not empty, not non-empty, not both together, not neither; not true, not false, not both together, not neither; not this, not non-this, not both together, not neither ... free from all conceptual elaborations, free from all extremes & middle, beyond all concepts & dualities, inconceivable <==> no real origination / production / birth, duration / change, cessation / death; no real before simultaneous and after; no real past, present and future.)


Longchenpa

from the book Natural Perfection: Longchenpa's Radical Dzogchen

https://quotes.justdharma.com/homage-to-the-buddha/ 

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Timeless awareness ~ Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thaye

Rely on timeless awareness, which is free of elaboration (tetralemma), without identity, and the very essence of being; do not rely on ordinary consciousness, which is a mind fixated on characteristics and concepts.


Timeless awareness entails 

  1. understanding that the way in which phenomena actually abide is, from the ultimate perspective, free of all limitations imposed by elaborations of origination, cessation, and so forth (no real origination, duration, cessation)

  2. realization of the non-existence of the two kinds of identity (two emptinesses); and 

  3. unerring knowledge of sugatagarbha as utter lucidity, the way in which things actually abide, beyond any context of speculative value judgments. It is on this awareness that one should rely.

(i.e. Dependent Origination / Conventionality <==> Emptiness <==> Tetralemma: not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither; nor permanent, not impermanent, not both together, not neither; not dependent, not independent, not both together, not neither; not empty, not non-empty, not both together, not neither; not true, not false, not both together, not neither; not this, not non-this, not both together, not neither ... free from all conceptual elaborations, free from all extremes & middle, beyond all concepts & dualities, inconceivable <==> no real origination / production / birth, duration / change, cessation / death; no real before simultaneous and after; no real past, present and future.)


Ordinary consciousness entails 

  1. belief that what one immediately perceives constitutes something truly existent; 

  2. conceptualization in terms of characteristics, such as the sense of personal identity and the mind-body aggregates; and 

  3. mental states that are conditioned, for example, by attitudes of naively fixating on the pleasures of the senses. One should not rely on such consciousness.

Jamgon Kongtrul Lodro Thaye

from the book Foundations of Buddhist Study and Practice (The Treasury of Knowledge, Book Seven and Book Eight, Parts One and Two)

https://quotes.justdharma.com/timeless-awareness/ 

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The Bhฤvacakra (Wheel of Life) is a symbolic representation of saแนƒsฤra (karmic cycle).
The outer rim depicts the 12 links of dependent origination.

Verses on the Heart of Dependent Origination ~ Nagarjuna

Homage to Maรฑjuล›rฤซ, the Youthful!


These different links, twelve in number (Wheel of Life),

Which Buddha taught as dependent origination,

Can be summarized in three categories:

Mental afflictions, karma and suffering.


The first, eighth and ninth are afflictions,

The second and tenth are karma,

The remaining seven are suffering.

Thus the twelve links are grouped in three.


From the three the two originate,

And from the two the seven come,

From seven the three come once again—

Thus the wheel of existence turns and turns.


All beings consist of causes and effects,

In which there is no ‘sentient being’ at all.

From phenomena which are exclusively empty,

There arise only empty phenomena.

All things are devoid of any ‘I’ or ‘mine’.


Like a recitation, a candle, a mirror, a seal,

A magnifying glass, a seed, sourness, or a sound,

So also with the continuation of the aggregates—

The wise should know they are not transferred.


Then, as for extremely subtle entities,

Those who regard them with nihilism,

Lacking precise and thorough knowledge,

Will not see the actuality of conditioned arising.


In this, there is not a thing to be removed,

Nor the slightest thing to be added. (i.e. Middle Way)

It is looking perfectly into reality itself,

And when reality is seen, complete liberation.



Nagarjuna

https://quotes.justdharma.com/verses-heart-dependent-origination-nagarjuna/ 

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Rรฉsumรฉ of Chandrakirti's Madhyamakavatara and Sevenfold Reasoning

The chariot is not the same, not different ... (tetralemma) from its parts ... 

"Just so [should a yogi understand a person and its aggregates]".


(i.e. Whole & parts, owner & possessions, characterised & characteristics, like the individual & its five aggregates, are both empty <==> because Tetralemma: they are not different, not identical, not both together, not neither.)


Cause & effect are both empty of inherent existence <==> because Tetralemma: they are not different (other-production), not identical (self-production), not both together (a combination), not neither (production without a cause). So there is no true causality either.) 


The same for the two truths themselves. They are both empty of inherent existence <==> because dependently co-arisen <==> Tetralemma: not different, not identical, not both together, not neither.


In short: The emptiness of the "I" and five aggregates -- body, speech & mind -- is proven using the same 5 types of reasoning as above. Conclusion: The Union of the Two Truths about everything. Not existence, not non-existence, not both together, not neither. Not manyness, not sameness, not both together, not neither. No continuity, no discontinuity, no both together, no neither.


See the 16 or 20 emptinesses. Union of the Two Truths beyond all extremes & middle about everything.

