Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Résumé of all Madhyamaka Reasonings - 006

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RÉSUMÉ OF ALL MADHYAMAKA BUDDHISM REASONINGS
Using the Union of the three spheres [U3S]
-- subject, action / relation, object --

(Reasonings do not prove to us the true nature of reality -- which is inconceivable for our flawed conceptual dualistic mental; they help us to let go of extreme views, like existence / realism / materialism, non-existence / idealism / nihilism / mere emptiness, both together / dualism, neither / monism / holism; subjectivism, objectivism, relationism / processism, two or three together, none of them; permanence / eternalism, impermanence / annihilationism, both together, neither; causality, acausality, both together, neither; emptiness, non-emptiness, both together, neither; dependent origination [T1], emptiness [T2], both together [2T], neither. And leaves the door open for a personal spontaneous non-conceptual non-dualistic direct perception / realisation / experience of the true nature of reality as it is here & now / suchness. This brings lasting freedom, peace, happiness, nirvana here & now. So reasonings are about “deprogramming” / “de-conditioning” our mental / mind, “de-constructing” its dualistic fabrications from gross to more and more subtle. It is not about rejecting / abandoning / negating / emptying the world, but about enjoying its true free pure perfect equal divine nature as it already is here & now. Nirvana is freedom from all extremes. Reasonings are not about the true nature of an independent reality, but about how our mental (subject) works (relation / action) / co-emerges / co-evolves / and is co-transcended with our apparent world (object).)

When analysing Madhyamaka teachings, it always comes down to: Using logical reasoning to disprove the self of the three spheres -- subject, relation / action, object -- for any type of relation / action involved. Meaning proving the “emptiness” of the three spheres without falling into any extreme or middle: ex. Not falling into complete “non-existence” / nihilism / “mere emptiness”, or falling into dualism / “both existence and non-existence together”, or falling into monism / holism / radical oneness / “neither existence nor non-existence”, or “pure subjectivism”, or “pure objectivism”, or “pure relationism / processism / actionism”, or any “Big Cosmic Something / Nothingness beyond all extremes”. (see the post “Freedom from all extremes”)




Examples of three spheres (from Buddha, Nagarjuna & Chandrakirti’s teachings):

- Union subject, relation / action, object;

- Union subject / actor, relation / action, object / result;

- Union subject / goer, relation / going, object / destination;

- Union subject / cause, relation / action / causality, object / effect;

- Union subject / producer, relation / action / production, object / product (ex. karma);

- Union subject / perceiver, relation / action / perception, object / perceived;

- Union subject / knower, relation / action / cognition, object / known;

- Union subject / owner, relation / ownership, object / possession;

- Union subject / self, relation / ownership, object / 5-aggregates;

- Union subject / irreducible-elements, relation / composing, object / 5-aggregates;

- Union subject / 5-aggregates, relation / composing, object / body-speech-mind;

- Union subject / whole, relation / ownership / emerging-from / imputed-on, object / parts;

- Union subject / appropriator / acquirer / self, relation / appropriating / acquiring, object / appropriated / acquired / 5-aggregates;

- Union subject / the-one-who-desires, relation / action / desiring, object / object-of-desire;

- Union subject / characteristic, relation / characterising, object / characterised;

- Union subject / definition, relation / defining, object / defined;

- Union subject / past, relation / action / causality in the present, object / future;

- Union subject / cause / past-self-&-5-aggregates, relation / action / causality, object / future-self-&-5-aggregates;

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- Union subject / opposite-1, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / light, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / darkness;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / existence, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / non-existence;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / differentness, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / identity;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / separateness, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / union;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / manyness, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / oneness;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / duality, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / non-duality;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / permanence, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / impermanence;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / continuity, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / discontinuity;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / eternity, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / annihilation;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / individual, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / collective;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / self, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / others;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / composite, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / non-composite;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / compounded, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / uncompounded;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / caused, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / uncaused;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / dependence, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / independence;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / empty, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / non-empty;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / bounded, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / liberated;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / samsara, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / nirvana;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / ordinary sentient being, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / Buddha;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / purity, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / impurity;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / equalness, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / unequalness;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / ordinary, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / divine;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / ignorance, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / wisdom;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / thinking, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / non-thinking;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / conceptualising, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / non-conceptualising;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / direct, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / indirect;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / conceivable, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / inconceivable;

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- Union subject / opposite-1 / relative, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / absolute;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / conventional, relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / universal;

- Union subject / opposite-1 / dependent origination [T1], relation / opposition, object / opposite-2 / emptiness [T2].





THE GENERAL STRUCTURE OF ALL MADHYAMAKA REASONINGS

IT IS ALWAYS THE SAME FORM OF REASONING: We use the tetralemma to demonstrate that two / three spheres "cannot be `this`, not `non-this`, not `both` together, not `neither`", and there is no other possibility. Concluding that the two / three spheres, and everything that depends on them, do not really exist (empty). Example: If we can demonstrate that cause & effect "cannot be different / separate / multiple / dual / sequential / without-contact, not identical / united / one / non-dual / simultaneous / with-contact, not both together, not neither" then we must conclude that there is no real cause & effect, then also no real causality / production, no real causal cycle, no real being bounded by the causal cycle, no real being liberated from the causal cycle, nobody being bounded or liberated, no origin path and destination, no real before / past / beginning, present / during / middle or future / after / ending ...

"What is their true nature then?" And the answer is always the same: They are merely imputed / labelled by the mind / subject in dependence of its conditioning / karma. They are dependently co-arisen / co-dependent (with each other(s), and with the mind merely labelling / imputing them) <==> thus empty of inherent / independent / absolute existence (that is another reasoning). And vice versa, they are empty <==> thus dependently co-arisen / merely imputed (that is another reasoning). Appearing but empty, empty but appearing. Those two aspects, the Two Truths, are themselves two apparent opposites subject to the same reasoning (iteratively).

  • The relationship between those two truths is called the Union of the Two Truths [U2T]. The true meaning of this “Union” is inconceivable for our flawed dualistic mental; but the concept itself is a good pointer to the true nature of reality / suchness.

  • The relationship between apparent opposites is called the Union of opposites [Uopp]. The true meaning of this “Union” is inconceivable for our flawed dualistic mental; but the concept itself is a good pointer to the true nature of reality / suchness.

  • The relationship between "imputed objects" and the "imputing mind / subject" merely labelling / imputing (relation / action) them is called the Union of the Three spheres [U3S]. The true meaning of this “Union” is inconceivable for our flawed dualistic mental; but the concept itself is a good pointer to the true nature of reality / suchness.

  • Where “Union” or “<==>” means “inconceivable Union / Coalescence / Inseparability / Indivisibility / Interdependence / Co-dependence / Co-definition / Co-relativity / Co-emergence / Co-evolution / Co-cessation / Non-duality / Oneness / Unity / Identity / Equality / Unborn Harmony ...” but in the non-dual sense of all of those terms -- using the tetralemma: not this, not non-this, not both together, not neither. It means one implies the other(s); the items are inseparable, interdependent, co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing, non-dual / one (in a non-dual sense) <==> thus all empty of inherent existence, and vice versa. So each `<==>` denotes a reasoning: if we demonstrate / prove one side, then the other side is automatically demonstrated / proved, because they are inseparable ...

All this applies to any type of relation / action / three spheres (see examples above). This is how we “de-program / de-condition” our flawed conceptual dualistic mental and get free from all of our illusions by seeing through them, realising their true nature [U2T, U3S. Uopp, tetralemma, Middle Way].

Once we have proven the Union of the Two Truths [U2T], the Union of the three spheres [U3S], the Union of opposites [Uopp] about two / three spheres, we can also conclude, using the tetralemma again, that since they are empty then they are "not that, not non-that, not both together, not neither" where “that-non-that” are any apparent dualistic pair of qualifiers / characteristics. Ex. Because everything is empty, then everything is "not impure, not pure, not both together, not neither"; that is why we say that "everything is originally pure / perfect / equal / divine" (as a pointer to the inconceivable nature of reality, and as an antidote to our usual tendency).

What is the best attitude to adopt toward them then? The Middle Way free from all extremes & middle, nothing to accept / affirm / do, nothing to reject / negate / no-do in absolute terms, just relatively / conventionally / inter-subjectively. Ex. We practice developing virtues like generosity, ethics, loving-kindness, compassion, patience, effort, concentration ... but always combining them with more and more wisdom / awareness of the true nature [U2T] of the three spheres involves -- ex. not grasping / fixating on the giver, the giving and the gift, or on any future reward. This way those virtues become more and more spontaneous / transcending causality, like the pure qualities of buddhahood. Thus the Path = Union of virtuous adapted skillful means / antidotes <==> and wisdom / emptiness, in accord with the Vision: Union of the Two Truths, Union of the three spheres, Union of opposites, tetralemma.

Most frequent reasoning types:

  • If they are “not this, not non-this, not both together, not neither” and that there is no other possibility [tetralemma] ==> then they are empty [T2].

  • If they are “empty” [T2] ==> then they are  “not that, not non-that, not both together, not neither” [tetralemma].

  • If they are co-dependent / merely imputed [T1] ==> then they are empty [T2].

  • If they are “empty” [T2] ==> then they are co-dependent / merely imputed [T1].

  • Union dependent co-origination / mere imputation <==> emptiness [U2T].

  • If one / two spheres is/are empty ==> then the other one(s) is/are also empty because they are inseparable; one cannot exist with / without the other(s). [Uopp, U3S]

  • If they are “not this, not non-this, not both together, not neither” and that there is no other possibility [tetralemma] ==> then they are dependently arisen / merely imputed [T1].

  • If they are dependently arisen / merely imputed [T1] ==> then they are “not that, not non-that, not both together, not neither” [tetralemma].

  • If they cannot exist in the past / before, in the present / during, and in the future / after ==> then they are empty [T2].

  • If they are any of those … then the best attitude toward them is the Middle Way: not accepting, not rejecting. And vice versa for the path: by adopting the Middle Way as the path (equality, equanimity) we will ultimately directly realise the other inconceivable Unions … and the true nature of reality / suchness.

In short: [tetralemma] <==> [U2T: Union T1 <==> T2] <==> [U3S: Union subject <==> relation / action <==> object] <==> [Uopp: Union of opposites] <==> [Middle Way] <= => [Fruition: Union qualities of Buddhahood / perfected virtues <==> wisdom / emptiness]

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(i.e. Logic: This résumé of all Madhyamaka reasonings will be useful to analyse this text:
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Union of the Two Truths about any & all dharmas [U2T]:
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{All dharmas are not really different / separate / multiple / dual / in opposition or relation, but are more like an inconceivable Union of being empty of inherent existence (2nd truth - not real existence) <==> because of being inseparable (one cannot exists without the other), interdependent (one implies the other), co-defined (the definition of one defines the other), co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent (they arise together), co-evolving, co-ceasing / co-transcended (they cease together), in harmony (not in real opposition), equal / non-dual / one (1st truth - not complete non-existence);
they are like illusions / dreams / reflections / rainbows / like the displays of a magical show or cosmic dance of luminosity; in other words, they are appearing but still empty, empty but still appearing; one aspect / truth implies the other (<==>), one aspect / truth proves the other (<==>). This is the King of reasoning; the Union of the Two Truths. [U2T]}
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<==> {because of that then they have no real three stages of existence: i. origination / beginning / birth / before / past, ii. duration / middle / life / change / during / present, iii. cessation / ending / death / after / future; they have no real parts, or defining characteristics, or three marks, or functional properties, or qualities;
and so they have no permanence / continuity / eternity, no impermanence / discontinuity / annihilation, or any combination of the two, or neither, between one infinitesimal moment and the next one (valid for any thing, any being, any relation / action), or between two consecutive rebirths for beings, or between samsara and nirvana}
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<==> {because of these then they are merely labelled / imputed / conceptualised / categorised / classified by the mind / subject (after the fact) in co-dependence with its conditioning / karma (physical, conceptual, mental; individual, collective, cosmic); in other words, as objects they are inseparable, interdependent, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing, non-dual with the subject / mind -- in the non-dual sense of those terms; ex. subject & object are not different / separate / two / dual / independent, not identical / united / one / non-dual / dependent, not both together, not neither [U3S]}
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<==> {because of these then there is no real difference, separation, opposition, relation, dependence, duality between them…, and no real identity / sameness, unity, equality, non-duality, oneness, independence either; there is no inherent / universal / absolute basis for any discrimination between them (acceptation or rejection) or non-discrimination, action or non-action; ex. it is not about accepting one or few opposite(s) while rejecting the other(s), not about accepting all opposites, not about rejecting all opposites [Uopp]}
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<==> {because of these then they are not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither (tetralemma) -- and there is no other possibility -- for whatever dualistic concept ‘this’ is --; meaning their true nature is indescribable, inconceivable, beyond all conceptual proliferations, beyond all extremes & middle; examples, they are
- not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither;
- not inherently existent, not completely non-existent, not both together, not neither;
- not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilated, not both together, not neither;
- not purely objective / physical / body, not purely subjective / mental / mind, not purely relational / process / conceptual / speech, not two or three of them together, not none of them;
- not dependent / caused / produced / functional, not independent / uncaused/spontaneous / unproduced / non-functional, not both together, not neither;
- not empty, not non-empty, not both together, not neither;
- not dependently co-arisen / interdependent (1st truth), not empty of inherent existence (2nd truth), not both truths together, not neither truth;
- not good / pure / perfect / equal / divine, not bad / impure / imperfect / unequal / ordinary, not both together, not neither;
- not conventional / relative / false, not absolute / universal / true, not both together, not neither;
- not this/that, not non-this/non-that, not both together, not neither.}
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<==> {because of these then we say that they are like transparent, uncompounded, self-arisen, unborn, uncreated, unfabricated, unchanging, unceasing, spontaneous displays of the Ground, unobstructed, infinite, timeless, one in naturelessness, primordially equal, pure, perfect, divine, Buddha-nature, Buddhaverse, Dharmata, Suchness, Trikaya … That is the inconceivable indivisible self-arisen Ground / Dharmata. With direct wisdom, everything is transcended / purified / self-liberated into this self-arisen timeless equal pure perfect Ground / the inconceivable true nature of Reality as it is in the three times.}
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<==> {because of these then the best attitude toward them is the Middle Way free from all extremes & middle;
Extremes like: i) existence / realism, ii) non-existence / nihilism, iii) both together / dualism, iv) neither / monism; or extremes like v) subject-only / mind-only / idealism / subjectivism, vi) object-only / naïve realism / objectivism, vii) relation-only / process-only / action-only / relationism / processism, viii) two or three of them together / pluralism, ix) none to them / monism;
so there is nothing to accept / affirm / seek / do / perceive / know in absolute terms, nothing to reject / negate / abandon / not-do / not-perceive / not-know in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively if it helps someone to get closer to the truth about the true nature of Reality as it is here & now;
so the best attitude is just to let them be, and transcend / purify / self-liberate them by directly perceiving / realising / abiding in their true nature (the Ground); to use them as possible temporary imperfect adapted skillful means while being fully aware of their true essence nature & dynamic, without any fixation / reification, without any illusion about them, without being fooled by them, without any grasping, without any attachment, without any di-vision between subject action & object, without becoming slave to them, while being totally free from them not without them}
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All dharmas are like that. Everything in all Madhyamaka teachings comes down to these reasonings. Together they are like a self-arisen indestructible vajra; one facet supported by the others. Together they point to the Ground, and generate 'certainty' about the view, path and fruition.)

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(i.e. Logic: Union of the three spheres [U3S] or Union of the Two Truths about the three spheres [U2T-3S]:
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Note examples of the three spheres: subject, relation / action, object; cause, causality, effect; actor, action, result; perceiver, perception, perceived; knower, cognition, knowing; acquirer, acquisition, acquired; producer, production, product; owner, ownership, possession; characteristic, characterising, characterised; whole, having, parts; opposite-1, opposing, opposite-2; consciousness, being-conscious-of, object-of-consciousness; awareness, being-aware-of, object-being-aware of; etc.
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{The three spheres -- subject / mind, relation / action, object / phenomena; or physical, conceptual & mental fabrications -- are not really different / separate / multiple / dual / in opposition or relation, but are more like an inconceivable Union of being empty of inherent existence (2nd truth - not real existence) <==> because of being inseparable (one cannot exists without the other), interdependent (one implies the other), co-defined (the definition of one defines the other), co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent (they arise together), co-evolving, co-ceasing / co-transcended (they cease together), in harmony (not in real opposition), equal / non-dual / one (1st truth - not complete non-existence);
they are like illusions / dreams / reflections / rainbows / like the displays of a magical show or cosmic dance of luminosity; in other words, they are appearing but still empty, empty but still appearing; one aspect / truth implies the other (<==>), one aspect / truth proves the other (<==>). This is the King of reasoning; the Union of the Two Truths. [U2T]}
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<==> {because of that then they have no real three stages of existence: i. origination / beginning / birth / before / past, ii. duration / middle / life / change / during / present, iii. cessation / ending / death / after / future; they have no real parts, or defining characteristics, or three marks, or functional properties, or qualities;
and so they have no permanence / continuity / eternity, no impermanence / discontinuity / annihilation, or any combination of the two, or neither, between one infinitesimal moment and the next one (valid for any thing, any being, any relation / action), or between two consecutive rebirths for beings, or between samsara and nirvana}
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<==> {because of these then they are merely labelled / imputed / conceptualised / categorised / classified by the mind / subject (after the fact) in co-dependence with its conditioning / karma (physical, conceptual, mental; individual, collective, cosmic); in other words, as objects they are inseparable, interdependent, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing, non-dual with the subject / mind -- in the non-dual sense of those terms; ex. subject & object are not different / separate / two / dual / independent, not identical / united / one / non-dual / dependent, not both together, not neither [U3S]}
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<==> {because of these then there is no real difference, separation, opposition, relation, dependence, duality between them…, and no real identity / sameness, unity, equality, non-duality, oneness, independence either; there is no inherent / universal / absolute basis for any discrimination between them (acceptation or rejection) or non-discrimination, action or non-action; ex. it is not about accepting one or few opposite(s) while rejecting the other(s), not about accepting all opposites, not about rejecting all opposites [Uopp]}
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<==> {because of these then they are not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither (tetralemma) -- and there is no other possibility -- for whatever dualistic concept ‘this’ is --; meaning their true nature is indescribable, inconceivable, beyond all conceptual proliferations, beyond all extremes & middle; examples, they are
- not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither;
- not inherently existent, not completely non-existent, not both together, not neither;
- not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilated, not both together, not neither;
- not purely objective / physical / body, not purely subjective / mental / mind, not purely relational / process / conceptual / speech, not two or three of them together, not none of them;
- not dependent / caused / produced / functional, not independent / uncaused/spontaneous / unproduced / non-functional, not both together, not neither;
- not empty, not non-empty, not both together, not neither;
- not dependently co-arisen / interdependent (1st truth), not empty of inherent existence (2nd truth), not both truths together, not neither truth;
- not good / pure / perfect / equal / divine, not bad / impure / imperfect / unequal / ordinary, not both together, not neither;
- not conventional / relative / false, not absolute / universal / true, not both together, not neither;
- not this/that, not non-this/non-that, not both together, not neither.}
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<==> {because of these then we say that they are like transparent, uncompounded, self-arisen, unborn, uncreated, unfabricated, unchanging, unceasing, spontaneous displays of the Ground, unobstructed, infinite, timeless, one in naturelessness, primordially equal, pure, perfect, divine, Buddha-nature, Buddhaverse, Dharmata, Suchness, Trikaya … That is the inconceivable indivisible self-arisen Ground / Dharmata. With direct wisdom, everything is transcended / purified / self-liberated into this self-arisen timeless equal pure perfect Ground / the inconceivable true nature of Reality as it is in the three times.}
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<==> {because of these then the best attitude toward them is the Middle Way free from all extremes & middle;
Extremes like: i) existence / realism, ii) non-existence / nihilism, iii) both together / dualism, iv) neither / monism; or extremes like v) subject-only / mind-only / idealism / subjectivism, vi) object-only / naïve realism / objectivism, vii) relation-only / process-only / action-only / relationism / processism, viii) two or three of them together / pluralism, ix) none to them / monism;
so there is nothing to accept / affirm / seek / do / perceive / know in absolute terms, nothing to reject / negate / abandon / not-do / not-perceive / not-know in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively if it helps someone to get closer to the truth about the true nature of Reality as it is here & now;
so the best attitude is just to let them be, and transcend / purify / self-liberate them by directly perceiving / realising / abiding in their true nature (the Ground); to use them as possible temporary imperfect adapted skillful means while being fully aware of their true essence nature & dynamic, without any fixation / reification, without any illusion about them, without being fooled by them, without any grasping, without any attachment, without any di-vision between subject action & object, without becoming slave to them, while being totally free from them not without them}
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All dharmas are like that. Everything in all Madhyamaka teachings comes down to these reasonings. Together they are like a self-arisen indestructible vajra; one facet supported by the others. Together they point to the Ground, and generate 'certainty' about the view, path and fruition.)

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(i.e. Logic: Union of two opposites [Uopp] or Union of the Two Truths about two opposites [U2T-opp], ex.
Union of left & right [Uopp], or Union of the Two Truths about left & right [U2T-opp],
Union of bad & good [Uopp], or Union of the Two Truths about bad & good [U2T-opp],
Union of impure & pure [Uopp], or Union of the Two Truths about impure & pure [U2T-opp],
Union of samsara & nirvana [Uopp], or Union of the Two Truths about samsara & nirvana [U2T-opp],
Union of reflections & mirror [Uopp], or Union of the Two Truths about reflections & mirror [U2T-opp],
Union of waves & ocean [Uopp], or Union of the Two Truths about waves & ocean [U2T-opp],
Union of clouds & sky [Uopp], or Union of the Two Truths about clouds & sky [U2T-opp],
Union of parts & whole [Uopp], or Union of the Two Truths about parts & whole [U2T-opp],
Union of things & space [Uopp], or Union of the Two Truths about things & space [U2T-opp],
Union of 1st truth / dependent origination & 2nd truth / emptiness of inherent existence [Uopp-2T], or Union of the Two Truths about the two truths [U2T-2T]:
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{The apparent opposites in any duality / triad / quad / etc.  -- ex. left vs. right, pure vs. impure, samsara vs. nirvana, the three spheres, reflection & mirror, the two truths themselves, etc. -- are like an inconceivable Union of being empty of inherent existence (2nd truth - not real existence) <==> because of being inseparable (one cannot exists without the other), interdependent (one implies the other), co-defined (the definition of one defines the other), co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent (they arise together), co-evolving, co-ceasing / co-transcended (they cease together), in harmony (not in real opposition), equal / non-dual / one (1st truth - not complete non-existence);
they are like illusions / dreams / reflections / rainbows / like the displays of a magical show or cosmic dance of luminosity; in other words, they are appearing but still empty, empty but still appearing; one aspect / truth implies the other (<==>), one aspect / truth proves the other (<==>). This is the King of reasoning; the Union of the Two Truths. [U2T]}
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<==> {because of that then they have no real three stages of existence: i. origination / beginning / birth / before / past, ii. duration / middle / life / change / during / present, iii. cessation / ending / death / after / future; they have no real parts, or defining characteristics, or three marks, or functional properties, or qualities;
and so they have no permanence / continuity / eternity, no impermanence / discontinuity / annihilation, or any combination of the two, or neither, between one infinitesimal moment and the next one (valid for any thing, any being, any relation / action), or between two consecutive rebirths for beings, or between samsara and nirvana}
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<==> {because of these then they are merely labelled / imputed / conceptualised / categorised / classified by the mind / subject (after the fact) in co-dependence with its conditioning / karma (physical, conceptual, mental; individual, collective, cosmic); in other words, as objects they are inseparable, interdependent, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing, non-dual with the subject / mind -- in the non-dual sense of those terms; ex. subject & object are not different / separate / two / dual / independent, not identical / united / one / non-dual / dependent, not both together, not neither [U3S]}
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<==> {because of these then there is no real difference, separation, opposition, relation, dependence, duality between them…, and no real identity / sameness, unity, equality, non-duality, oneness, independence either; there is no inherent / universal / absolute basis for any discrimination between them (acceptation or rejection) or non-discrimination, action or non-action; ex. it is not about accepting one or few opposite(s) while rejecting the other(s), not about accepting all opposites, not about rejecting all opposites [Uopp]}
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<==> {because of these then they are not 'this', not 'non-this', not both together, not neither (tetralemma) -- and there is no other possibility -- for whatever dualistic concept ‘this’ is --; meaning their true nature is indescribable, inconceivable, beyond all conceptual proliferations, beyond all extremes & middle; examples, they are
- not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither;
- not inherently existent, not completely non-existent, not both together, not neither;
- not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilated, not both together, not neither;
- not purely objective / physical / body, not purely subjective / mental / mind, not purely relational / process / conceptual / speech, not two or three of them together, not none of them;
- not dependent / caused / produced / functional, not independent / uncaused/spontaneous / unproduced / non-functional, not both together, not neither;
- not empty, not non-empty, not both together, not neither;
- not dependently co-arisen / interdependent (1st truth), not empty of inherent existence (2nd truth), not both truths together, not neither truth;
- not good / pure / perfect / equal / divine, not bad / impure / imperfect / unequal / ordinary, not both together, not neither;
- not conventional / relative / false, not absolute / universal / true, not both together, not neither;
- not this/that, not non-this/non-that, not both together, not neither.}
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<==> {because of these then we say that they are like transparent, uncompounded, self-arisen, unborn, uncreated, unfabricated, unchanging, unceasing, spontaneous displays of the Ground, unobstructed, infinite, timeless, one in naturelessness, primordially equal, pure, perfect, divine, Buddha-nature, Buddhaverse, Dharmata, Suchness, Trikaya … That is the inconceivable indivisible self-arisen Ground / Dharmata. With direct wisdom, everything is transcended / purified / self-liberated into this self-arisen timeless equal pure perfect Ground / the inconceivable true nature of Reality as it is in the three times.}
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<==> {because of these then the best attitude toward them is the Middle Way free from all extremes & middle;
Extremes like: i) existence / realism, ii) non-existence / nihilism, iii) both together / dualism, iv) neither / monism; or extremes like v) subject-only / mind-only / idealism / subjectivism, vi) object-only / naïve realism / objectivism, vii) relation-only / process-only / action-only / relationism / processism, viii) two or three of them together / pluralism, ix) none to them / monism;
so there is nothing to accept / affirm / seek / do / perceive / know in absolute terms, nothing to reject / negate / abandon / not-do / not-perceive / not-know in absolute terms, just conventionally / relatively / inter-subjectively if it helps someone to get closer to the truth about the true nature of Reality as it is here & now;
so the best attitude is just to let them be, and transcend / purify / self-liberate them by directly perceiving / realising / abiding in their true nature (the Ground); to use them as possible temporary imperfect adapted skillful means while being fully aware of their true essence nature & dynamic, without any fixation / reification, without any illusion about them, without being fooled by them, without any grasping, without any attachment, without any di-vision between subject action & object, without becoming slave to them, while being totally free from them not without them}
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All dharmas are like that. Everything in all Madhyamaka teachings comes down to these reasonings. Together they are like a self-arisen indestructible vajra; one facet supported by the others. Together they point to the Ground, and generate 'certainty' about the view, path and fruition.)

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EXAMPLES / QUOTES

Résumé of reasonings in Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK)

Quotes from: THE SUN OF WISDOM - Teachings on the Noble Nagarjuna’s Fundamental Wisdom of the Middle Way, Khenpo Tsültrim Gyamtso, Translated and edited by Ari Goldfield [Promienie]

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0. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK - Opening Homage):

Union of the Two truths [U2T]: Union dependent origination <==> emptiness.

Verse: I prostrate to the one Who teaches that

[U2T:] Whatever is dependently arisen (/ merely imputed) [T1] <==> Does not arise (empty) [T2] (and vice versa),

does not cease, (transcending origination / birth, duration / life, cessation / death)

Is not permanent, is not extinct,

(<==> Tetralemma: not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilated, not both together, not neither)

Does not come, does not go, (transcending coming / arising and going / ceasing and the middle)

(<==> Tetralemma: not coming, not going, not both together, not neither)

And is neither one thing nor different things.