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Rรฉsumรฉ from Shantideva's Bodhicaryavatara - Chapter IX – The Perfection of Wisdom


In short: The emptiness of the "I" and five aggregates -- body, speech & mind -- is proven using the same 5 types of reasonings as above. Conclusion: The Union of the Two Truths about everything. Not existence, not non-existence, not both together, not neither. Not manyness, not sameness, not both together, not neither. No continuity, no discontinuity, no both together, no neither.

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Rรฉsumรฉ from Nagarjuna's  Mulamadhyamakakarika

In short: The emptiness of all dharmas is proven using the same 5 types of reasonings as above. Conclusion: The Union of the Two Truths about everything. Not existence, not non-existence, not both together, not neither. Not manyness, not sameness, not both together, not neither. No continuity, no discontinuity, no both together, no neither.


[Opening verse:]

"I salute him, the fully-enlightened, the best of speakers,

who preached the non-ceasing and the non-arising [no real origination duration, cessation],

the non-annihilation [non-impermanence] and the non-permanence [not permanence, not impermanence, not both together, not neither],

the non-identity and the non-difference [not difference / manyness, not identity / sameness / oneness, not both together, not neither],

the non-appearance and the non-disappearance [no real origination duration, cessation],

the dependent arising (the King of all reasonings: Union of the Two Truths],

the appeasement of obsessions and the auspicious."


1.1.

Never are any existing things found to originate

From themselves, from something else, from both, or from no cause.

(i.e. Cause & effect are both empty of inherent existence <==> because Tetralemma: they are not identical, not different, not both together, not neither.)


1.13

How can a product [resulting] from [conditioning causes] not consisting of themselves be consisting of those causes?

(i.e. Effect is empty <==> because the cause is empty <==> because dependent on its own cause & conditions ... ad infinitum.)


2. ...

Neither the identity nor the essential difference is established (siddhi) regarding the two [conceptions "goer" and "act of going" ... etc.

(i.e. The three spheres -- subject / goer, action / going, object / destination -- are empty of inherent existence <==> because Tetralemma: they are not different, not identical, not both together, not neither; not existent / real, not non-existent / non-real, not both together, not neither; not continuous, not discontinuous, not both together, not neither ... <==> so there is no real origination, duration and cessation of anything)


4.6.

Just as it does not obtain that the product is the same as the cause,

So it does not obtain that product is not the same as the cause.

(i.e. Cause & effect are both empty of inherent existence <==> because Tetralemma: they are not identical, not different, not both together, not neither.)


7.33.

Because the existence of production, duration, and cessation is not proved, there is no composite product (samskrta);

And if a composite product is not proved, how can a non-composite product (asamskrta) be proved?

(i.e. Tetralemma: no real origination, duration, cessation <==> emptiness of the product.

Emptiness of composite <==> emptiness of non-composite.)

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Rรฉsumรฉ of Aryadeva's catuhsataka sastra karika nama - Section on Ultimate truth

In short: The emptiness of the "I" and five aggregates -- body, speech & mind -- is proven using the same 5 types of reasonings as above. Conclusion: The Union of the Two Truths about everything. Not existence, not non-existence, not both together, not neither. Not manyness, not sameness, not both together, not neither. No continuity, no discontinuity, no both together, no neither.

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From Nagarjuna's  Twelve gate treatise 

1. [I:1]

Things are produced from various conditions (i.e. dependent origination),

and hence have no self-nature (i.e. emptiness).

If they have no self-nature,

how can there be such things?


3. [II.1]

If an effect is already real [in a cause], (i.e. cause & effect identical)

there can be no production.

If at the outset unreal [in a cause], (i.e. cause & effect different)

there can be no production either.

If both real and unreal, (i.e. both together)

there can be no production.

How can there be production?


15.  [VI.1]

Characteristics and the characterizable

are neither the same nor different ... (i.e. Not different, not identical, not both together, not neither)

If they are neither the same nor different,

how can both be established?

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Three Vajras -- Wikipedia

The Three Vajras, namely "body, speech and mind", are a formulation within Vajrayana Buddhism and Bon that hold the full experience of the ล›ลซnyatฤ "emptiness" of Buddha-nature, void of all qualities and marks and establish a sound experiential key upon the continuum of the path to enlightenment. The Three Vajras correspond to the trikaya and therefore also have correspondences to the Three Roots and other refuge formulas of Tibetan Buddhism. The Three Vajras are viewed in twilight language as a form of the Three Jewels, which imply purity of action, speech and thought.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Three_Vajras 

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Body, speech and mind, by Rolf Sattler (?)

https://www.beyondwilber.ca/body-speech-mind.html 

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The Ancient Contemplation of Emptiness: A Brief Exercise

The Seed of Reasoning: Notes on the Five Great Logical Arguments of the Middle Way

by Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo


Namo Maรฑjughoแนฃฤya!


The Five Great Logical Arguments of the Middle Way are:


1. Investigation of the cause: the Diamond Splinters

2. Investigation of the result: refuting existent or non-existent effects

3. Investigation of both: refuting the four permutations of arising

4. Investigation of essential identity: ‘neither one nor many’

5. The logical argument of Great Interdependence


The first four overcome the extreme of superimposing existence and the fifth overcomes the extreme of deprecating [phenomena] as non-existent.