(<==> Tetralemma: not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither)

I prostrate to the perfect Buddha, the supreme of all who speak,

Who completely dissolves (transcends) all [conceptual dualistic] fabrications(transcends all apparent phenomena of both samsara & nirvana; of the three spheres -- subject, relation / action, object) 

and teaches peace (equanimity, freedom).

(Comment: Khenpo Tsültrim Gyamtso: ”All of the phenomena of samsara and nirvana are dependently arisen mere appearances [T1], and that therefore their true nature transcends the concepts of arising and ceasing, of permanence and extinction, of coming and going, and of being one thing or different things. … Suffering comes from taking things (opposites) to be real -- from taking friends and enemies to be real, from taking birth and death to be real, from taking clean and dirty to be real, and from taking happiness and pain in general to be real. The Buddha taught that the true nature of reality [U2T] actually transcends all these concepts -- it is the equality [Union ...] of all these seeming opposites [Uopp] -- and he also taught us how to realize this.”[Tetralemma <==> emptiness [T2] <==> dependent co-origination / mere imputation <== > Union of opposites <==> Tetralemma])

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1. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 1.1):

An Examination of Causal Conditions (arising from causes & conditions).
Union of the three spheres of causality [U3S]: Union cause <==> causality <==> effect.

1. Verse: Not from self, (Tetralemma: subject / cause & object / effect are not identical / one / united / non-dual / with-contact)

2. not from other, (subject / cause & object / effect  are not different / separate / multiple / dual / without-contact)

3. Not from both, (subject / cause & object / effect  are not both together ...)

4. nor without cause (neither): (subject / cause & object / effect  are not neither … / things do not arise without cause)

Things do not arise (<==> emptiness of the three: subject / cause, relation / action / causality, object / effect)

At any place, at any time. (no inherent / independent / absolute causality, just relative / conventional / inter-subjective)

(Khenpo Tsültrim Gyamtso: ”Arising, therefore, does not occur in any one of these four possible ways, and therefore it is not real (& not non-real, not both, not neither). ... Finally, at the level of thorough analysis, we discover that the true nature of arising transcends existence, non-existence(, both, neither) -- it is the equality of both. [Union of opposites like: Union existence / real <==> non-existence / non-real [Uopp]][Tetralemma <==> emptiness [T2] <==> dependent co-origination / mere imputation [T1] <== > Union of opposites <==> Tetralemma])

Résumé: Proving with logical reasoning that there is no real / inherent / independent / absolute causes & causality / production / arising / origination / birth / emergence from causes & conditions of any effects / product; nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T = Union of the Two Truths]

Note: “Union” = “Union / Coalescence / Inseparability / Indivisibility / Interdependence / Co-dependence / Co-definition / Co-relativity / Co-emergence / Co-evolution / Co-cessation / Non-duality / Oneness / Unity / Identity / Equality / Unborn Harmony ...”

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They are empty of any truly existent essence -- of any inherent nature -- of true existence -- <==> because dependently co-arisen (with their infinite chain of causes & conditions ... (when applicable); with their conceptual opposite(s) [Uopp], and with the subject / mind merely labelling / imputing them [U3S]);

and vice versa, they are dependently co-arisen <==> because empty [U2T].

-

[U3S-causal-cycle] Union subject / cause <==> relation / action / causality <==> object / effect. (a limitless & centerless causal cycle)

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[U2T-opp & U3S-opp] Union co-dependence <==> emptiness [U2T] of the two / three / four opposites; they are co-dependent with each other(s) [Uopp]; and as apparent objects they are co-dependent with the mind(s) / subject(s) [U3S] merely labelling / imputing (relation / action) them in dependence of his/their conditioning / karma; they are like illusions, mirages, dreams, water-moons, faces in the clouds.

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Their inconceivable true nature [U2T] transcends (in a Middle Way sense using wisdom; not as a true cessation) all conceptual dualistic fabrications / extremes / dualities / triads / quads / etc.; indescribable, beyond all conceptualisation / signs / symbols, discrimination / opposites / dualities, relations / actions / causality / productions / fabrications, matter-energy, space & time -- ex. beyond existence / real / presence, non-existence / non-real / absence, both together, neither; beyond dependence / impermanence / annihilation, independence / permanence / eternity, both together, neither; beyond empty, non-empty, both together, neither --; thus peaceful [Uopp].

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Tetralemma -- freedom from all extremes : They are not existent / real, not non-existent / non-real, not both together, not neither; not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither; not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilated, not both together, not neither; not simultaneous, not sequential, not both together, not neither; not self-caused, not other-caused, not both together, not neither; not good / pleasant / desirable / right / unmistaken / wholesome, not bad / unpleasant / undesirable / wrong / mistaken / unwholesome, not both together, not neither; not something, not nothing, not both together, not neither;  not impure / imperfect / unequal / ordinary, not pure / perfect / equal / divine, not both together, not neither; not finite, not infinite, not both together, not neither; not dependent / conditioned / compounded / composite / caused, not independent / unconditioned / uncompounded / non-composite / non-caused, not both together, not neither; not empty, not non-empty, not both together, not neither; not dependently co-arisen (T1), not empty (T2), not both together (2T), not neither; … not purely physical / body, not purely conceptual / speech, no purely mental / mind only, not two or three of them together, not none of them;  not individual, not collective, not universal / cosmic, not two or three of them together, not none of them; not describable / conceivable, not indescribable / inconceivable, not both together, not neither; not with origination / birth / beginning / before / past -- duration / abiding / middle / during / present -- cessation / death / ending / after / future, not without them, not both together, not neither; not purely objective, not purely subjective, not purely relational / process / action, not two or three of them together, not none of them; not temporal, not intemporal, not both together, not neither; not local, not omnipresent, not both together, not neither; not marked, not unmarked, not both together, not neither; not samsara, not nirvana, not both together, not neither; not something beyond all extremes, not a nothingness beyond all extremes, not both together, not neither; not absolute / universal / purely objective, not relative / conventional / purely inter-subjective, not both together, not neither; not this/that, not non-this/non-that, not both together, not neither …

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The Middle Way free from all conceptual dualistic extremes (opposites) & middle; nothing to accept / seek / attain / affirm / do, nothing to reject / escape / abandon / negate / not-do in absolute terms, just relatively / conventionally / inter-subjectively -- as antidote / temporary imperfect adapted skillful means to help to transcend / to get free from all illusions / opposites / extremes. Everything is as already pure / perfect / equal / divine here & now for one who is fully aware of their true nature (wisdom) [U2T].

-

Gaining more and more stable certainty in this profound view, in their true nature (U2T), and thus in the Mahayana Madhyamaka path, through repeated thorough detailed logical analysis -- logical inferences & reasonings -- of the third stage. Gradually “deconditioning” our mental; gradually getting free from our craving for illusions & strong attachment; transcending all conceptual dualistic fabrications / extremes / opposites. Clearing the way for a possible individual spontaneous non-conceptual non-dualistic direct perception / realisation / experience of the inconceivable true nature of reality as it is here & now (as pointed by concepts like: U2T, U3S, Uopp, Tetralemma, Middle Way, the Purity / Perfection / Equality / Divinity of all phenomena).

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2. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 2.1):

An Examination of Coming and Going (action / movement / coming / going) --  (three stages of becoming).
Union of the three spheres of activity [U3S]: Union actor <==> acting / going <==> result.

Proving with logical reasoning that there is no real / inherent / independent / absolute relation / action like: coming / origination / birth / beginning, existing / duration / middle / changing / lasting, going / cessation / death / ending of anything; ex. of our suffering, our mental afflictions, and our thoughts; nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T] We cannot find them in the three times. No real continuity or discontinuity of the subject, action and object.

[U3S-action-cycle] Union subject / actor / goer <==> relation / action / going / coming (physical action) <==> object / result / destination. (coming & going) (sustaining the limitless & centerless karmic cycle)

[Uopp-continuity] Union subject before <==> subject during <==> subject after the action / experience / coming / going.

On the path that has been traveled, there is no moving (Tetralemma: the relation / action / going didn’t exist before / united with the subject / cause),

On the path that has not been traveled, there is no moving either (the relation / action / going doesn’t exist during / separate from the subject / cause and the object / effect),

And in some other place besides the path that has been traveled and the path that has not (the relation / action / going will not exist after / united with the effect)

(i.e. Tetralemma: the three spheres -- subject / actor / goer, relation / action / going, object / effect / destination -- cannot be different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither <== >)

Motions are not perceptible in any way at all (the three spheres are empty [T2])

(Khenpo Tsültrim Gyamtso: ”Since it is the case that in genuine reality [U2T] phenomena neither come nor go, that their true nature is beyond coming and going, it is also the case that our suffering neither comes from anywhere nor goes anywhere. The same is true of our mental afflictions -- our attachment, aversion, pride, jealousy, and stupidity -- they neither come from anywhere nor go anywhere. Finally, all of our thoughts -- no matter how profound or noble, no matter how vile or base -- do not come from anywhere or go anywhere. … When you gain certainty that the suffering that appears is empty of coming and going, the suffering will dissolve (be transcended) all by itself, and you will experience its true nature, which is open, spacious, and relaxed.”

[Tetralemma <==> emptiness [T2] <==> dependent co-origination / mere imputation [T1] <== > Union of opposites <==> Tetralemma])

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3. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 3):

An Examination of the [12] Sources of Consciousness (/ basis: subjective or objective?).
Union of the three spheres of perception / cognition [U3S]: Union perceiver / knower <==> perception / cognition <==> perceived / known.

[Tetralemma] “The three spheres of perception / cognition -- subject / actor / perceiver / knower, relation / action / perception / cognition, object / result / perceived / known -- cannot be different / separate / multiple / dual / without-contact / independent, not identical / united / one / non-dual / with-contact / simultaneous, not both together, not neither” <==> the three are empty [T2] <==> dependent co-origination / mere imputation [T1] <== > Union of opposites <==> Tetralemma])

(Khenpo Tsültrim Gyamtso: “Thus, we see that in fact there is no way that the inner and outer sources of consciousness can truly occur, because they cannot occur sequentially, they cannot occur simultaneously, and there is no other possibility. So then what are they? They are mere appearances, like illusions, like e-mail, and like movies. They have no true existence. [T2] … Therefore, they do not truly exist. They are not real. Then what are they? They are mere appearances [T1] that arise due to the coming together of causes and conditions, like dreams, water-moons, and rainbows. Their true nature transcends conceptual [dualistic] fabrications. It is open, spacious, and relaxed.)

Résumé: Proving with logical reasoning that there is no real / inherent / independent / absolute basis for perception / knowledge -- for reality -- not purely subjective, not purely objective, not both together, not neither; no real subject, relation / action / perception / cognition, object; nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T]

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They are empty of any truly existent essence -- of any inherent nature -- of true existence -- <==> because dependently co-arisen (with their infinite chain of causes & conditions ... (when applicable); with their conceptual opposite(s) [Uopp], and with the subject / mind merely labelling / imputing them [U3S]);

and vice versa, they are dependently co-arisen <==> because empty [U2T].

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[U2T-3S] Union co-dependence <==> emptiness of “perceived objects & sense organs (relation / action) & mind (subject)” as the source of consciousness (perception) & knowledge …

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Tetralemma: not subject only / subjectivism, not object only / objectivism, not both together / simultaneously / dualism, not neither / monism / holism;

or not simultaneous (during), not sequential (before or after the others), not both together, not neither <==> [Uopp-3S] [U2T-3S] [U3S-3S]. 

[U3S-perception-cycle] Union subject / perceiver / knower <==> relation / action / perception / cognition (mental action) <==> object / perceived / known. (sustaining the limitless & centerless karmic cycle)

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[U2T-opp & U3S-opp] Union co-dependence <==> emptiness [U2T] of the two / three / four opposites; they are co-dependent with each other(s) [Uopp]; and as apparent objects they are co-dependent with the mind(s) / subject(s) [U3S] merely labelling / imputing (relation / action) them in dependence of his/their conditioning / karma; they are like illusions, mirages, dreams, water-moons, faces in the clouds.

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Their inconceivable true nature [U2T] transcends (in a Middle Way sense using wisdom; not as a true cessation) all conceptual dualistic fabrications / extremes / dualities / triads / quads / etc.; indescribable, beyond all conceptualisation / signs / symbols, discrimination / opposites / dualities, relations / actions / causality / productions / fabrications, matter-energy, space & time -- ex. beyond existence / real / presence, non-existence / non-real / absence, both together, neither; beyond dependence / impermanence / annihilation, independence / permanence / eternity, both together, neither; beyond empty, non-empty, both together, neither --; thus peaceful [Uopp].

-

Tetralemma -- freedom from all extremes : They are not existent / real, not non-existent / non-real, not both together, not neither; not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither; not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilated, not both together, not neither; not simultaneous, not sequential, not both together, not neither; not self-caused, not other-caused, not both together, not neither; not good / pleasant / desirable / right / unmistaken / wholesome, not bad / unpleasant / undesirable / wrong / mistaken / unwholesome, not both together, not neither; not something, not nothing, not both together, not neither;  not impure / imperfect / unequal / ordinary, not pure / perfect / equal / divine, not both together, not neither; not finite, not infinite, not both together, not neither; not dependent / conditioned / compounded / composite / caused, not independent / unconditioned / uncompounded / non-composite / non-caused, not both together, not neither; not empty, not non-empty, not both together, not neither; not dependently co-arisen (T1), not empty (T2), not both together (2T), not neither; … not purely physical / body, not purely conceptual / speech, no purely mental / mind only, not two or three of them together, not none of them;  not individual, not collective, not universal / cosmic, not two or three of them together, not none of them; not describable / conceivable, not indescribable / inconceivable, not both together, not neither; not with origination / birth / beginning / before / past -- duration / abiding / middle / during / present -- cessation / death / ending / after / future, not without them, not both together, not neither; not purely objective, not purely subjective, not purely relational / process / action, not two or three of them together, not none of them; not temporal, not intemporal, not both together, not neither; not local, not omnipresent, not both together, not neither; not marked, not unmarked, not both together, not neither; not samsara, not nirvana, not both together, not neither; not something beyond all extremes, not a nothingness beyond all extremes, not both together, not neither; not absolute / universal / purely objective, not relative / conventional / purely inter-subjective, not both together, not neither; not this/that, not non-this/non-that, not both together, not neither …

-

The Middle Way free from all conceptual dualistic extremes (opposites) & middle; nothing to accept / seek / attain / affirm / do, nothing to reject / escape / abandon / negate / not-do in absolute terms, just relatively / conventionally / inter-subjectively -- as antidote / temporary imperfect adapted skillful means to help to transcend / to get free from all illusions / opposites / extremes. Everything is as already pure / perfect / equal / divine here & now for one who is fully aware of their true nature (wisdom) [U2T].

-

Gaining more and more stable certainty in this profound view, in their true nature (U2T), and thus in the Mahayana Madhyamaka path, through repeated thorough detailed logical analysis -- logical inferences & reasonings -- of the third stage. Gradually “deconditioning” our mental; gradually getting free from our craving for illusions & strong attachment; transcending all conceptual dualistic fabrications / extremes / opposites. Clearing the way for a possible individual spontaneous non-conceptual non-dualistic direct perception / realisation / experience of the inconceivable true nature of reality as it is here & now (as pointed by concepts like: U2T, U3S, Uopp, Tetralemma, Middle Way, the Purity / Perfection / Equality / Divinity of all phenomena).

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4. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 4):

An Examination of the Aggregates (as both effect & cause in the composition cycle).
Union of the three spheres of composition [U3S]: Union parts / irreducible elements <==> composing / causing the emergence of <==> wholes / 5 aggregates.

Proving with logical reasoning that there is no real / inherent / independent / absolute basis for the 5 aggregates in the irreducible elements; thus also no real subject, relation / action, object composed of those 5 aggregates; nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T]

Analyse the 5 aggregates as effects of the irreducible elements; and as causes of the the five sense faculties and the five objects they perceive.

Tetralemma: not simultaneous (during), not sequential (before or after the others), not both together, not neither <==> [Uopp-3S] [U2T-3S] [U3S-3S].

[U3S-composition-cycle] Union subject / cause / irreducible elements <==> relation / action / causality / composing <==> object / effect / aggregates. (emergence of the whole from its parts)

[U3S-composition-cycle] Union subject / cause / aggregates <==> relation / action / causality / composing <==> object / effect / the five sense faculties and the five objects they perceive.

[Tetralemma] “The three spheres of composition / emergence -- subject / actor / parts / irreducible elements, relation / action / composition / emergence of, object / result / wholes / 5-aggregates -- cannot be different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither” <==> the three are empty [T2] <==> co-dependent / mere imputation [T1] <== > Union of opposites <==> Tetralemma])

Or: [Tetralemma] “The three spheres of composition / emergence -- subject / actor / parts / 5-aggregates, relation / action / composition / emergence of, object / result / wholes / body-speech-minds -- cannot be different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither” <==> the three are empty [T2] <==> co-dependent / mere imputation [T1] <== > Union of opposites <==> Tetralemma])

(Khenpo Tsültrim Gyamtso: “... Based on this analysis, we can gain certainty that dependently existent phenomena do not truly exist [U2T] because they cannot exist one before the other, they cannot exist simultaneously, and there is no other possibility. Nevertheless, there are still appearances of them, mere dependently arisen appearances, like appearances in dreams. Since there certainly are these appearances, we have no reason to think that reality is complete nothingness. We have no reason to be afraid. We should not be afraid of emptiness, because emptiness does not mean complete nothingness. The true nature of reality [U2T] is appearance-emptiness inseparable (Union) [U2T].

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5. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 5):

An Examination of the Elements (as an objective basis for reality)
Union of the three spheres of characterisation [U3S]: Union defining characteristics <==> characterisation <==> characterised / irreducible elements.

Proving with logical reasoning that there is no real / inherent / independent / absolute basis for the 5 aggregates in the irreducible elements and their defining characteristics; thus also no real subject, relation / action, object composed of those 5 aggregates; nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T]

Tetralemma: not simultaneous (during), not sequential (before or after the others), not both together, not neither <==> [Uopp-3S] [U2T-3S] [U3S-3S].

[U3S-definition-cycle] Union subject / defining characteristic <==> relation / action / characterising (conceptual action) <==> object / characterised / irreducible elements (earth, water, fire, wind, space, and consciousness). (sustaining the limitless & centerless defining cycle)

[Tetralemma] “The three spheres of characterisation / definition -- subject / defining characteristics / definition, relation / action / characterising / defining, object / characterised / defined / definiendum / irreducible elements -- cannot be different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither” <==> the three are empty [T2] <==> co-dependent / mere imputation [T1] <== > Union of opposites <==> Tetralemma])

(Khenpo Tsültrim Gyamtso: “... However, for there to be characteristics of something depends upon there being something to have those characteristics, and vice versa; for there to be defining characteristics there must be a definiendum (characterised), and vice versa. In this case the characteristics of space exist in dependence upon there being some space to possess the characteristics; but also, the space can exist only when it has some characteristics to define it. Since each of them has to depend upon the other to exist, they have no nature of their own; they do not truly exist. [U2T]

[Tetralemma <==> emptiness [T2] <==> dependent co-origination / mere imputation [T1] <== > Union of opposites <==> Tetralemma])

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6. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 6):

An Examination of Desire (object) and the Desirous One (subject) *** (Pure Vision) ***
Union of the three spheres of desire [U3S]: Union desirous one <==> desiring <==> object of desire.

[Tetralemma] “The three spheres of desire -- subject / the one who desires, relation / action / desiring, object of desire -- cannot be different / separate / multiple / dual / sequential, not identical / united / one / non-dual / simultaneous, not both together, not neither” <==> the three are empty [T2] <==> co-dependent / mere imputation [T1] <== > Union of opposites <==> Tetralemma])

(Khenpo Tsültrim Gyamtso: “Here we are looking at the desirous one (subject) -- which could refer either to the desirous individual or to the mind that experiences desire -- and the desire (object) itself. We can ask, if these things truly exist, how do they exist in terms of their sequence? Does one happen before the other, or do they occur simultaneously? ... That is clearly not the case with desire and the desirous one -- they can exist only in mutual dependence. Since they cannot exist sequentially and they cannot exist simultaneously, desire and the desirous one are not real; they are just like appearances in a dream. We need to apply the same reasoning to anger and the angry one, to jealousy and the jealous one, to pride and the proud one, and to stupidity and the stupid one. … We can look in the same way at sickness and the one who is sick … In fact, sickness depends upon there being a sick individual, and vice versa, and therefore neither of them inherently exists. … The same can be applied to the expectations of difficulties in the future and the problems those expectations create for us.“

[Tetralemma <==> emptiness [T2] <==> dependent co-origination / mere imputation [T1] <== > Union of opposites <==> Tetralemma])

Résumé: Proving with logical reasoning that there is no real / inherent / independent / absolute mental afflictions -- the five poisons of anger, desire, stupidity, pride, and jealousy - even sickness / problems --; nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T] They are all perfectly pure (free from stain / perfectly natural). The reason desire is perfectly pure is that desire (object) and the one who experiences it (subject / mind) do not truly exist; they are not real. The desire (relation / action) itself is perfectly pure, and therefore the desirous one (subject / mind) -- the one who has the desire -- is perfectly pure, and the object of desire (the world) is perfectly pure. In brief, that is the way it is; everything is already pure & perfect & equal & divine here & now for one with wisdom.

-

They are empty of any truly existent essence -- of any inherent nature -- of true existence -- <==> because dependently co-arisen (with their infinite chain of causes & conditions ... (when applicable); with their conceptual opposite(s) [Uopp], and with the subject / mind merely labelling / imputing them [U3S]);

and vice versa, they are dependently co-arisen <==> because empty [U2T].

-

Tetralemma: not simultaneous (during), not sequential (before or after the others), not both together, not neither <==> [Uopp-3S] [U2T-3S] [U3S-3S]. 

[U3S-desire-cycle] Union subject / desirous one <==> relation / action / having / experiencing <==> object / desire / anger / stupidity / pride / jealousy / sickness / problems.

[U3S-desire-cycle] Union subject / desirous one <==> relation / action / desiring <==> object / desired.

[U3S-concomitance] Union subject / opposite-1 <==> relation / concomitance / inseparability / union … <==> object / opposite-2.

[U3S-separateness] Union subject / opposite-1 <==> relation / opposition / separateness … <==> object / opposite-2.[Uopp] Union separateness <==> union / concomitance of the 121 types of consciousnesses & 51 mental factors.

-

[U2T-opp & U3S-opp] Union co-dependence <==> emptiness [U2T] of the two / three / four opposites; they are co-dependent with each other(s) [Uopp]; and as apparent objects they are co-dependent with the mind(s) / subject(s) [U3S] merely labelling / imputing (relation / action) them in dependence of his/their conditioning / karma; they are like illusions, mirages, dreams, water-moons, faces in the clouds.

-

Their inconceivable true nature [U2T] transcends (in a Middle Way sense using wisdom; not as a true cessation) all conceptual dualistic fabrications / extremes / dualities / triads / quads / etc.; indescribable, beyond all conceptualisation / signs / symbols, discrimination / opposites / dualities, relations / actions / causality / productions / fabrications, matter-energy, space & time -- ex. beyond existence / real / presence, non-existence / non-real / absence, both together, neither; beyond dependence / impermanence / annihilation, independence / permanence / eternity, both together, neither; beyond empty, non-empty, both together, neither --; thus peaceful [Uopp].

-

Tetralemma -- freedom from all extremes : They are not existent / real, not non-existent / non-real, not both together, not neither; not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither; not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilated, not both together, not neither; not simultaneous, not sequential, not both together, not neither; not self-caused, not other-caused, not both together, not neither; not good / pleasant / desirable / right / unmistaken / wholesome, not bad / unpleasant / undesirable / wrong / mistaken / unwholesome, not both together, not neither; not something, not nothing, not both together, not neither;  not impure / imperfect / unequal / ordinary, not pure / perfect / equal / divine, not both together, not neither; not finite, not infinite, not both together, not neither; not dependent / conditioned / compounded / composite / caused, not independent / unconditioned / uncompounded / non-composite / non-caused, not both together, not neither; not empty, not non-empty, not both together, not neither; not dependently co-arisen (T1), not empty (T2), not both together (2T), not neither; … not purely physical / body, not purely conceptual / speech, no purely mental / mind only, not two or three of them together, not none of them;  not individual, not collective, not universal / cosmic, not two or three of them together, not none of them; not describable / conceivable, not indescribable / inconceivable, not both together, not neither; not with origination / birth / beginning / before / past -- duration / abiding / middle / during / present -- cessation / death / ending / after / future, not without them, not both together, not neither; not purely objective, not purely subjective, not purely relational / process / action, not two or three of them together, not none of them; not temporal, not intemporal, not both together, not neither; not local, not omnipresent, not both together, not neither; not marked, not unmarked, not both together, not neither; not samsara, not nirvana, not both together, not neither; not something beyond all extremes, not a nothingness beyond all extremes, not both together, not neither; not absolute / universal / purely objective, not relative / conventional / purely inter-subjective, not both together, not neither; not this/that, not non-this/non-that, not both together, not neither …

-

The Middle Way free from all conceptual dualistic extremes (opposites) & middle; nothing to accept / seek / attain / affirm / do, nothing to reject / escape / abandon / negate / not-do in absolute terms, just relatively / conventionally / inter-subjectively -- as antidote / temporary imperfect adapted skillful means to help to transcend / to get free from all illusions / opposites / extremes. Everything is as already pure / perfect / equal / divine here & now for one who is fully aware of their true nature (wisdom) [U2T].

-

Gaining more and more stable certainty in this profound view, in their true nature (U2T), and thus in the Mahayana Madhyamaka path, through repeated thorough detailed logical analysis -- logical inferences & reasonings -- of the third stage. Gradually “deconditioning” our mental; gradually getting free from our craving for illusions & strong attachment; transcending all conceptual dualistic fabrications / extremes / opposites. Clearing the way for a possible individual spontaneous non-conceptual non-dualistic direct perception / realisation / experience of the inconceivable true nature of reality as it is here & now (as pointed by concepts like: U2T, U3S, Uopp, Tetralemma, Middle Way, the Purity / Perfection / Equality / Divinity of all phenomena).

=======================

7. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 7):

An Examination of the Composite (ex. karma) [and their basic characteristics: origination / arising / birth, duration / abiding, cessation / ceasing / death].
Union of the three spheres of production [U3S]: Union producer <==> production <==> product.
Union of the three stages of becoming: Union origination <==> duration <==> cessation.

Proving with logical reasoning that there are no real / inherent / independent / absolute basic characteristics: origination / arising / production, duration / abiding, cessation / ceasing, thus no real composite, and non-composite (ex. space); nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T]

Tetralemma: not ..., not ..., not both together, not neither <==> [Uopp-3S] [U2T-3S] [U3S-3S].

[Uopp-3-stages-of-becoming-cycle] Union of the three apparent basic characteristics of composite products: origination / arising / production <==> duration / abiding <==> cessation of composite products. (a limitless & centerless cycle)

[U3S-production] Union subject / producer <==> action / production <==> object / composite product.

[U3S-basic-characteristics] Union subject / basic characteristic (origination, duration, cessation) <==> relation / action / characterising (conceptual action) <==> object / characterised / composite product.

[Uopp] Union composite <==> non-composite.

[Uopp] Union light <==> darkness.

[Uopp] Union opposite-1 <==> opposite-2 <==> opposite-3 …

Verse: An actor exists in dependence upon an action,

An action exists in dependence upon an actor,

And apart from that,

No reason for their existence can be seen.

[Tetralemma] “The three spheres of production -- subject / actor / producer, relation / action / production, object / result / product / karma -- cannot be different / separate / multiple / dual / sequential, not identical / united / one / non-dual / simultaneous, not both together, not neither” <==> the three are empty [T2] <==> co-dependent / mere imputation [T1] <== > Union of opposites <==> Tetralemma])

(Khenpo Tsültrim Gyamtso: “We can put this in a form of a logical reasoning by saying: Neither an actor nor an action has any nature of its own, because for an actor to exist there must be an action, but that action can exist only in dependence upon the actor herself. Since they can exist only in mutual dependence, they do not truly exist. Thus, actors and actions do not truly exist because they cannot exist independent of each other. They do, however, exist as dependently arisen mere appearances that manifest due to the coming together of causes and conditions. … The ultimate understanding is that the true nature of actors and actions is beyond any conceptual notion of them, whether it be a thought that they exist or that they do not exist. Their actual nature transcends both of those concepts, and this third stage presents the ultimate way to understand reality.