1. Investigation of the Cause: the Diamond Splinters


ฤ€cฤrya Nฤgฤrjuna says in the Root Verses of the Middle Way:


Not from itself, not from another,

Not from both, nor without a cause—

Does anything anywhere ever arise.[1]


Take whatever currently appears as the subject [of debate]. It follows that it is unreal, because ultimately it does not arise from itself, from something else, from both or without a cause, and is therefore like a dream.[2]


Consider arising from an existent cause. For a thing to arise from itself is illogical, because what is produced must be substantially different from its producer. In addition, there is no need for something already existent to arise. Furthermore, it would lead to an infinite regress of production. For a thing to arise from something other than itself is also illogical, because if a cause with a particular nature could produce an effect with an entirely different nature, this would mean that a lamp could produce darkness. Anything, whether a cause or not, would be capable of producing anything else, whether an effect or not. You might think that if there is no production self or other, there could be production from both. But this would simply incur all the faults listed above. You might suppose that entities arise without a cause, by their nature alone, but this would have its own absurd consequences: it would mean that a lotus garden could grow out of space, and it would render meaningless the worldly habit of planting seeds in order to produce particular crops.


2. Investigation of the Result: Refuting Existent or Non-Existent Effects


The same text cited above also says:


Whether for existent or non-existent things,

A contributive condition would be invalid:

How could it be a condition for the non-existent?

And what would a condition accomplish for the existent?[3]


Take these various apparent entities as the subject. It follows that they are unreal, because they are not produced as either existent or non-existent. You might suppose that a vase arises while existing, but its production would then be illogical, because it must already exist. Were it to arise while not existing, this would involve the existent arising out of the non-existent. But such extreme incompatibility of substance is not possible.


3. Investigation of Both: Refuting the Four Permutations of Arising


The Two Truths says:


Several things do not produce a single thing,

And many things do not create a multiplicity.

A single thing is not produced by many things.

And from one thing, a single thing is not produced.[4]


Take mere appearances as the subject. It follows that they are unreal, because ultimately there is no arising of a single thing from a single thing, of many things from a single thing, of many things from many things, or of a single thing from many things. This is similar to applying the label 'space' to an absence of things.


4. Investigation of the Essential Identity: Neither One Nor Many


The Ornament of the Middle Way says:

Since they lack a true identity as singular or multiple,

Things are without inherent nature.


Take apparent objects as the subject. It follows that they cannot be established as real or unreal, because they are beyond singularity and multiplicity, like the moon's reflection in water. Any proposition that requires true, inherent singularity is unreasonable. And since oneness cannot be established, multiplicity, which relies upon it, cannot be established either.


5. Great Interdependence


The Root Verses says:


Whatever originates in interdependence

Is explained to be emptiness,

Which is a dependent imputation.

This is the path of the middle way.[5]


Take mere appearances as the subject. It follows that they are unreal, because they are interdependent, like a reflection.


If something is interdependent, it is necessarily emptiness. The appearance of horses, oxen and the like can be created through the coming together of certain causes and conditions, namely sticks and magical formulae. But there are no actual horses or oxen in these appearances. Likewise, when these appearances change their features, whether on a coarser[6] or subtler level, this transformation means that they are empty of the earlier substance. 


At the same time, since there is no substance apart from what was there earlier, the later substance is empty as well. Like this, when the horses, oxen and so forth appear there is nothing more to them than sticks and mantras, so they are empty; they lack the actual essence of horses, oxen and the like. By this same logic, all apparent things, from mountains to ordinary men and women, are empty, because there is nothing more to their appearance than accumulations of atoms. They are also empty of continuity because on a subtle level they are by nature momentary. Thus, things appear unceasingly through interdependent conditions, and at the same time are mere appearances, because they lack even an atom's worth of intrinsic reality. Knowing this is the wondrous path of the Middle Way, the unity of appearance and emptiness. 


As the Sลซtra of the Questions of the Nฤga King Anavatapta says:


Whatever arises due to conditions does not truly arise,

For it lacks the nature of arising.

Whatever depends on conditions is empty, it is said.

Anyone who understands emptiness will be cautious.


Since there is no phenomenon whatsoever with any real nature, there is nothing to be refuted. Even so, an opponent might make an assertion that involves fixation on true reality, such as by projecting existence onto what is non-existent. At such times, any of the reasonings outlined above would be sufficient to pulverize the assertion. That is why we should recollect the meaning of this Middle Way that is superior to all, this great lion's roar spoken by the Buddha, who is the transcendent, accomplished conqueror. To do so and to cause the lotus of critical intelligence to blossom is the very pinnacle of all the many ways of making meaningful the freedom of this human life.


This was the supremely given instruction.


Sarvadฤ ล›reyo bhavatu.


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The Gankyil -- composed of three swirling and interconnected blades --
is associated with many different triads in Buddhism.
It represents the Inseparability / Harmony / Union of those three apparent opposites.


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