[Tetralemma <==> emptiness [T2] <==> dependent co-origination / mere imputation [T1] <== > Union of opposites <==> Tetralemma])

=======================

8. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 8):

An Examination of Actors / producers, Karmic Actions / production [and products / composites / karma [U3S]].
Union of the three spheres of karma-formation [U3S]: Union actor <==> karmic action <==> result of karmic action.

Proving with logical reasoning that there is no real / inherent / independent / absolute subject / actor / producer, karmic actions / relation / production, object / results of karmic actions / product / composite / karma; nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T]

Tetralemma: not simultaneous (during), not sequential (before or after the others), not both together, not neither <==> [Uopp-3S] [U2T-3S] [U3S-3S].

[U3S-karmic-cycle] Union subject / actor / producer / acquirer <==> relation / karmic action / producing / acquiring <==> object / result / product / composite / acquisition / karma. (sustaining the limitless & centerless karmic cycle)

[U3S-5-aggregates-cycle] Union subject / cause / actor / 5-aggregates-before <==> relation / causality / action / 5-aggregates-during <==> object / effect / result / 5-aggregates-after. (sustaining the limitless & centerless karmic cycle)

[Uopp] Union samsara <==> nirvana.

=======================

9. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 9):

An Examination of What Comes First (which one is the basis: subject or object or relation / process / action, of few/all of them, or none) -- a cycle without any real basis.
Union of the three spheres of acquisition [U3S]: Union self <==> acquisition / ownership <==> 5 aggregates.

Verse: The one (subject) who experiences (action) perceptions (object) does not exist

Before, during, or after the experiences of seeing and so forth.

(similar to MNK 2, but here with the subject instead of the action)

Knowing this, all thoughts of an experiencer (subject) of perceptions either existing or not existing are reversed.

[Tetralemma] “The three spheres of action / experience / perception -- subject / actor / experiencer / perceiver, relation / action / experience / perception, object / result / experienced / perceived -- cannot be different / separate / multiple / dual / sequential, not identical / united / one / non-dual / simultaneous, not both together, not neither” <==> the three are empty [T2] <==> co-dependent / mere imputation [T1] <== > Union of opposites <==> Tetralemma]. They are not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither; they are not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilated, not both together, not neither.)

(Khenpo Tsültrim Gyamtso: “... Thus, the self cannot truly exist before, during, or after the experience of perceptions; but then, what is the self who appears to experience things? It is a dependently arisen mere appearance, just like the self who appears to experience things in dreams. When we analyze this self we cannot find it, so we cannot say that it exists, and since there is a mere appearance of it, we cannot say that it is completely non-existent either. Therefore, the true nature of the self is appearance and emptiness inseparable [U2T], beyond the fabrications of existence, non-existence, and whatever else we might think it to be. … When we analyze in this way, we can come to an extraordinary certainty in the emptiness of the self of the individual and in the union of appearance and emptiness [U2T] that is beyond conceptual [dualistic] fabrication.

[Tetralemma <==> emptiness [T2] <==> dependent co-origination / mere imputation [T1] <== > Union of opposites <==> Tetralemma])

Résumé: Proving with logical reasoning that there is no real / inherent / independent / absolute subject / sentient being / PRE-EXISTING INDIVIDUAL SELF / perceiver / knower … and no real objects / perceived / known phenomena / world that could exist independently of the other(s) (ex. a real self existing before, during or after the experience); nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T]

-

They are empty of any truly existent essence -- of any inherent nature -- of true existence -- <==> because dependently co-arisen (with their infinite chain of causes & conditions ... (when applicable); with their conceptual opposite(s) [Uopp], and with the subject / mind merely labelling / imputing them [U3S]);

and vice versa, they are dependently co-arisen <==> because empty [U2T]. 

-

Tetralemma: not simultaneous (during), not sequential (before or after the others), not both together, not neither <==> [Uopp-3S] [U2T-3S] [U3S-3S]. 

[U3S-pre-existent-self] Union subject / perceiver / knower / acquirer / owner / SELF <==> relation / action / perception / cognition / acquisition / owning <==> object / perceived / known / acquired / possession / 5 aggregates. (sustaining the limitless & centerless karmic cycle)

[Uopp-evolution-cycle] Union subject before <==> subject during <==> subject after the action / experience.

-

[U2T-opp & U3S-opp] Union co-dependence <==> emptiness [U2T] of the two / three / four opposites; they are co-dependent with each other(s) [Uopp]; and as apparent objects they are co-dependent with the mind(s) / subject(s) [U3S] merely labelling / imputing (relation / action) them in dependence of his/their conditioning / karma; they are like illusions, mirages, dreams, water-moons, faces in the clouds.

-

Their inconceivable true nature [U2T] transcends (in a Middle Way sense using wisdom; not as a true cessation) all conceptual dualistic fabrications / extremes / dualities / triads / quads / etc.; indescribable, beyond all conceptualisation / signs / symbols, discrimination / opposites / dualities, relations / actions / causality / productions / fabrications, matter-energy, space & time -- ex. beyond existence / real / presence, non-existence / non-real / absence, both together, neither; beyond dependence / impermanence / annihilation, independence / permanence / eternity, both together, neither; beyond empty, non-empty, both together, neither --; thus peaceful [Uopp].

-

Tetralemma -- freedom from all extremes : They are not existent / real, not non-existent / non-real, not both together, not neither; not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither; not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilated, not both together, not neither; not simultaneous, not sequential, not both together, not neither; not self-caused, not other-caused, not both together, not neither; not good / pleasant / desirable / right / unmistaken / wholesome, not bad / unpleasant / undesirable / wrong / mistaken / unwholesome, not both together, not neither; not something, not nothing, not both together, not neither;  not impure / imperfect / unequal / ordinary, not pure / perfect / equal / divine, not both together, not neither; not finite, not infinite, not both together, not neither; not dependent / conditioned / compounded / composite / caused, not independent / unconditioned / uncompounded / non-composite / non-caused, not both together, not neither; not empty, not non-empty, not both together, not neither; not dependently co-arisen (T1), not empty (T2), not both together (2T), not neither; … not purely physical / body, not purely conceptual / speech, no purely mental / mind only, not two or three of them together, not none of them;  not individual, not collective, not universal / cosmic, not two or three of them together, not none of them; not describable / conceivable, not indescribable / inconceivable, not both together, not neither; not with origination / birth / beginning / before / past -- duration / abiding / middle / during / present -- cessation / death / ending / after / future, not without them, not both together, not neither; not purely objective, not purely subjective, not purely relational / process / action, not two or three of them together, not none of them; not temporal, not intemporal, not both together, not neither; not local, not omnipresent, not both together, not neither; not marked, not unmarked, not both together, not neither; not samsara, not nirvana, not both together, not neither; not something beyond all extremes, not a nothingness beyond all extremes, not both together, not neither; not absolute / universal / purely objective, not relative / conventional / purely inter-subjective, not both together, not neither; not this/that, not non-this/non-that, not both together, not neither …

-

The Middle Way free from all conceptual dualistic extremes (opposites) & middle; nothing to accept / seek / attain / affirm / do, nothing to reject / escape / abandon / negate / not-do in absolute terms, just relatively / conventionally / inter-subjectively -- as antidote / temporary imperfect adapted skillful means to help to transcend / to get free from all illusions / opposites / extremes. Everything is as already pure / perfect / equal / divine here & now for one who is fully aware of their true nature (wisdom) [U2T].

-

Gaining more and more stable certainty in this profound view, in their true nature (U2T), and thus in the Mahayana Madhyamaka path, through repeated thorough detailed logical analysis -- logical inferences & reasonings -- of the third stage. Gradually “deconditioning” our mental; gradually getting free from our craving for illusions & strong attachment; transcending all conceptual dualistic fabrications / extremes / opposites. Clearing the way for a possible individual spontaneous non-conceptual non-dualistic direct perception / realisation / experience of the inconceivable true nature of reality as it is here & now (as pointed by concepts like: U2T, U3S, Uopp, Tetralemma, Middle Way, the Purity / Perfection / Equality / Divinity of all phenomena).

=======================

10. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 10):

An Examination of Fire / Self and Firewood / 5 aggregates -- a cycle without any real subject / self, karmic action, object / karma / 5 aggregates.

Proving with logical reasoning that there is no real / inherent / independent / absolute subject / appropriator / self and object / appropriated / 5 aggregates; nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T]

Tetralemma: not independent, not dependent / interdependent, not both together, not neither;

not same / united / one, not different / separate / many, not both together, not neither <==> [Uopp-3S] [U2T-3S] [U3S-3S].

[U3S-appropriation-cycle] Union subject / cause / kindling / the-acquiring / the-5-aggregates-of-clinging <==> relation / action / causing / sustaining/causing-the-dependent-origination-of <==> object / effect / fire/ illusory-self / all-the-suffering. (sustaining the limitless & centerless karmic cycle)

[U3S-appropriation-cycle] Union subject / appropriator / fire / self <==> relation / action / appropriation / burning <==> object / appropriated / 5 aggregates / firewood. (sustaining the limitless & centerless karmic cycle)

[U3S-composition-cycle] Union subject / parts <==> relation / action / composing <==> object / whole.

[Uopp] Union dependent <==> independent.

=======================

11. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 11):

An Examination of Samsara -- A limitless and centerless causal cycle [U2T] -- (three stages of becoming).
Union of the three stages of becoming: Union beginning <==> middle <==> ending.

Proving with logical reasoning that there is no real / inherent / independent / absolute beginning / birth, ending / death, or middle for this karmic cycle, or for anything / anybody; no real first cause / basis, no real final effect / goal / nirvana, no real anything in the middle; so there is no real samsara / causal cycle / life, or boundary between samsara & nirvana; and no real somebody (subject) wandering (relation / action) in samsara (object) or being liberated in nirvana; nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T] Also, there is no real earlier (past), middle (present), or later (futur) period of time relative to anything.

Tetralemma: not simultaneous (during), not sequential (before or after the others), not both together, not neither <==> [Uopp-3S] [U2T-3S] [U3S-3S].

[Uopp-limits-of-the-cycle] Union origination / birth / beginning / before / past <==> duration / life / middle / during / present <==> cessation / death / ending / after / future. (sustaining the limitless & centerless karmic cycle)

[U3S-cycle-5-aggregates] Union subject / cause / actor / 5-aggregates-before <==> relation / causality / action / 5-aggregates-during <==> object / effect / result / 5-aggregates-after. (sustaining the limitless & centerless karmic cycle)

[U3S-evolution-cycle] Union subject / someone <==> relation / action / going around <==> object / in samsara.

[U3S-bounded/liberated] Union subject / sentient being / 5 aggregates <==> relation / action / wandering in samsara / liberated in nirvana <==> object / samsara / nirvana.

[Uopp] Union samsara / bounded <==> nirvana / liberated.

Samsara and nirvana are actually undifferentiable, why they are of the nature of equality [Union ...].

=======================

12. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 12):

An Examination of Suffering ***  (Original Purity of the 5 Aggregates) ***.
Union of the three spheres of suffering [U3S]: Union self <==> producing / experiencing <==> suffering / or anything else.

Proving with logical reasoning that there is no real / inherent / independent / absolute 5 aggregates / suffering; nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T]

The Buddha taught many times in the Mahayana sutras that the five aggregates, and the suffering that goes along with them, are of the nature of original and perfect purity. The true nature of the dream transcends both purity and impurity, and this is given the name “original purity.” We have to understand that what original purity refers to is the freedom from all fabrications, the emptiness [U2T] in which we can gain certainty by using Nagarjuna’s reasonings.

Suffering in apparent reality is the mere lack of knowledge that suffering is not real. Suffering is just a thought and nothing else. Suffering, like thoughts, ... does not really come and go.

Suffering is of the nature of bliss. The reason the aggregates and suffering can be described as being pure by nature is that they are empty by nature -- they are unborn -- no real arising.

Tetralemma: not self-caused / produced, not other-caused / produced, not both together, not neither;

not same / united / one, not different / separate / many, not both together, not neither <==> [Uopp-3S] [U2T-3S] [U3S-3S].

[U3S-suffering-cycle] Union subject / self <==> relation / action / producing / experiencing <==> object / suffering / or anything else.

[U3S-5-aggregates-cycle] Union subject / cause (internal / our own personality / our old-conditioning-karma-5-aggregates; or external / somebody else’s personality / old-conditioning-karma-5-aggregates / the world) <==> conditioned-conditioning-action <==> object / effect / the subject’s suffering / new-conditioning-karma-5-aggregates / the apparent world. i.e. is suffering / dukkha or the apparent world caused by the subject or the object.

[U3S-5-aggregates-cycle] Union subject / cause / the samskara (mental formations and dispositions; habitual tendencies; habits, reactions, dispositions, discrimination, the three poisons: desire, hatred, indifference based on ignorance) <==> conditioned-conditioning-action <==> object / effect / the subject’s suffering / new-conditioning-karma-5-aggregates / the apparent world. i.e. is suffering / dukkha or the apparent world caused by the subject’s mental conditioning.

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13. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 13):

An Examination of the Precise nature of reality *** (No absolute basis to grasp; Emptiness [U2T] of whatever we use to describe / point to the ultimate reality). ***
Union samskara (the impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, or emptiness of all things; change) <==> producing <==> suffering.
Union universal charactristics (mental formations and dispositions; habitual tendencies; habits, reactions, dispositions, discrimination, the three poisons: desire, hatred, indifference based on ignorance) <==> producing <==> suffering.

Proving with logical reasoning that there is no real / inherent / independent / absolute “DEPENDENT ORIGINATION [T1]” & “EMPTINESS [T2]” -- the Two truths, and also their “UNION [U2T]” [U2T-2T]; nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T]

“It is important for us to be able to distinguish between “the way of appearance” and “the way of reality [U2T]”, because it is as a result of not knowing “the way of reality” that we ordinary beings mistakenly think that appearances are real, and that is what causes all our problems.”

“Given the true nature of reality [U2T], emptiness does not exist anywhere within it, because if there were something that was not empty, there would be that much emptiness as well, but in fact there is not the slightest thing that is not empty. Since there is not the slightest thing not empty, there can be no emptiness either, because emptiness can exist only in dependence upon there being something that is not empty, and something that is not empty can only exist if there is emptiness. These two notions of empty and not empty exist only in dependence upon each other, which means that neither one of them truly exists. [U2T-2T] Therefore, neither the conceptual [dualistic] fabrication of empty nor that of not empty applies to genuine reality [U2T]. Therefore, in order to realize the nature of essential reality beyond conceptual [dualistic] fabrication, we must leave behind even our notion of emptiness.”

So, it is important not to grasp at any of the four extremes: “dependent origination as a presence alone / naïve realism”, “mere emptiness as an absence alone / nihilism”, “both truth together / dualism”, neither / monism / holism. None of them is the “absolute or ultimate truth / suchness”.

The unique true nature of reality as it is here & now is indescribable / inconceivable for our flawed conditioned conceptual dualistic mental / mind(s); it is beyond all conceptual dualistic fabrications. So it is called the inconceivable “Union / Coalescence / Inseparability / Indivisibility / Interdependence / Co-dependence / Co-definition / Co-relativity / Co-emergence / Co-evolution / Co-cessation / non-duality / Oneness / Unity / Identity / Equality / Unborn Harmony ...” of the Two Truths [U2T], of the three spheres [U3S], of the opposites [Uopp]; the Middle Way; the Purity / Perfection / Equality / Divinity of all phenomena here & now -- of all subjects, relations / actions, objects. It is also called Genuine Reality [U2T], Genuine Dependent Origination [U2T], Genuine Emptiness [U2T], Buddha-nature [U2T], Suchness [U2T], True Nirvana [U2T] … all meaning [U2T, U3S, Uopp, Middle Way, Tetralemma ...]. All mere fingers pointing at the moon, not the moon itself.

The way things appear and the way they really are [U2T].

[U3S-5-aggregates-cycle] Union subject / cause (the impermanence, unsatisfactoriness, or emptiness of all things; change) <==> action / causality <==> object / effect / the subject’s suffering / new-conditioning-karma-5-aggregates / the apparent world. i.e. is suffering / dukkha caused by the impermanence of all things.

[U3S-5-aggregates-cycle] Union subject / cause (old-conditioning-karma-5-aggregates (body, speech, mind; subject, action, object / perceived world) -- before the change) <==> conditioned-conditioning-action (the-actual-conditioning-karma-5-aggregates (body, speech, mind; subject, action, object / perceived world) -- during the change) <==> object / effect / (new-conditioning-karma-5-aggregates (body, speech, mind; subject, action, object / perceived world) -- after the change).

EMPTINESS OF DEPENDENT ORIGINATION [T1].

EMPTINESS OF EMPTINESS [T2].

EMPTINESS OF THE TWO TRUTHS TOGETHER [2T].

EMPTINESS OF “THE INCONCEIVABLE TRUE NATURE OF GENUINE REALITY AS IT IS HERE & NOW [U2T]”.

[Uopp] Union false <==> true.

[Uopp] Union dependent <==> independent.

[Uopp] Union empty <==> non-empty.

[U2T] Union dependence <==> emptiness.

[U2T-2T] Union co-dependence <==> emptiness of “the Two Truths themselves” (recursivity).

=======================

14. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 14.1):

An Examination of Contact (of the Union of the three: subject, relation / action, object).
About the contact / unification of the three spheres of perception.

Proving with logical reasoning that there is no real / inherent / independent / absolute “contact / unification (meeting) / separation (parting) of any real things”; nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T] Ex. Contact between the perceived object, the sense faculty (relation / action / perception), and the perceiving sense consciousness (subject / perceiver); i.e. meeting of object, faculty, and consciousness. This is valid for any type of relation / action (ex. desire…), for any trio.

The connection between perceiver (subject), relation / action / perception, and perceived (object) is not truly existent; it is a dependently arisen mere appearance [U2T-3S].

So our {concept-pointer of “Union / Coalescence / Inseparability / Indivisibility / Interdependence / Co-dependence / Co-definition / Co-relativity / Co-emergence / Co-evolution / Co-cessation / non-duality / Oneness / Unity / Identity / Equality / Unborn Harmony ...” of the Two Truths [U2T], of the three spheres [U3S], of the opposites [Uopp]; the Middle Way; the Purity / Perfection / Equality / Divinity of all phenomena here & now -- of all subjects, relations / actions, objects} is also [U2T]. No absolute to grasp here either. It is just a tool / antidote / adapted skillful means, like many others.

Tetralemma: not simultaneous (during), not sequential (before or after the others), not both together, not neither <==> [Uopp-3S] [U2T-3S] [U3S-3S].

[Uopp-contact] Union meeting <==> parting. (contact)

[Uopp] Union happiness <==> suffering.

[U3S-contact] Union subject / perceiver / knower <==> relation / action / perception / cognition <==> object / perceived / known.

[U3S-desire] Union subject / the individual who experiences the desire <==> relation / action / desire <==> object / the desired object.

Verse: The object seen (object), the eye that sees (relation / action / faculty), and the seer (subject) --

These three do not meet each other,

Either in pairs or all together.

[Tetralemma] “The three spheres of action / experience / perception -- subject / actor / experiencer / perceiver, relation / action / experience / perception, object / result / experienced / perceived -- cannot be different / separate / multiple / dual / sequential, not identical / united / one / non-dual / simultaneous, not both together, not neither” <==> the three are empty [T2] <==> co-dependent / mere imputation [T1] <== > Union of opposites <==> Tetralemma]. They are not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither; they are not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilated, not both together, not neither. So they are not three separate things that comes together with “contact”.)

(Khenpo Tsültrim Gyamtso: “... Since the perceived object and perceiving subject do not occur simultaneously or sequentially, sense perception is a mere appearance that does not truly exist. … we have to realize the transcendence of the meeting of object, faculty, and consciousness if we are to realize the genuine nature of reality [U2T]. If we still believe that the meeting of object, faculty, and consciousness is real, it is a sign that our certainty in emptiness is not stable yet. … The contact between desire, the individual who experiences the desire, and the desired object, just like the meeting of object, faculty, and consciousness, is a mere appearance that occurs due to the coming together of causes and conditions -- it is not the slightest bit real. The same can be said for anger, the angry individual, and the object of the anger, as well as for the other mental afflictions (pride, desire, and stupidity), those who experience them, and their objects. You should also apply this analysis to the remaining sources of consciousness: sound, the ear, and the ear sense consciousness, and the remaining four (nose, tongue, body, and mind) sets of three (object, sense faculty, and consciousness). … The connection between perceiver (subject) and perceived (object) is not truly existent; it is a dependently arisen mere appearance [U2T-3S]. Therefore, we have to cut the rope of clinging to duality as being real. The way to do that is to reflect on the emptiness of the meeting of perceiver and perceived with our precise knowledge of the genuine nature of reality [U2T]. When we remember that the true nature of sense perceptions is appearance-emptiness [U2T], our experience of them will be open, spacious, and relaxed.“

[Tetralemma <==> emptiness [T2] <==> dependent co-origination / mere imputation [T1] <== > Union of opposites <==> Tetralemma])

=======================

15. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 15.5):

An Examination of Things / existence and the Absence of Things / non-existence.
Union existence <==> non-existence.

Proving with logical reasoning that there is no real / inherent / independent / absolute permanence / eternity and impermanence / annihilation / extinction / cessation of the 5 aggregates, no real something /  existence / presence and nothing / non-existence / absence; nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T]

All of the suffering in the world comes from either the thought that there is something or the thought that there is nothing.

One can follow the Middle Way path by refuting all extremes, but one needs to be free from the concept of abiding in the middle in between the extremes as well. … Therefore, in order to follow the Middle Way that falls into neither the extreme of existence / permanence nor that of non-existence / extinction, we must understand that all phenomena are the union of appearance and emptiness [U2T], like dreams, illusions, and water-moons.

[Uopp] Union existence / presence / something <==> non-existence / absence / nothing.

[Uopp] Union permanence / eternity <==> impermanence / annihilation / extinction / cessation.

[Uopp] Union poor <==> wealthy.

[Uopp] Union true <==> false.

[Uopp] Union thing <==> space.

Verse: In his Pith Instructions to Katyayana,

The one who knows all things and all absences of things,

The Transcendent Conqueror,

Refuted both existence and non-existence.

[Tetralemma] “The three spheres of opposition -- subject / opposite-1 / something / existence / permanence, relation / action / opposition, object / opposite-2 / nothing / non-existence / impermanence -- cannot be different / separate / multiple / dual / sequential, not identical / united / one / non-dual / simultaneous, not both together, not neither” <==> the three are empty [T2] <==> co-dependent / mere imputation [T1] <== > Union of opposites <==> Tetralemma].)

(Khenpo Tsültrim Gyamtso: “PERMANENCE AND EXTINCTION, existence and non-existence -- these are just conceptual [dualistic] fabrications that cannot describe the genuine nature of reality [U2T]. Therefore, the Buddha taught that forms’ true nature transcends both permanence and extinction. … Nagarjuna analyzes the existence of things and the absence of things and demonstrates that neither one has any inherent nature. … In reality, however, “something” and “nothing” must depend upon each other for their existence. [Uopp]. … Therefore, whatever it may be, it cannot be said to be inherently existent or non-existent -- existence and non-existence are just dependently existent concepts [Uopp] that our thoughts superimpose onto genuine reality [U2T], whose nature transcends all such fabrications. … Therefore, in order to follow the Middle Way that falls into neither the extreme of existence nor that of non-existence, we must understand that all phenomena are the Union of appearance and emptiness [U2T], like dreams, illusions, and water-moons.“

[Tetralemma <==> emptiness [T2] <==> dependent co-origination / mere imputation [T1] <== > Union of opposites <==> Tetralemma])

=======================

16. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 16):

An Examination of Bondage and Liberation (Everything is Primordially Free / Liberated / Nirvana.)
Union samsara <==> nirvana.

Proving with logical reasoning that there is no real / inherent / independent / absolute bounding / samsara and liberation / nirvana of anything or any being (self and/or phenomena / 5 aggregates); there is no real meditator, object of meditation, path, signs of progress on the path, fruition at the end of the path in the form of the fruition bodies and wisdoms, or nirvana; no real path, wisdom, attainment or non-attainment; nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T]

Nothing -- self and/or 5 aggregates -- really wander in samsara and is eventually liberated in nirvana. Neither permanent nor impermanent aggregates (or self) can wander in samsara / be bounded by the mental afflictions, and since there is no other alternative for how the aggregates could be, it is logically impossible that the aggregates wander in samsara / be bounded. Since no wanderer in samsara actually exists / nothing bounded, samsara does not truly exist either. Also the self and the aggregates cannot be different /separate / multiple, not identical / united / one, not both together, not neither. And if there is no real samsara, there is no real nirvana either. 

Since samsara and nirvana do not truly exist, there is no nirvana to be produced or attained and no samsara to be eliminated. That there is no samsara to clear away and no nirvana to be produced is the result of phenomena lacking inherent existence.

Since the true nature of reality [U2T] is the equality [Union ...] of being bound and being set free, it is called “originally free” or “primordially free”.

Tetralemma: not permanent, not impermanent, not both together, not neither; not different /separate / multiple, not identical / united / one, not both together, not neither; no continuity, no discontinuity, not both together, no neither <==> [Uopp-3S] [U2T-3S] [U3S-3S].

[Uopp] Union bondage / samsara <==> liberation / nirvana.

[U3S-bounded/liberated] Union subject / sentient being / 5 aggregates <==> relation / action / wandering in samsara / liberated in nirvana <==> object / samsara / nirvana.

[U3S-appropriation] Union subject / appropriator <==> relation / action / appropriation <==> object / appropriated / 5 aggregates.

[Uopp] Union continuity <==> discontinuity.

[Uopp] Union accept / attain <==> reject / abandon.

[U3S-rebirth] Union subject / actor / self/5-aggregates-before <==> relation / action / self/5-aggregates-between <==> object / effect / self/5-aggregates-after rebirth / any action.

[Tetralemma] “The three spheres of opposition -- subject / opposite-1 / bondage / samsara, relation / action / opposition, object / opposite-2 / liberation / nirvana -- cannot be different / separate / multiple / dual / sequential, not identical / united / one / non-dual / simultaneous, not both together, not neither” <==> the three are empty [T2] <==> co-dependent / mere imputation [T1] <== > Union of opposites <==> Tetralemma].)

(Khenpo Tsültrim Gyamtso: “In the sutras, the Buddha taught: `Forms do not arise, and therefore they are neither bound nor liberated.` … Thus, neither permanent nor impermanent aggregates can wander in samsara, and since there is no other alternative for how the aggregates could be, it is logically impossible that the aggregates wander in samsara. … sentient beings cannot logically be the wanderers in samsara either. … Since it is logically impossible for either permanent or impermanent aggregates or sentient beings to wander in samsara, and since there is no other possibility for how they could be, the only conclusion to draw is that no wanderer in samsara actually exists. Since no wanderer in samsara actually exists, samsara does not truly exist either. Samsara is not real; it is just a dependently arisen mere appearance. [U2T] … We can see from this analysis, however, that samsara is just a dependently arisen mere appearance, like a dream. There is nothing real to it or in it. Since samsara is just a dependently arisen appearance, it is naturally open, spacious, and relaxed. Therefore, we do not have to cleanse ourselves of samsara, only of our thoughts that samsara truly exists. ...Nirvana does not truly exist because when we analyze, we cannot find anything or anyone that can actually attain it. … Another reason nirvana is not truly existent is that samsara and nirvana are dependently existent. There can only be samsara in dependence upon there being nirvana, and there can only be nirvana in dependence upon there being samsara. Since these two things exist only in mutual dependence, they do not inherently exist. [U2T]Since samsara and nirvana do not truly exist, there is no nirvana to be produced or attained and no samsara to be eliminated. That there is no samsara to clear away and no nirvana to be produced is the result of phenomena lacking inherent existence. For this reason, bondage and liberation, samsara and nirvana, are taught to be equality [Union ...]. Since the true nature of reality [U2T] is the equality [Union ...] of being bound and being set free, it is called “originally free” or “primordially free,” ...

[Tetralemma <==> emptiness [T2] <==> dependent co-origination / mere imputation [T1] <== > Union of opposites <==> Tetralemma])

=======================

17. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 17):

An Examination of Actors, Karmic Actions and Objects / Results (karmic cycle or its opposite --  cessation).
Union actor <==> karmic action <==> result of karmic action.

Proving with logical reasoning that there is no real / inherent / independent / absolute subject / actor / producer, karmic actions / relation / production, object / result of karmic actions that cause ordinary sentient beings to wander in samsara / product / composite / karma; nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T] Karmic actions and results are mere appearances devoid of true existence, because no self, no actor, exists to perform them. So this doesn’t mean they are completely non-existent / nihilism. And if there is no real production of results / karma, there is no real cessation of production of results / karma.

Confusion, liberation, stains, and the freedom from stains are all dependently arisen mere appearances whose true nature is equality [Union ...].

Tetralemma: not simultaneous (during), not sequential (before or after the others), not both together, not neither <==> [Uopp-3S] [U2T-3S] [U3S-3S].

[U3S-karmic-cycle] Union subject / actor / self & his karma <==> relation / karmic actions <==> object / results of karmic actions that cause ordinary sentient beings to wander in samsara / subject & updated karma.

[U3S-holding-an-extreme-view] Union subject / self <==> relation / holding <==> object / one of the four extreme views.[Uopp-four-extremes] Union opposite-1 / existence / realism <==> opposite-2 / non-existence / nihilism <==> opposite-2 / both together / dualism <==> opposite-4 / neither / monism / holism.

[Uopp] Union ignorance / filthy / impurity <==> wisdom / clean / purity.

=======================

18. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 18.1-3, 9):

An Examination of Self (subject / me) and Phenomena (object / mine).
Union self <==> phenomena / 5 aggregates.

Proving with logical reasoning that there is no real / inherent / independent / absolute me & mine, no real subject / self, object / phenomena / 5 aggregates, relation / action / production / appropriation of karma or updated inner 5 aggregates that compose the individual’s body and mind / identification (me) -- and outside aggregates (mine); nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T]

Tetralemma: not different, not same, not both together, not neither <==> [Uopp-3S] [U2T-3S] [U3S-3S].

[U3S] Union subject / self <==> relation / action <==> object / phenomena.

[U3S-ownership] Union subject / self / me <==> relation / action / ownership <==> object / 5-aggregates / mine.

[U3S-appropriation] Union subject / appropriator / self <==> relation / action / appropriation <==> object / appropriated / 5 aggregates.

[U3S-clinging] Union subject / self <==> relation / action / clinging <==> object of clinging / “me & mine”.

Verses: If the self were (identical to) the aggregates,

It would be something that arises and ceases.

If the self were something other (different) than the aggregates,

It would not have the aggregates’ characteristics.

If there is no “me” in the first place,

How could there be anything that belongs to me?

When “me” and “mine” are found to be peace,

Clinging to “me” and “mine” ceases.

The ones who do not cling to “me” or “mine”

Do not exist either.

Those who do not cling to “me” or “mine” see accurately,

So they do not see a self.

[Tetralemma] “The three spheres of action / ownership -- subject / owner / self / me, relation / action / ownership, object / possession / 5 aggregates / phenomena / mine -- cannot be different / separate / multiple / dual / sequential, not identical / united / one / non-dual / simultaneous, not both together, not neither” <==> the three are empty [T2] <==> co-dependent / mere imputation [T1] <== > Union of opposites <==> Tetralemma]. They are not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither; they are not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilated, not both together, not neither.)

(Khenpo Tsültrim Gyamtso: “Thus, the self is not the same as the aggregates, it is not different from the aggregates, and there is no other possibility for how the self could exist in relation to the aggregates. Therefore, the self does not truly exist. It is as simple as that. … Once we determine that there is no self, it necessarily follows that there is nothing belonging to the self. … When you apply this remedy, clinging to the belief in self dissolves (is transcended) in the open, spacious, and relaxed certainty that the self is a mere appearance, the union of appearance and emptiness [U2T]. Therefore, these realized beings are also dependently arisen mere appearances, conceptual designations that lack inherent nature. They are appearance-emptiness [U2T]: That they appear does not cause them to be truly existent, and that they do not truly exist does not prevent them from appearing, just as is the case with appearances in dreams. …

9. Verse: Unknowable by analogy; peace;

Not of the fabric of fabrications;

non-conceptual; free of distinctions --

These are the characteristics of the precise nature.

To be able to benefit beings to the utmost, however, one must attain the state of omniscience, the state of buddhahood. In order to do that, one must perfect one’s realization of the selflessness of phenomena, which is the next subject of the chapter.  … To summarize the teachings in this chapter, everything in samsara and nirvana is empty of the self of the individual and empty of the self of phenomena. It is all empty of inherent existence, and therefore the nature of genuine reality [U2T] cannot be described. It is not an object of expression; it is beyond the conceptual [dualistic] fabrications of arising, abiding, and ceasing.

[Tetralemma <==> emptiness [T2] <==> dependent co-origination / mere imputation [T1] <== > Union of opposites <==> Tetralemma])

=======================

19. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 19):

An Examination of Time -- (three stages of becoming).
Union past <==> present <==> future.

Proving with logical reasoning that there is no real / inherent / independent / absolute time, before / past, during / present, after / future; nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T] The past and the future are not perceived by the eye of wisdom. We conceive of them, but they are nowhere to be found. Similarly, the present does not abide for even an instant, so it is not perceptible either. The designations of past, present, and future, they argued, are possible only because of the existence of composite things. In fact, the three times have no perceptible existence; they are just conceptual imputations.

Tetralemma: not different, not same, not both together, not neither <==> [Uopp-3S] [U2T-3S] [U3S-3S].

[Uopp-3-times] Union origination / birth / beginning / before / past <==> duration / life / middle / during / present <==> cessation / death / ending / after / future.

[Uopp] Union composite things <==> 3 times: origination / birth / beginning / before / past -- duration / abiding / middle / during / present -- cessation / death / ending / after / future.

[Uopp] Union long period of time / an aeon <==> short period of time / an instant.

=======================

20. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 20):

An Examination of Collections.
Union individual <==> collective / collection <==> universal / cosmic.

Proving with logical reasoning that there is no real / inherent / independent / absolute individuality / entities / parts (physical / body, conceptual / speech, mental / mind), collectivity / collections / groups / wholes (many levels), universality / universe / cosmos; nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T] (ex. the collection of causes & conditions to produce an effect)

Tetralemma: not different / separate / multiple, not identical / united / one, not both together, not neither;

not simultaneous, not non-simultaneous, not both together, not neither <==> [Uopp-3S] [U2T-3S] [U3S-3S].

[Uopp-3-levels] Union individual / entity / part <==> collective / collection / group <==> all / universel / cosmos.

[U3S-causality] Union subject / cause (individual or collective or universal) <==> relation / action / causality (individual or collective or universal) <==> object / effect (individual or collective or universal).

[U3S-composition] Union subject / cause / elements / parts <==> relation / action / causality / composing / causing the emergence of <==> object / effect / aggregate / whole / universe. (physical, conceptual, mental elements; group of parts, group of causes & conditions, group of individual ...)

=======================

21. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 21):

An Examination of Emergence and Decay -- (three stages of becoming).
Union emergence / birth <==> middle <==> decay / death.

Proving with logical reasoning that there is no real / inherent / independent / absolute emergence / birth and decay / death; nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T]

Tetralemma: not different / separate / multiple, not identical / united / one, not both together, not neither;

not simultaneous, not non-simultaneous, not both together, not neither <==> [Uopp-3S] [U2T-3S] [U3S-3S].

[Uopp-3-times] Union origination / birth / beginning / before / past <==> duration / life / middle / during / present <==> cessation / death / ending / after / future.

=======================

22. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 22):

An Examination of the Tathagata (pure or impure subject, action / relation, object are of the same nature -- “Original Purity / free from all fabrications / [U2T]”).
Union pure / divine <==> impure / ordinary.

Proving with logical reasoning that there is no real / inherent / independent / absolute Buddha / Pure Mind / Pure Subject, Dharma / Pure Speech / Pure Relation / Action, Sangha / Pure Body / Pure Object, no real permanence and impermanence, finity and infinity; nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T] The Buddha is a phenomenon that never arises, and all other phenomena are similar to the Buddha. Pure or impure phenomena are of the same nature. None of these expressions of “empty,” “not empty,” “both empty and not empty,” and “neither empty nor not empty” can describe genuine reality [U2T], still, sometimes it is good to explain that the Buddha exists (1), sometimes it is good to explain that the Buddha does not exist (2), and sometimes it is good to explain that the true nature of the Buddha transcends all conceptual [dualistic] fabrications (3). It is good to explain how the Buddha neither exists, nor does not-exist, nor is some combination of the two, nor is something that is neither of them (is not finite / impermanent, not infinite / permanent, not both together, not neither). This will help them to give up their clinging to the notion of the Buddha’s emptiness and to realize the true nature [U2T] of the Buddha, beyond all notions of what it might be.

The nature [U2T] of the tathagatas is beyond any concept of what it might be. It is completely free of any stain. It is originally pure. That, precisely, is the nature of sentient beings -- completely beyond concept, completely free of stains, pure from the very beginning. The true nature of the Tathagata and the true nature of sentient beings are exactly the same.

Tetralemma: not different / separate / multiple, not identical / united / one, not both together, not neither;

not simultaneous, not non-simultaneous, not both together, not neither <==> [Uopp-3S] [U2T-3S] [U3S-3S].

[U3S-impure] Union impure subject / ordinary sentient being <==> impure relation / actions based on ignorance <==> impure object / world / samsara.

[U3S-pure] Union pure subject / Buddha <==> pure relation / actions based on wisdom <==> pure object / world / nirvana.

[U3K-pure] Union pure mind / Buddha / Dharmakaya <==> pure speech / Dharma / Sambhogakaya <==> pure body / Sangha / Nirmanakaya.

[Uopp] Union impure / finite / impermanent <==> pure / infinite / permanent.

[Uopp] Union ordinary sentient being / bounded / samsara <==> Buddha / liberated / nirvana.

[Uopp] Union dependent <==> independent.

[Uopp] Union empty <==> non-empty.

=======================

23. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 23):

An Examination of Mistakes (bad / wrong / mistaken & good / right / correct -- pure or impure conditioning, views, thoughts, actions, results; subject, relation / action, object -- are all of the same nature -- “Original Purity / Equality / beyond all conceptual dualistic fabrications / [U2T]”).
Union right <==> wrong.

Proving with logical reasoning that there is no real / inherent / independent / absolute bad / wrong / mistaken & good / right / correct, mistakes that produce samsara, mistaken concepts about reality, mental afflictions arising from these mistaken concepts, and karmic actions motivated by these mental afflictions; nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T]

This is the ultimate view of the Middle Way, which points out that the true nature of reality [U2T] transcends self, selflessness, both, and neither; transcends clean, unclean, both, and neither; transcends permanence, impermanence, both, and neither; and transcends happiness, suffering, both, and neither. That is how genuine reality [U2T] is.

[Uopp] Union good / pleasant / desirable / right / unmistaken / wholesome <==> not neutral <==> bad / unpleasant / undesirable / wrong / mistaken / unwholesome.

[U3S-causality] Union subject / cause / mistaken views <==> relation / action / causality <==> object / effect / mental afflictions  <==> relation / action / causality <==> object / effect / karmic actions ...

=======================

24. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 24) --

An Examination of the Four Noble Truths and Two Truths -- RECURSIVITY OF THE CONCEPTS U2T, U3S, Uopp ***
(No absolute basis to grasp; Emptiness [U2T] of whatever we use to describe / point to the ultimate reality) ***

Proving with logical reasoning that there is no real / inherent / independent / absolute Four Noble Truths -- suffering, origin of suffering, cessation of suffering; samsara & nirvana; vision, path, fruition; even the Two Truths and the three spheres; even the Unions (that which is beyond extremes)” --; nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T]

[Uopp] Union opposite-1 <==> opposite-2.

[Uopp] Union things <==> space.

[Uopp] Union everything <==> nothing / emptiness.

[Uopp] Union existence / real <==> non-existence / non-real.

[Uopp] Union relative / conventional / ordinary <==> absolute / universal / ultimate.

[Uopp-2T] Union dependently co-arisen relatively functional appearances [T1] (not non-existence) <==> emptiness [T2] (not existence).

[Uopp] Union opposite-1 <==> opposite-2 <==> opposite-3 …

[Uopp-3S] Union subject <==> relation / action <==> object.

[Uopp-3S-perception] Union subject / perceiver / knower <==> relation / action / perception / cognition <==> object / perceived / known / “opposites”.

[Uopp-3S-opp] Union opposite-1 <==> relation / opposition <==> opposite-2.

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[U2T] Union dependently co-arisen relatively functional appearances [T1] (not non-existence) <==> emptiness [T2] (not existence).

[U2T-opp] Union co-dependence <==> emptiness of “opposites”.

[U2T-Uopp] Union co-dependence <==> emptiness of “the Union of opposites [Uopp]”.

[U2T-2T] Union co-dependence <==> emptiness of “the Two Truths themselves [2T]”.

[U2T-U2T] Union co-dependence <==> emptiness of “the Union of the Two Truths itself [U2T]”.

[U2T-3S] Union co-dependence <==> emptiness of “the three spheres themselves [3S]”.

[U2T-U3S] Union co-dependence <==> emptiness of “the Union of the three spheres itself [U3S]”.

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[U3S] Union subject <==> relation / action <==> object.

[U3S-perception] Union subject / perceiver / knower <==> relation / action / perception / cognition <==> object / perceived / known.

[U3S-perception-opp] Union subject / perceiver / knower <==> relation / action / perception / cognition <==> object / perceived / known / “opposites”.

[U3S-perception-Uopp] Union subject / perceiver / knower <==> relation / action / perception / cognition <==> object / perceived / known / “the Union of Union of opposites”.

[U3S-perception-2T] Union subject / perceiver / knower <==> relation / action / perception / cognition <==> object / perceived / known / “the Two Truths themselves [2T]”.

[U3S-perception-U2T] Union subject / perceiver / knower <==> relation / action / perception / cognition <==> object / perceived / known / “the Union of the Two Truths itself [U2T]”.

[U3S-perception-3S] Union subject / perceiver / knower <==> relation / action / perception / cognition <==> object / perceived / known / “the three spheres themselves [3S]”.

[U3S-perception-U3S] Union subject / perceiver / knower <==> relation / action / perception / cognition <==> object / perceived / known / “the Union of the the three spheres itself [U3S]”.

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25. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 25):

An Examination of Nirvana -- Samsara & nirvana are of the same nature -- “Original Purity / Equality / beyond all conceptual dualistic fabrications / [U2T]” -- nothing to abandon, nothing to attain in absolute terms.
Union samsara <==> nirvana.

Proving with logical reasoning that there is no real / inherent / independent / absolute Ultimate goal / Nirvana / transcendence of all suffering; nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T] In short, samsara and nirvana are of the nature of equality [Union ...], because both have a nature beyond all conceptual [dualistic] fabrications about what it might be, and because both in their true nature are originally pure.

The nature of nirvana transcends both existence and non-existence, and that this is the ultimate description of genuine reality [U2T].  In short, it is dharmadhatu, the expanse of genuine reality [U2T], beyond abandonment and attainment, extinction and permanence, and arising and ceasing. This is the natural nirvana, the nirvana that is the true nature of reality [U2T], the essence of all the infinite phenomena that appear. Perfect realization of reality beyond extremes means that all concepts of those extremes utterly cease. 

That is how it is described, but at the same time, since thoughts ... have no inherent nature in the first place, there is NO REAL CESSATION OF THEM EITHER. In short, samsara and nirvana are of the nature of equality [Union ...], because both have a nature beyond all conceptual [dualistic] fabrications about what it might be, and because both in their true nature are “originally pure”.

Once one has analyzed using logical reasoning, it is impossible to assert anything about the true nature of reality [U2T]. When we describe conventional appearances, however, the use of terms and designations is appropriate.

Tetralemma: not different / separate / multiple, not identical / united / one, not both together, not neither;

not simultaneous, not non-simultaneous, not both together, not neither <==> [Uopp-3S] [U2T-3S] [U3S-3S].

[Uopp] Union bondage / samsara <==> liberation / nirvana.

[Uopp] Union ordinary sentient being / samsara <==> Buddha / nirvana.

[U3S-bounded/liberated] Union subject / sentient being / 5 aggregates <==> relation / action / wandering in samsara / liberated in nirvana <==> object / samsara / nirvana.

[U3S-appropriation] Union subject / appropriator <==> relation / action / appropriation <==> object / appropriated / 5 aggregates.

[Uopp] Union continuity <==> discontinuity.

[Uopp] Union accept / attain <==> reject / abandon.

[U3S-rebirth] Union subject / actor / self/5-aggregates-before <==> relation / action / self/5-aggregates-between <==> object / effect / self/5-aggregates-after the transmigration.

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26. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 26):

An Examination of the Twelve Links of Existence.
Union cause <==> causality <==> effect.

Proving with logical reasoning that there is no real / inherent / independent / absolute the twelve dependently arisen links of existence / wheel of life; nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T]

What stops the karmic cycle is realising the true nature of reality as it is here & now, realising the true nature of the karmic cycle [U3S].

Tetralemma: not different / separate / multiple, not identical / united / one, not both together, not neither;

not simultaneous, not non-simultaneous, not both together, not neither <==> [Uopp-3S] [U2T-3S] [U3S-3S].

[U3S-causal-cycle] For each link: Union subject / cause <==> relation / action / causality <==> object / effect. (a limitless & centerless causal cycle)

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27. Nagarjuna’s Mulamadhyamakakarika (MNK 27): 

An Examination of Views (no ultimate view / vision to grasp).

Proving with logical reasoning that there is no real / inherent / independent / absolute views of an earlier, present, or future period of time, views about the self and the universe it inhabits, views like: existence and non-existence, permanence and impermanence, finity and infinity; nor are they non-real / completely non-existent / meaningless / useless; not both together, not neither. They appear but they are empty; they are empty but they appear. [U2T]

Transcending all extreme views. 

The ones who correctly see dependent arising [U2T] just as it is will not adhere to views of an earlier, present, or future period of time.

By analyzing the true nature [U2T] of the self and the universe, we can gain certainty that none of the views that hold them to be permanent, impermanent, finite, or infinite are accurate.

[U3S-views] Union subject / holder <==> relation / action / holding <==> object / views.

[U3S-knowledge-cycle] Union subject / perceiver / knower <==> relation / action / perception / cognition (mental action) <==> object / perceived / known. (sustaining the limitless & centerless karmic cycle)

[Uopp-continuity] Union subject before <==> subject during <==> subject after the action / experience / rebirth / liberation.

[Uopp] Union good / pleasant / desirable / right / unmistaken / wholesome <==> neutral <==> bad / unpleasant / undesirable / wrong / mistaken / unwholesome.

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Résumé of reasonings in Chandrakirti’s Madhyamakavatara

From: Introduction to the Middle Way -- Chandrakirti's Madhyamakavatara -- With Commentary by Jamgön Mipham [Promienie]

Chandrakirti’s Madhyamakavatara - Ground 6 - Clearly Manifest --A COMPLETE MASTERY OF THE TWO TRUTHS [FREE FROM ALL EXTREMES & MIDDLE]

0. Chandrakirti used the same Reasoning Structure to disprove the self of both subject / self and object / phenomena (not really covering the sphere of the relation / action except to refute all kinds of production). That is, first using the tetralemma to demonstrate that the subject / cause / self & object / effect / phenomena / 5-aggregates cannot be this, not non-this, not both together, not neither. And, since there is no other possibility, <==> concluding that they are all empty [T2] <==> all co-dependent / all mere dependent imputation  [T1] <==> thus, they cannot be this, not non-this, not both together, not neither. And the best attitude toward them is the Middle Way free from all extremes & middle, with nothing to accept / affirm / do / perceive, nothing to reject / negate / not-do / not-perceive in absolute terms, just relatively / conventionally / inter-subjectively.

A. [Tetralemma] “The three spheres of production -- subject / actor / producer, relation / action / production, object / result / product / PHENOMENA -- cannot be different / separate / multiple / dual / without-contact / self-production, not identical / united / one / non-dual / with-contact / other-production, not both together, not neither” <==> the three are empty [T2] <==> dependent co-origination / mere dependent imputation [T1] <== > Union of opposites <==> Tetralemma] They are not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither; not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither; not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilates, not both together, not neither; not bad / bounded / impure / imperfect / unequal / ordinary, not good / free / pure / perfect / equal / divine, not both together, not neither; not dependent / caused / composite, not independent / uncaused / non-composite, not both together, not neither; not empty, not non-empty, not both together, not neither; not dependently arisen, not empty, not both together, not neither; not this/that, not non-this/non-that, not both together, not neither. Using the Union of the Two Truths [U2T]: they are an inconceivable Union of being dependently co-arisen relatively functional appearances (merely labelles / imputed by the mind) <==> and emptiness of inherent / independent / absolute existence. And the best attitude toward them is the Middle Way free from all extremes & middle, with nothing to accept / affirm / do, nothing to reject / negate / not-do in absolute terms, just relatively / conventionally / intersubjectively.)

B. [Tetralemma] “The three spheres of ownership -- subject / owner / SELF, relation / action / ownership, object / possession / 5-aggregates -- cannot be different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither” <==> the three are empty [T2] <==> dependent co-origination / mere dependent imputation [T1] <== > Union of opposites <==> Tetralemma] They are not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither; not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither; not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilates, not both together, not neither; not bad / bounded / impure / imperfect / unequal / ordinary, not good / free / pure / perfect / equal / divine, not both together, not neither; not dependent / caused / composite, not independent / uncaused / non-composite, not both together, not neither; not empty, not non-empty, not both together, not neither; not dependently arisen, not empty, not both together, not neither; not this/that, not non-this/non-that, not both together, not neither. Using the Union of the Two Truths [U2T]: they are an inconceivable Union of being dependently co-arisen relatively functional appearances (merely labelles / imputed by the mind) <==> and emptiness of inherent / independent / absolute existence. And the best attitude toward them is the Middle Way free from all extremes & middle, with nothing to accept / affirm / do, nothing to reject / negate / not-do in absolute terms, just relatively / conventionally / intersubjectively.)

C. [Tetralemma] “EVERYTHING, THE THREE SPHERES OF ANY RELATION / ACTION -- subject / actor / opposite-1, relation / action / opposition, object / result / opposite-2 -- cannot be different / separate / multiple / dual / without-contact / self-production, not identical / united / one / non-dual / with-contact / other-production, not both together, not neither” <==> the three are empty [T2] <==> dependent co-origination / mere dependent imputation [T1] <== > Union of opposites <==> Tetralemma] They are not existent, not non-existent, not both together, not neither; not different / separate / multiple / dual, not identical / united / one / non-dual, not both together, not neither; not permanent / continuous / eternal, not impermanent / discontinuous / annihilates, not both together, not neither; not bad / bounded / impure / imperfect / unequal / ordinary, not good / free / pure / perfect / equal / divine, not both together, not neither; not dependent / caused / composite, not independent / uncaused / non-composite, not both together, not neither; not empty, not non-empty, not both together, not neither; not dependently arisen, not empty, not both together, not neither; not this/that, not non-this/non-that, not both together, not neither. Using the Union of the Two Truths [U2T]: they are an inconceivable Union of being dependently co-arisen relatively functional appearances (merely labelles / imputed by the mind) <==> and emptiness of inherent / independent / absolute existence. And the best attitude toward them is the Middle Way free from all extremes & middle, with nothing to accept / affirm / do, nothing to reject / negate / not-do in absolute terms, just relatively / conventionally / intersubjectively.)

D. In short: [Tetralemma <==> emptiness [T2] <==> dependent co-origination / mere imputation [T1] <== > Union of opposites <==> Tetralemma]


THE ULTIMATE VIEW / POINTER

ANIMATED 3D QUADRUPLE YIN-YANG:[The Union / Coalescence / Harmony ... of

U2T <==> U3S <==> Uopp <==> Middle Way <==> Tetralemma ...]

When the different concepts-pointers [ex. U2T, U3S, Uopp, Middle Way, tetralemma, Purity & Perfection & Equality & Divinity]

begin to harmonize with each other in our mind,

supporting each other without any contradiction, THEN CERTAINTY ARISE, resistance from the conceptual dualistic mental diminish,

leaving room for an individual spontaneous non-conceptual non-dualistic direct perception / realisation / experience

of the inconceivable true nature of Reality as it is here & now / Genuine Emptiness / Genuine Buddha-nature / Suchness.

That direct wisdom is unconditioned liberation / enlightenment.

Recursivity: Those different concepts-pointers  [ex. U2T, U3S, Uopp, Middle Way, tetralemma ...] are themselves like a

“Union / Coalescence / Inseparability / Indivisibility / Interdependence / Co-dependence / Co-definition / Co-relativity / Co-emergence / Co-evolution / Co-cessation / Non-duality / Oneness / Unity / Identity / Equality / Unborn Harmony ...” of opposites [Uopp].

One implies the others / “<==>”. They are like a.

”Union / Coalescence ...” of being dependently co-arisen relatively functional appearances <==> thus empty of inherent existence,

and vice versa. [U2T].They are like a.  ThOn T”Union …” of being objects co-dependent / co-evolving with the subject / mind & action / labelling / imputing <==>  thus empty,

and vice versa. [U3S] ...e imp

[The Union / Coalescence / compatibility ... of VIEW <==> MEDITATION <==> CONDUCT <==> FRUITION …]

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RÉSUMÉ OF ALL MADHYAMAKA RESONNINGS:

{Tetralemma <==> Union of the Two Truths <==> Union of the three spheres (subject <==> action / relation <==> object) <==> Union of opposites <==> the Middle Way Path <==> Fruit.}

[{A. Tetralemma: Not this/that, not non-this/non-that, not both together, not neither -- for any duality} (can be generalised for groups of more than 2 opposites)

<==> {B. Vision: Union of the Two Truths (U2T): Union existence in co-dependence (not really non-existent) (1st truth) <==> emptiness of inherent existence (not really existent) (2nd truth)

-- (Note: Something could be co-dependent with its causes and with its effects (if applicable);

co-dependent with its parts and with its wholes (if applicable);

it is always co-dependent with its opposites or items it is in relation with;

and as an object it is always co-dependent with the subject / mind merely labelling / imputing them all in dependence of its conditioning / karma, becoming part of its karma}

<==> {C. Vision: Union of the three spheres (U3S): Union subject <==> action / relation <==> object;

ex. Union subject / cause <==> action / relation / causality <==> object / effect;

ex. Union subject / perceiver / knower / acquirer <==> action / relation / perception / cognition <==> object / perceived world / known world;

ex. Union actor / producer / acquirer / past-5-aggregates-karma <==> action / production / acquisition / present-5-aggregates-karma <==> result / product / possession / future-5-aggregates-karma}

<==> {D. Vision: Union of opposites (Uopp):

ex. Union opposite-1 <==> opposite-2 …; Union left <==> right; Union top <==> middle <==> bottom;

Union good / pure / positive <==> neutral <==> bad / impure / negative; Union individual / self <==> collective / other <==> cosmic / one;

Union existence / being <==> non-existence / non-being; Union dependence <==> independence;

Union difference / separation / manyness / duality / non-simultaneity <==> identity / union / oneness / non-duality / simultaneity;

Union permanence / eternity / continuity <==> impermanence / annihilation / discontinuity;

Union origination / birth / coming / beginning <==> duration / live / lasting / continuing <==> cessation / death / going / ending;

Union past / before <==> present / during <==> future / after}

<==> {E. The Middle Way Path: freedom from all extremes and middle;

nothing to accept / affirm / do / seek, nothing to reject / negate / not-do / abandon in absolute terms, just relatively / conventionally / inter-subjectively -- as valid or invalid truths, methods & goals;

A path composed of the Union of gradual virtuous methods /antidotes / temporary imperfect adapted skillful means <==> with more and more wisdom / emptiness}

<==> {F. Fruit / goal: Union perfected virtues (ex. immeasurable loving-kindness, compassion, joy, equanimity …) <==> wisdom / emptiness}.]

[Where “Union” or “<==>” means: one implies the other(s),

the items are inseparable, interdependent, co-relative, co-dependent, co-emergent, co-evolving, co-ceasing, non-dual / one (in a non-dual sense) <==> thus all empty of inherent existence, and vice versa.

So each `<==>` denotes a reasoning: if we demonstrate / prove one side, then the other side is automatically demonstrated / proved, because they are inseparable ...]

That resumes all Madhyamaka reasonings:{Tetralemma <==> Union of the Two Truths (U2T) <==> Union of the three spheres (U3S) <==> Union of opposites (Uopp) <==> Middle Way Path <==> Fruit.}






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